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1.  Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999–2009 
Objective:
A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations.
Method:
An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects.
Results:
Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years.
Conclusions:
The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for “community” building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.2.004
PMCID: PMC2859257  PMID: 20428277
2.  Health sciences library building projects: 1995 survey. 
The Medical Library Association's fifth annual survey of recent health sciences library building projects identified twenty-five libraries planning, expanding, or constructing new library facilities. None of the fifteen new library projects are free standing structures; however, several occupy a major portion of the project space. Ten projects involve renovation of or addition to existing space. Information regarding size, cost of project, type of construction, completion date, and other factual data was provided for twelve projects. The remaining identified projects are in pre-design or early-design stages, or are awaiting funding approval. Library building projects for three hospital libraries, three academic medical libraries, and an association library are described. Each illustrates how considerations of economics and technology are changing the traditional library model from a centrally stored information depository housing a wide range of information under one roof where users come to the information, into an electronic model gradually shifting from investment in the physical presence of resources to investment in creating work space for creditible information specialists who help in-house and distanced users to obtain information electronically from any place and at any time. This new model includes a highly skilled library team to manage, filter, and package the information to users trained by these resident experts.
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PMCID: PMC226153  PMID: 8883981
3.  Recent health sciences library building projects. 
The Medical Library Association's third annual survey of recent health sciences library building projects identified fourteen libraries planning, expanding, or constructing new library facilities. Three of five new library buildings are freestanding structures where the library occupies all or a major portion of the space. The two other new facilities are for separately administered units where the library is a major tenant. Nine projects involve additions to or renovations of existing space. Six projects are in projected, predesign, or design stages or are awaiting funding approval. This paper describes four projects that illustrate technology's growing effect on librarians and libraries. They are designed to accommodate change, a plethora of electronic gear, and easy use of technology. Outwardly, they do not look much different than many other modern buildings. But, inside, the changes have been dramatic although they have evolved slowly as the building structure has been adapted to new conditions.
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PMCID: PMC225817  PMID: 8251970
4.  1991 survey of recent health sciences library building projects. 
Twenty health sciences libraries reported building planning, expansion, or construction of new facilities in the association's second annual survey of recent building projects. Six projects are new, freestanding structures in which the library occupies all or a major portion of the space. Six other projects are part of new construction for separately administered units in which the library is a major tenant. The final eight projects involve additions to or renovations of existing space. Seven of these twenty libraries were still in projected, predesign, or design stages of awaiting funding approval; of those seven, five were not prepared to release the requested information. Six projects are reported here as illustrative of current building projects.
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PMCID: PMC225633  PMID: 1600420
5.  Impact of Community-Based Maternal Health Workers on Coverage of Essential Maternal Health Interventions among Internally Displaced Communities in Eastern Burma: The MOM Project 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(8):e1000317.
Mullany and colleagues report outcomes from a project involving delivery of community-based maternal health services in eastern Burma, and report substantial increases in coverage of care.
Background
Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care is poor throughout Burma, but is particularly lacking among internally displaced communities in the eastern border regions. In such settings, innovative strategies for accessing vulnerable populations and delivering basic public health interventions are urgently needed.
Methods
Four ethnic health organizations from the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions collaborated on a pilot project between 2005 and 2008 to examine the feasibility of an innovative three-tiered network of community-based providers for delivery of maternal health interventions in the complex emergency setting of eastern Burma. Two-stage cluster-sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15–45 y) conducted before and after program implementation enabled evaluation of changes in coverage of essential antenatal care interventions, attendance at birth by those trained to manage complications, postnatal care, and family planning services.
Results
Among 2,889 and 2,442 women of reproductive age in 2006 and 2008, respectively, population characteristics (age, marital status, ethnic distribution, literacy) were similar. Compared to baseline, women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period were substantially more likely to receive antenatal care (71.8% versus 39.3%, prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64–2.04]) and specific interventions such as urine testing (42.4% versus 15.7%, PRR = 2.69 [95% CI 2.69–3.54]), malaria screening (55.9% versus 21.9%, PRR = 2.88 [95% CI 2.15–3.85]), and deworming (58.2% versus 4.1%, PRR = 14.18 [95% CI 10.76–18.71]. Postnatal care visits within 7 d doubled. Use of modern methods to avoid pregnancy increased from 23.9% to 45.0% (PRR = 1.88 [95% CI 1.63–2.17]), and unmet need for contraception was reduced from 61.7% to 40.5%, a relative reduction of 35% (95% CI 28%–40%). Attendance at birth by those trained to deliver elements of emergency obstetric care increased almost 10-fold, from 5.1% to 48.7% (PRR = 9.55 [95% CI 7.21–12.64]).
