The structure of an uncomplexed form of α-amylase from B. halmapalus is compared with a form in which maltose, glucose and a nonasaccharide derived from acarbose and maltose are bound.
Recombinant Bacillus halmapalus α-amylase (BHA) was studied in two different crystal forms. The first crystal form was obtained by crystallization of BHA at room temperature in the presence of acarbose and maltose; data were collected at cryogenic temperature to a resolution of 1.9 Å. It was found that the crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.0, b = 73.5, c = 151.1 Å. A maltose molecule was observed and found to bind to BHA and previous reports of the binding of a nonasaccharide were confirmed. The second crystal form was obtained by pH-induced crystallization of BHA in a MES–HEPES–boric acid buffer (MHB buffer) at 303 K; the solubility of BHA in MHB has a retrograde temperature dependency and crystallization of BHA was only possible by raising the temperature to at least 298 K. Data were collected at cryogenic temperature to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.6, b = 59.0, c = 209.8 Å. The structure was solved using molecular replacement. The maltose-binding site is described and the two structures are compared. No significant changes were seen in the structure upon binding of the substrates.
α-amylase; maltose-binding site; Bacillus halmapalus
The transaldolase enzyme from T. acidophilum has been crystallized in two different space groups.
The metabolic enzyme transaldolase from Thermoplasma acidophilum was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and could be crystallized in two polymorphic forms. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000 as precipitant. Native data sets for crystal forms 1 and 2 were collected in-house to resolutions of 3.0 and 2.7 Å, respectively. Crystal form 1 belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221 with five monomers per asymmetric unit and crystal form 2 belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 with ten monomers per asymmetric unit.
Schiff bases; (α/β)8-barrel; fructose 6-phosphate; aldolases; pentose phosphate pathway
Crystals of A. niger monoamine oxidase variants display P21 or P41212/P43212 symmetry, with eight or two molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively.
Monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) is an FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyses the conversion of terminal amines to their corresponding aldehydes. Variants of MAO-N produced by directed evolution have been shown to possess altered substrate specificity. Crystals of two of these variants (MAO-N-3 and MAO-N-5) have been obtained; the former displays P21 symmetry with eight molecules per asymmetric unit and the latter has P41212 or P43212 symmetry and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Solution of these structures will help shed light on the molecular determinants of improved activity and high enantioselectivity towards a broad range of substrates.
monoamine oxidase; Aspergillus niger; directed evolution; enantioselectivity
A case of imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in monoclinic crystals of fungal fatty acid synthase is discussed. A space-group transition during crystal dehydration resulted in a Moiré pattern-like interference of the twinned diffraction patterns.
The recent high-resolution structures of fungal fatty acid synthase (FAS) have provided new insights into the principles of fatty acid biosynthesis by large multifunctional enzymes. The crystallographic phase problem for the 2.6 MDa fungal FAS was initially solved to 5 Å resolution using two crystal forms from Thermomyces lanuginosus. Monoclinic crystals in space group P21 were obtained from orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 by dehydration. Here, it is shown how this space-group transition induced imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning in the monoclinic crystal, giving rise to a Moiré pattern-like interference of the two twin-related reciprocal lattices. The strategy for processing the twinned diffraction images and obtaining a quantitative analysis is presented. The twinning is also related to the packing of the molecules in the two crystal forms, which was derived from self-rotation function analysis and molecular-replacement solutions using a low-resolution electron microscopy map as a search model.
imperfect pseudo-merohedral twinning; fungal fatty acid synthase
A 2.5 Å resolution data set was collected from a crystal of a soluble chimeric form of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) produced using a fusion gene composed of the yeast FMN and the human FAD domains. The chimeric protein was crystallized in a modified conformation compared with the previously solved structures.
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is the favoured redox partner of microsomal cytochromes P450. This protein is composed of two flavin-containing domains (FMN and FAD) connected by a structured linker. An active CPR chimera consisting of the yeast FMN and human FAD domains has been produced, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was performed using the published rat and yeast structures as search models. The initial electron-density maps revealed that the chimeric enzyme had crystallized in a conformation that differed from those of previously solved structures.
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase; chimeric proteins
The cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data are described for UDP-galactopyranose mutase, an enzyme involved in cell-wall synthesis in A. fumigatus.
Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-galactopyranose mutase (AfUGM) is a potential drug target involved in the synthesis of the cell wall of this fungal pathogen. AfUGM was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop method, producing orthorhombic crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 3.25 Å. The crystals contained four molecules per asymmetric unit and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.72, b = 134.30, c = 173.84 Å. Incorporation of selenomethionine was achieved, but the resulting crystals did not allow solution of the phase problem.
UDP-galactopyranose mutase; Aspergillus fumigatus
A maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme from T. vulgaris R-47 (TGA) homologous to glucoamylase degrades maltooligosaccharides more efficiently than starch, unlike fungal glucoamylases. TGA was crystallized and the state of the protein in solution was analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography.
A maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 (TGA) homologous to glucoamylase degrades maltooligosaccharides more efficiently than starch, unlike fungal glucoamylases. TGA was crystallized and the state of the protein in solution was analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography. Diffraction data were collected to 3.31 Å resolution. The TGA crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121 or P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 110.2, b = 317.6, c = 144.9 Å, and is expected to contain five to eight TGA molecules per asymmetric unit. Gel-filtration and native PAGE analyses indicated that TGA exists as a dimer in solution. This is the first report of the crystallization of an oligomeric glucoamylase.
The crystallization of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics, is reported.
A recombinant 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase from Bacillus circulans has been crystallized at 277 K using PEG 4000 as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to 2.30 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystals are monoclinic and belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.5, b = 70.4, c = 83.0 Å, β = 117.8°. The presence of two molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V
M) of 2.89 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent constant of 57.4% by volume.
aminoglycoside antibiotics; 2-deoxystreptamine; dehydroquinate synthase
The title compound, C16H6N6, is a polymorph of the previously reported structure [Kozlov & Goldberg (2008 ▶). Acta Cryst. C64, o498–o501]. Unlike the previously reported monoclinic polymorph (space group P21/c, Z = 8), the title compound reveals orthorhombic symmetry (space group Pnma, Z = 4). The molecule shows crystallographic mirror symmetry, while the previously reported structure exhibits two independent molecules per asymmetric unit. In the title compound, adjacent molecules are essentially parallel along the c axis and tend to be vertical along the b axis with dihedral angles of 72.02 (6)°. However, in the reported polymorph, the entire crystal structure shows an antiparallel arrangement of adjacent columns related by inversion centers and the two independent molecules are nearly parallel with a dihedral angle of 2.48 (6)°.
Recombinant human chondroadherin has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 and diffracted to at least 2.3 Å resolution.
Chondroadherin is a cartilage matrix protein that is known to mediate the adhesion of isolated chondrocytes. Its protein core is composed of 11 leucine-rich repeats flanked by cysteine-rich domains at the N- and C-terminal ends. Recombinant human chondroadherin was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.4, b = 111.3, c = 128.5 Å, β = 92.2, and are most likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to at least 2.3 Å using synchrotron radiation, but structure determination using molecular replacement has so far been unsuccessful.
chondroadherin; matrix proteins; leucine-rich repeat family
Two C-terminal fragments of the RNA helicase Hera have been crytallized in three crystal forms, one of which was phased by MAD using a single selenium site.
Heat-resistant RNA-dependent ATPase (Hera) from Thermus thermophilus is a DEAD-box RNA helicase. Two constructs encompassing the second RecA-like domain and the C-terminal domain of Hera were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Single crystals of both Hera constructs were obtained in three crystal forms. A tetragonal crystal form belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, c = 153.0 Å, and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Two orthorhombic forms belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.8, b = 70.9, c = 102.3 Å (form I) and a = 41.6, b = 67.6, c = 183.5 Å (form II). Both orthorhombic forms contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. All crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 3 Å resolution, but the tetragonal data sets displayed high Wilson B values and high mean |E
2 − 1| values, indicating potential disorder and anisotropy. The tetragonal crystal was phased by MAD using a single selenium site.