Conclusions
Coverage of maternal health interventions and higher-level care at birth was substantially higher during the project period. The MOM Project's focus on task-shifting, capacity building, and empowerment at the community level might serve as a model approach for similarly constrained settings.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Every minute, somewhere in the world, a woman dies of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Access to essential maternal and reproductive health care (including family planning) is particularly bad in war-torn countries. In Burma, for example, where there have been decades of conflict between the military junta and ethnic minority resistance groups, the maternal mortality rate (the number of deaths among women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births) is around 380, whereas in neighboring Thailand it is only 44. Maternal health is even worse in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma where ethnic conflicts and enforced village relocations have internally displaced more than half a million people. Here, the maternal mortality rate is around 1,200. In an effort to improve access to maternal health services in these regions, community-based organizations in Burma, the Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health and Human Rights, and the Global Health Access Program undertook an innovative pilot project—the Mobile Obstetric Medics (MOM) project—between 2005 and 2008. Local health workers from 12 communities in eastern Burma received training in antenatal care, obstetrics (the care of women during childbirth), postnatal care, and family planning at the Mae Tao Clinic in Mae Sot, Thailand. These “maternal health workers” then returned to Burma where they trained local health workers and traditional birth attendants to provide maternal health care to their communities.
Why Was This Study Done?
Before the MOM project started, nearly 3,000 women living in the study communities were surveyed to evaluate the coverage of essential antenatal care interventions such as urine testing for infections during pregnancy, screening for malaria, and deworming; Urinary tract infections, malaria, and hookworm infections all increase the risk of poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The preproject survey also evaluated how many births were attended by people able to deal with complications, and the provision of postnatal care and family planning services. In this study, the researchers undertake a similar postproject survey to evaluate the impact of MOM on the coverage of essential maternal health interventions among internally displaced communities in eastern Burma.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Between October 2008 and December 2008, trained survey workers asked nearly 2,500 ever-married women of reproductive age from the project's study communities about their access to antenatal and postnatal care, skilled birth attendants, and family planning. The results of the postproject survey were then compared with those of the “baseline,” preproject survey. The general characteristics (age, marital status, ethnicity, and literacy) of the women included in the two surveys were very similar. However, 71.8% of the women whose most recent pregnancy occurred during the implementation period of the MOM project had received antenatal care compared to only 39.3% of women surveyed at baseline. Similarly, among the women questioned during the postproject survey, 42.4% had had their urine tested and 55.9% had been screened for malaria during pregnancy compared to only 15.7% and 21.9%, respectively, of the women questioned in the preproject survey. Deworming had increased from 4.1% to 58.2% during the project, postnatal care visits within 7 days had doubled, and attendance at birth by people trained to deal with obstetric emergencies had increased 10-fold from 5.1% to 48.7%. Finally, the use of modern contraception methods (slow-release contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and condoms) had increased from 23.9% to 45.0%.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings reveal a substantial improvement in access to maternal and reproductive health care in the study communities during the MOM project. However, because the study compared two independent groups of women before and after implementation of the MOM project rather than concurrently comparing groups of women who did and did not receive the services provided by the MOM project, this study does not prove that the MOM approach was the cause of the changes in the coverage of essential maternal health care. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that the type of approach used in the MOM project—the expansion of interventions (including components of emergency obstetric care) delivered outside healthcare facilities by community-based providers—might be an effective way to deliver maternal and reproductive health services in other parts of Burma and in other places where there are ongoing conflicts.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000317.