Hera; Thermus thermophilus; DEAD-box RNA helicases; ATPases
Plasmepsin I (PMI) is one of the four vacuolar pepsin-like proteases responsible for hemoglobin degradation by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and the only one with no crystal structure reported to date. Due to substantial functional redundancy of these enzymes, lack of inhibition of even a single plasmepsin can defeat efforts in creating effective antiparasitic agents. We have now solved crystal structures of the recombinant PMI as apoenzyme and in complex with the potent peptidic inhibitor, KNI-10006, at the resolution of 2.4 and 3.1 Å, respectively. The apoenzyme crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and the structure has been refined to the final R-factor of 20.7%. The KNI-10006 bound enzyme crystallized in the tetragonal space group P43 with four molecules in the asymmetric unit and the structure has been refined to the final R-factor of 21.1%. In the PMI-KNI-10006 complex, the inhibitors were bound identically to all four enzyme molecules, with the opposite directionality of the main chain of KNI-10006 relative to the direction of the enzyme substrates. Such a mode of binding of inhibitors containing an allophenylnorstatine-dimethylthioproline insert in the P1-P1’ positions, previously reported in a complex with PMIV, demonstrates the importance of satisfying the requirements for the proper positioning of the functional groups in the mechanism-based inhibitors towards the catalytic machinery of aspartic proteases, as opposed to binding driven solely by the specificity of the individual enzymes. A comparison of the structure of the PMI-KNI-10006 complex with the structures of other vacuolar plasmepsins identified the important differences between them and may help in the design of specific inhibitors targeting the individual enzymes.
Malaria; Plasmepsin; Aspartic Protease; Crystal structure; Enzyme inhibition
The title compound, C12H12N2O2, crystallized in the monolinic space group P21/n, with two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. This is in contrast to the first monoclinic polymorph reported [Cingolani et al. (2002 ▶). Inorg. Chem.
41, 1151–116], which crystallized in the space group C2/c with one independent molecule per asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles between the two rings differ slightly; in molecule A it is 4.90 (11)° and in molecule B it is 16.05 (13)°. In both molecules, there is an intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the hydroxyl substituent and the carbonyl O atom of the adjacent acetyl group. In the crystal structure, molecules A and B are linked via a C—H⋯N interaction. There are also some weak C—H⋯π interactions involving the phenyl ring of molecule A and H atoms of the acetyl groups of both molecules.
The structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in the monoclinic P21 space group with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed unit cell has been re-determined and shown that the choice for how the four molecules in the unit cell are grouped (based on their coordinates) into pairs that represent a single asymmetric unit determines whether or not rotational disorder is observed/created during refinement.
The crystal structure of human carbonic anhydrase II in the monoclinic P21 space group with a doubled a axis from that of the usually observed unit cell has recently been reported, with one of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit demonstrating rotational disorder [Robbins et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. D66, 628–634]. The structure has been redetermined, with the coordinates of both pseudo-symmetrically related molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit translated by x′ = x ± 1/4, and no rotational disorder is observed. This corresponds to a different choice of how the four molecules in the unit cell should be grouped into pairs that represent a single asymmetric unit.
doubled axis; systematically weak data; pseudo-translational symmetry; redetermination
Crystals of arylmalonate decarboxylase from A. bronchisepticus were obtained which diffracted X-rays to a resolution of at least 3.0 Å.
Arylmalonate decarboxylase catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methylmalonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates. The enzyme was crystallized with ammonium sulfate under alkaline pH conditions with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the enantioselective reaction. X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at cryogenic temperature showed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.13, b = 99.62, c = 139.64 Å. This suggested that the asymmetric unit would contain between four and six molecules. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the enzyme exists as a monomer in solution. Thus, the assembly of molecules in the asymmetric unit was likely to have been induced during the crystallization process.
arylmalonate decarboxylase; Alcaligenes bronchisepticus; enantioselectivity
In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal α-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal α-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, and some highly conserved amino acids of enzymes in the α-amylase family were absent. We expressed two of these enzymes in a suitable A. niger strain and characterized the purified proteins. Both enzymes showed transglycosylation activity on donor substrates with α-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and at least five anhydroglucose units. The enzymes, designated AgtA and AgtB, produced new α-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and therefore belong to the group of the 4-α-glucanotransferases (EC 188.8.131.52). Their reaction products reached a degree of polymerization of at least 30. Maltose and larger maltooligosaccharides were the most efficient acceptor substrates, although AgtA also used small nigerooligosaccharides containing α-(1,3)-glycosidic bonds as acceptor substrate. An agtA knockout of A. niger showed an increased susceptibility towards the cell wall-disrupting compound calcofluor white, indicating a cell wall integrity defect in this strain. Homologues of AgtA and AgtB are present in other fungal species with α-glucans in their cell walls, but not in yeast species lacking cell wall α-glucan. Possible roles for these enzymes in the synthesis and/or maintenance of the fungal cell wall are discussed.