More information about the MOM project is available in previous publications by the researchers in PLoS Medicine, in Reproductive Health Matters, and in Social Science and Medicine
Additional resources are also available on the MOM Project
The Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium provides information on how conflicts affect reproductive health
The World Health Organization provides information on all aspects of health in Burma (in several languages)
The Mae Tao clinic also provides general information about Burma and its health services
The Burma Campaign UK and Human Rights Watch both provide detailed information about human rights violations, including those that affect maternal health in Burma
The United Nations Population Fund provides information about safe motherhood and maternal and reproductive health during conflicts and among refugees (in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000317
PMCID: PMC2914639  PMID: 20689805
6.  Designing a library: everyone on the same page? 
Excerpts are presented from an interview by the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association buildings projects editor with four academic health sciences library directors: one who had recently completed a major library building project and three who were involved in various stages of new building projects. They share their experiences planning for and implementing library-building programs. The interview explores driving forces leading to new library buildings, identifies who should be involved, recalls the most difficult and exciting moments of the building projects, relates what they wished they had known before starting the project, assesses the impact of new library facilities on clients and services, reviews what they would change, and describes forces impacting libraries today and attributes of the twenty-first century library.
PMCID: PMC31728  PMID: 11337952
7.  Health sciences library building projects: 1994 survey. 
Designing and building new or renovated space is time consuming and requires politically sensitive discussions concerning a number of both long-term and immediate planning issues. The Medical Library Association's fourth annual survey of library building projects identified ten health sciences libraries that are planning, expanding, or constructing new facilities. Two projects are in predesign stages, four represent new construction, and four involve renovations to existing libraries. The Texas Medical Association Library, the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre Library, and the Northwestern University Galter Health Sciences Library illustrate how these libraries are being designed for the future and take into account areas of change produced by new information technologies, curricular trends, and new ways to deliver library services.
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PMCID: PMC226028  PMID: 7599586
8.  Recent health sciences library building projects. 
Librarians were asked to submit information for an annual architectural feature on projected, partially funded, architect selected, nearly designed, bid completed, under construction, almost finished, or recently completed library construction. Thirty-two health sciences libraries reported expansion, construction of new facilities, or construction planning. Seven building programs were identified as projected, or in predesign or design stages. Five projects were new, stand-alone structures in which the library occupies all or a major portion of the space. Nine projects were part of new construction for several separately administered units in which the library is a major tenant. Eleven projects involved additions to or renovations of existing space. Seven projects are presented as illustrative of current library construction.
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PMCID: PMC225489  PMID: 1998824
9.  Consumer language, patient language, and thesauri: a review of the literature 
Objective:
Online social networking sites are web services in which users create public or semipublic profiles and connect to build online communities, finding likeminded people through self-labeled personal attributes including ethnicity, leisure interests, political beliefs, and, increasingly, health status. Thirty-nine percent of patients in the United States identified themselves as users of social networks in a recent survey. “Tags,” user-generated descriptors functioning as labels for user-generated content, are increasingly important to social networking, and the language used by patients is thus becoming important for knowledge representation in these systems. However, patient language poses considerable challenges for health communication and networking. How have information systems traditionally incorporated these languages in their controlled vocabularies and thesauri? How do system builders know what consumers and patients say?
Methods:
This comprehensive review of the literature of health care (PubMed MEDLINE, CINAHL), library science, and information science (Library and Information Science and Technology Abstracts, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Library Literature) examines the research domains in which consumer and patient language has been explored.
Results:
Consumer contributions to controlled vocabulary appear to be seriously under-researched inside and outside of health care.
Conclusion:
The author reflects on the implications of these findings for online social networks devoted to patients and the patient experience.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.2.005
PMCID: PMC3066584  PMID: 21464851
10.  Renovated, repurposed, and still “one sweet library”: a case study on loss of space from the Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore 
Setting:
The Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL), University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB), is located in an urban environment on the west side of downtown Baltimore. Founded in 1813, the library opened its current building in 1998 and is one of the largest health sciences libraries in the United States, with 6 floors and over 180,000 gross square and 118,000 net assignable square feet (NASF).
Project:
The initial discussions in late 2005 involved moving campus offices into the library. Almost immediately, it was recognized that a much larger renovation was needed due to the scope of the work. The vice president for academic affairs, the library executive director, and campus planners agreed that if the renovation was done thoughtfully, multiple needs could be met, including new office spaces, better user spaces, and synergy with the new campus center being built next door.
Planning:
The planning, design, and construction process was multifaceted and on a fast track. Although the final piece of the renovation was completed in June 2009, the majority of the planning, design, and construction took place between March 2006 and June 2008. All tenants were involved with office design. Library staff were involved in designing the public spaces and planning the strategy for weeding and shifting.
Outcomes:
Approximately 8,000 NASF was reallocated to new office space from shelving space, amounting to approximately 6.7% of the building NASF and approximately 10.6% of the public space in the building. The majority of new offices in the building report to the same vice president and are student focused and service oriented, with similar missions to that of the library resulting in a very harmonious cohabitation. Additional units with these missions and reporting structure are located in the new campus center, creating a synergy between the two buildings.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.1.014
PMCID: PMC2801984  PMID: 20098653
11.  Library services for people with disabilities: results of a survey. 
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), enacted in 1990, has had a significant impact on the way many institutions, including libraries, do business. The Association of Research Libraries surveyed its members in 1991 to determine the effect of this legislation, and the author conducted a similar survey in 1995 to learn what progress academic health sciences libraries have made in serving the needs of people with disablities. A questionnaire was mailed to 131 members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Library Directors. Nearly three-quarters of respondents reported elimination of physical barriers. The most common services provided are retrieval of materials from the stacks and photocopy assistance. Much less attention has been paid to the use of adaptive technology that allows disabled users to search a library's online catalog and databases; special technology is often provided by another unit on campus but there seems to be little coordination with library services Few libraries have assigned responsibility for disability services to a specific staff member and even fewer have done a formal assessment of the need for special services. The issues identified by the survey should challenge academic health sciences libraries to examine their status regarding compliance with ADA legislation.
PMCID: PMC226160  PMID: 8883988
12.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower II. Health-Related Institutions and Their Library Resources * 
As part of an investigation of health sciences library manpower, the universe of health-related institutions and programs (excluding hospitals) was surveyed by postcard questionnaire to produce an inventory and description of libraries providing services to these institutions and programs. Seventysix percent (5,215) of the institutions reported access to library resources, indicating usage of some 2,207 non-hospital libraries. Eighty percent (2,431) of the institutions reported that the library used was “within” their own institution; 20 percent (608) noted that the library was “outside” of their institution.
The distribution of health-related institutions and libraries is shown by RML districts, together with relevant census data. A classification of libraries, based on the degree of involvement of the libraries' facilities, resources and personnel in supplying services to health-related institutions, was developed.
It is concluded that projections of manpower needs should take into account institutions and programs not at present possessing health sciences libraries as well as documented demand in existing health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC197504  PMID: 5496236
13.  New library buildings. Health Sciences Library, University of Cininnati. 
The new Health Sciences Library at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio is described. The library is a self-contained unit within the Medical Sciences Building. The Health Sciences Library contains a total of 90,000 gross square feet, 56,000 of which are assignable. The total project cost was $5,490,000, or $61.00 per square foot. Seating capacity is over 800. The library has a Media Resources Center equipped with a cable television system that is used to project information from the library to patient care areas in the Cincinnati community. The library was first occupied in June 1974; its dedication was held in the fall of 1974.
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PMCID: PMC199367  PMID: 884348
14.  “You're just one of the group when you're embedded”: report from a mixed-method investigation of the research-embedded health librarian experience* 
Objective:
Embedded librarianship has received much attention in recent years. A model of embeddedness rarely discussed to date is that of research-embedded health librarians (REHLs). This study explores the characteristics of Canadian REHLs and the situations in which they are employed.
Methods:
The authors employed a sequential, mixed-method design. An online survey provided descriptive statistics about REHLs' positions and work experiences. This informed a series of focus group interviews that expanded upon the survey. Through constant comparison, we conducted qualitative descriptive analysis of the interviews.
Results:
Based on twenty-nine survey responses and four group interviews, we created a portrait of a “typical” REHL and discovered themes relevant to REHL work. REHLs may identify more strongly as researchers than as librarians, with corresponding professional needs and rewards. REHLs value “belonging” to the research team, involvement in full project lifecycles, and in-depth relationships with nonlibrarian colleagues. Despite widely expressed job satisfaction, many REHLs struggle with isolation from library and information science peers and relative lack of job security.
Conclusions:
REHLs differ from non-embedded health librarians, as well as from other types of embedded librarians. REHLs' work also differs from just a decade or two ago, prior to widespread Internet access to digital resources.
Implications:
Given that research-embedded librarianship appears to be a distinct and growing subset of health librarianship, libraries, master's of library and information science programs, and professional associations will need to respond to the support and education needs of REHLs or risk losing them to the health research field.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.101.4.010
PMCID: PMC3794684  PMID: 24163600
15.  A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services* 
Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals.