Maleylacetate reductase from Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005 has been crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and microseeding. The crystals contained one dimeric molecule per asymmetric unit and diffracted to 1.79 Å resolution.
Maleylacetate reductase (EC 184.108.40.206), which catalyzes the reduction of maleylacetate to 3-oxoadipate, plays an important role in the aerobic microbial catabolism of resorcinol. The enzyme has been crystallized at 293 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method supplemented with a microseeding technique, using ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.85, b = 121.13, c = 94.09 Å, β = 101.48°, and contained one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. It diffracted to 1.79 Å resolution.
maleylacetate reductase; Rhizobium; resorcinol catabolic pathway
YvoA from B. subtilis, a member of the poorly understood HutC family of bacterial transcription factors, has been recombinantly produced, characterized as a homodimer in solution and crystallized in space group C2.
The putative transcriptional regulator protein YvoA (BSU35030) from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography and subsequently crystallized. A complete native data set was collected to 2.50 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 and preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicated the presence of approximately 12 molecules per asymmetric unit.
transcriptional regulator; YvoA; N-acetylglucosamine; self-rotation function
Crystals of NovN, an O-carbamoyltransferase from S. spheroides, were obtained in monoclinic and orthorhombic forms and native X-ray data were recorded to a maximum of 2.3 Å resolution.
Crystals of recombinant NovN, an O-carbamoyltransferase from Streptomyces spheroides, were grown by vapour diffusion. The protein crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystal form I belonged to space group C2 and native data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution in-house. Crystal form II had I-centred orthorhombic symmetry and native data were recorded to a resolution of 2.3 Å at a synchrotron. NovN catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin that targets the essential bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase.
NovN; O-carbamoyltransferases; Streptomyces; novobiocin; antibiotic biosynthesis
P. aeruginosa CobE, a protein implicated in vitamin B12 biosynthesis, has been crystallized and data on the native and SeMet forms recorded to resolutions of 1.9 and 1.7 Å, respectively. The anomalous measurements will be used for phasing.
CobE, a protein implicated in vitamin B12 biosynthesis, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The crystals belong to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.86, b = 41.07, c = 87.41 Å. The diffraction extends to a resolution of 1.9 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the estimated solvent content is 35%. SeMet-labelled CobE has been prepared and crystallizes under the same conditions as the native protein with diffraction to 1.7 Å. The anomalous measurements will be used for phasing.
CobE; vitamin B12 biosynthesis
Old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method.
Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is an NADPH oxidoreductase that contains a flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group. The OYE from Trypanosoma cruzi, which produces prostaglandin F2α, a potent mediator of various physiological and pathological processes, from prostaglandin H2. The protein was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 78.8, c = 78.8 Å, β = 93.4° and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystals were suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies and diffracted to 1.70 Å resolution. A Patterson search method is in progress using the structure of OYE from Pseudomonas putida as a starting model.
old yellow enzyme; NADPH oxidoreductases
In a new crystal form of PSAO, the homodimeric molecules lack twofold symmetry and the C-termini of the two protomers are linked by a previously unrevealed disulfide bond.
The structure of a newly crystallized form of the copper-dependent amine oxidase from pea seedlings has been refined at a resolution of 2.2 Å to a final R factor of 0.181. The structure (form II) was originally discovered during a study of xenon binding to copper-dependent amine oxidases as a probe for dioxygen-binding sites [Duff et al. (2004 ▶), J. Mol. Biol.