Methods: Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted.
Results: Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library.
Conclusion: While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use.
PMCID: PMC31702  PMID: 11209799
16.  A library for the twenty-first century: the Galter Health Sciences Library's renovation and expansion project. 
A renovation and expansion project at the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University strikes a balance between traditional and future libraries, library ambiance and high technology, old and new. When guided by a vision of future building use, renovation projects can succeed in meeting many institutional goals as a viable alternative to new library buildings. Issues addressed include planning considerations, architectural history, library design, building features, information technology considerations, and ideal library space design when new construction is not possible.
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PMCID: PMC226246  PMID: 9160155
17.  New library buildings: the Health Sciences Library, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. 
The new Health Sciences Library of Memorial University of Newfoundland is described and illustrated. A library facility that forms part of a larger health sciences center, this is a medium-sized academic health sciences library built on a single level. Along with a physical description of the library and its features, the concepts of single-level libraries, phased occupancy, and the project management approach to building a large health center library are discussed in detail.
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PMCID: PMC226936  PMID: 476319
18.  The Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce: a collaboration to improve and protect the public's health, 1995–2006 
Objective: The paper provides a complete accounting of the Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce (Partners) initiative since its inception in 1997, including antecedent activities since 1995.
Methods: A descriptive overview is provided that is based on a review of meeting summaries, published reports, Websites, project reports, databases, usage statistics, and personal experiences from offices in the National Library of Medicine (NLM), six organizations that collaborate formally with NLM on the Partners initiative, and one outside funding partner.
Results: With ten years of experience, the initiative is an effective and unique public-private collaboration that builds on the strengths and needs of the organizations that are involved and the constituencies that they serve. Partners-supported and sponsored projects include satellite broadcasts or Webcasts, training initiatives, Web resource development, a collection of historical literature, and strategies for workforce enumeration and expansion of public health systems research, which provide excellent examples of the benefits realized from collaboration between the public health community and health sciences libraries.
Conclusions: With continued funding, existing and new Partners-sponsored projects will be able to fulfill many public health information needs. This collaboration provides excellent opportunities to strengthen the partnership between library science and public health in the use of health information and tools for purposes of improving and protecting the public's health.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.95.3.301
PMCID: PMC1924938  PMID: 17641765
19.  Health sciences library building projects, 1998 survey. 
Twenty-eight health sciences library building projects are briefly described, including twelve new buildings and sixteen additions, remodelings, and renovations. The libraries range in size from 2,144 square feet to 190,000 gross square feet. Twelve libraries are described in detail. These include three hospital libraries, one information center sponsored by ten institutions, and eight academic health sciences libraries.
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PMCID: PMC226617  PMID: 10550027
20.  Preparing Librarians to Meet the Challenges of Today's Health Care Environment 
Objective: Refine the understanding of the desirable skills for health sciences librarians as a basis for developing a training program model that reflects the fundamental changes in health care delivery and information technology.
Design: A four-step needs assessment process: focus groups developed lists of desirable skills; the research team organized candidate skills into a taxonomy; a survey of a random sample of librarians and library users assessed perception of importance of individual skills; and the research team framed, as a unifying hypothesis, a training model.
Survey methods: The survey was distributed to random samples of 150 librarians, stratified by type of library, and 150 library users, stratified by type of use. A non-randomized sample was obtained by mounting the survey on a World Wide Web server. The survey instrument included 96 distinct skills organized into 13 categories. Respondents rated the importance of each skill on a Likert scale and provided a separate ranking by identifying the ten most important skills for the profession.
Results: Among the participants, 51% of librarians and 36% of library users responded to the survey. All categories of skills were rated above the midpoint of priority on the Likert scale. All groups rated personality characteristics and skills as most important, with an understanding of the health sciences, education, and research being rated comparably to technical skills.
Conclusions: Health sciences librarians need a new educational model that provides them with broad-based tools to discover new roles and new resources for acquiring individual skills as the need arises. A unifying training model would involve trainees in developing their learning plan in a way that promotes proactive inquiry and self-directed learning, and it would rotate the trainees through projects to provide skills and an understanding of end-user work processes.
PMCID: PMC61199  PMID: 8988475
21.  Science-based health innovation in Uganda: creative strategies for applying research to development 
Background
Uganda has a long history of health research, but still faces critical health problems. It has made a number of recent moves towards building science and technology capacity which could have an impact on local health, if innovation can be fostered and harnessed.
Methods
Qualitative case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 30 people from across the science-based health innovation system, including government officials, researchers in research institutes and universities, entrepreneurs, international donors, and non-governmental organization representatives.
Results
Uganda has a range of institutions influencing science-based health innovation, with varying degrees of success. However, the country still lacks a coherent mechanism for effectively coordinating STI policy among all the stakeholders. Classified as a least developed country, Uganda has opted for exemptions from the TRIPS intellectual property protection regime that include permitting parallel importation and providing for compulsory licenses for pharmaceuticals. Uganda is unique in Africa in taking part in the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), an ambitious though early-stage $30m project, funded jointly by the World Bank and Government of Uganda, to build science capacity and encourage entrepreneurship through funding industry-research collaboration. Two universities – Makerere and Mbarara – stand out in terms of health research, though as yet technology development and commercialization is weak. Uganda has several incubators which are producing low-tech products, and is beginning to move into higher-tech ones like diagnostics. Its pharmaceutical industry has started to create partnerships which encourage innovation.
Conclusions
Science-based health product innovation is in its early stages in Uganda, as are policies for guiding its development. Nevertheless, there is political will for the development of STI in Uganda, demonstrated through personal initiatives of the President and the government’s willingness to invest heavily for the long term in support of STI through the Millennium Science Initiative. Activities to support technology transfer and private-public collaboration have been put in motion; these need to be monitored, coordinated, and learned from. In the private sector, there are examples of incremental innovation to address neglected diseases driven by entrepreneurial individuals and South-South collaboration. Lessons can be learned from their experience that will help support Ugandan health innovation.
doi:10.1186/1472-698X-10-S1-S5
PMCID: PMC3001613  PMID: 21144076
22.  The role of the academic medical center library in training public librarians*† 
Purpose: This project enhanced access to and awareness of health information resources on the part of public libraries in western Pennsylvania.
Setting/Participants/Resources: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS), University of Pittsburgh, conducted a needs assessment and offered a series of workshops to 298 public librarians.
Brief Description: The National Library of Medicine–funded project “Access to Electronic Health Information” at the HSLS, University of Pittsburgh, provided Internet health information training to public libraries and librarians in sixteen counties in western Pennsylvania. Through this project, this academic medical center library identified the challenges for public librarians in providing health-related reference service, developed a training program to address those challenges, and evaluated the impact of this training on public librarians' ability to provide health information.
Results/Outcome: The HSLS experience indicates academic medical center libraries can have a positive impact on their communities by providing health information instruction to public librarians. The success of this project—demonstrated by the number of participants, positive course evaluations, increased comfort level with health-related reference questions, and increased use of MEDLINEplus and other quality information resources—has been a catalyst for continuation of this programming, not only for public librarians but also for the public in general.
Evaluation Method: A training needs assessment, course evaluation, and impact training survey were used in developing the curriculum and evaluating the impact of this training on public librarians' professional activities.
PMCID: PMC164399  PMID: 12883558
23.  Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007* 
Objective:
This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship.
Methodology:
Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time.
Results:
Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source.
Conclusion:
This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.97.3.009
PMCID: PMC2706445  PMID: 19626146
24.  The Medical Library Association Benchmarking Network: results* 
Objective: This article presents some limited results from the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network survey conducted in 2002. Other uses of the data are also presented.
Methods: After several years of development and testing, a Web-based survey opened for data input in December 2001. Three hundred eighty-five MLA members entered data on the size of their institutions and the activities of their libraries. The data from 344 hospital libraries were edited and selected for reporting in aggregate tables and on an interactive site in the Members-Only area of MLANET. The data represent a 16% to 23% return rate and have a 95% confidence level.
Results: Specific questions can be answered using the reports. The data can be used to review internal processes, perform outcomes benchmarking, retest a hypothesis, refute a previous survey findings, or develop library standards. The data can be used to compare to current surveys or look for trends by comparing the data to past surveys.
Conclusions: The impact of this project on MLA will reach into areas of research and advocacy. The data will be useful in the everyday working of small health sciences libraries as well as provide concrete data on the current practices of health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC1435842  PMID: 16636703
25.  Area health education centers and health science library services. 
A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication.
PMCID: PMC199368  PMID: 884349

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