344, 599–607]. The form II crystals belong to space group P21, with two dimers in the asymmetric unit. The overall structure is very similar to the crystals of form I in space group P212121 with a dimer in the asymmetric unit [Kumar et al. (1996 ▶), Structure, 4, 943–955]. In form I the last three residues (644–647) observable in the two subunits were apparently splayed apart. It was noted that the absence of a disulfide bond between the Cys647 residues of the two subunits was inconsistent with chemical evidence for the absence of free sulfhydryl groups. In both of the crystallographically independent dimers of form II the two subunits are clearly joined by a disulfide bridge between the C-terminal cysteine residues. This is only possible if the two polypeptide chains in the dimer adopt different conformations near the C-terminus so that the twofold symmetry is lost. A proline residue (645) two residues before the cysteine has a cis conformation in one chain and a trans conformation in the other. As a result, the disulfide bond lies more than 5 Å from the twofold axis. The loss of local twofold symmetry in form II can be explained by intermolecular contacts, which provide an asymmetric environment.
copper amine oxidase; PSAO
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of AsaP1_E294A and AsaP1_E294Q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase AsaP1 from A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, are reported.
Two mutants of the toxic extracellular zinc endopeptidase AsaP1 (AsaP1_E294Q and AsaP1_E294A) of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals were obtained using several precipitants and different protein concentrations. Protein crystals were found in a monoclinic (C2) as well as an orthorhombic (P212121) space group. The crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group C2 had unit-cell parameters a = 103.4, b = 70.9, c = 54.9 Å, β = 109.3° for AsaP1_E294A, and a = 98.5, b = 74.5, c = 54.7 Å, β = 112.4° for AsaP1_E294Q. The unit-cell parameters of the orthorhombic crystal obtained for AsaP1_E294A were a = 57.9, b = 60.2, c = 183.6 Å. The crystals of the two different mutants diffracted X-rays beyond 2.0 Å resolution.
zinc metallopeptidases; Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes
Insulin is a therapeutic protein that is widely used for the treatment of diabetes. Its biological function was discovered more than 80 years ago and it has since then been characterized extensively. Crystallization of the insulin molecule has always been a key activity since the protein is often administered by subcutaneous injections of crystalline insulin formulations. Over the years, insulin has been crystallized and characterized in a number of crystal systems.
Interestingly, we have now discovered two new crystal forms of human insulin. The crystals were obtained when the two chaotropic agents, urea and thiocyanate were present in the crystallization experiments, and their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic and monoclinic crystal systems, with space groups C2221 and C2 respectively. The orthorhombic crystals were obtained at pH 6.5 and contained three insulin hexamers in R6 conformation in the asymmetric unit whilst the monoclinic C2 crystals were obtained at pH 7.0 and contained one R6 hexamer in the asymmetric unit. Common for the two new crystals is a hexamer-hexamer interaction that has not been found in any of the previous crystal forms of insulin. The contacts involve a tight glutamate-glutamate interaction with a distance of 2.3 Å between groups. The short distance suggests a low barrier hydrogen bond. In addition, two tyrosine-tyrosine interactions occupying a known phenol binding pocket contribute to the stabilization of the contacts. Within the crystals, distinct binding sites for urea were found, adding further to the discussion on the role of urea in protein denaturation.
The change in space group from C2221 to C2 was primarily caused by an increase in pH. The fewer number of hexamer-hexamer interactions comprising the short hydrogen bond in the C2 space group suggest that pH is the driving force. In addition, the distance between the two glutamates increases from 2.32 Å in the C2221 crystals to 2.4 Å in the C2 crystals. However, in both cases the low barrier hydrogen bond and the tyrosine-tyrosine interaction should contribute to the stability of the crystals which is crucial when used in pharmaceutical formulations.
The three-dimensional structure of the APE2540 protein from A. pernix K1 has been determined by the multiple anomalous dispersion method at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure includes two monomers in the asymmetric unit and shares structural similarity with the YbaK protein or cysteinyl-tRNAPro deacylase from H. influenzae.
The crystal structure of APE2540, the putative trans-editing enzyme ProX from Aeropyrum pernix K1, was determined in a high-throughput manner. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.4, b = 58.9, c = 53.6 Å, β = 106.8°. The structure was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method at 1.7 Å and refined to an R factor of 16.8% (R
free = 20.5%). The crystal structure includes two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer consists of eight β-strands and seven α-helices. A structure-homology search revealed similarity between the trans-editing enzyme YbaK (or cysteinyl-tRNAPro deacylase) from Haemophilus influenzae (HI1434; 22% sequence identity) and putative ProX proteins from Caulobacter crescentus (16%) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (21%).
trans-editing enzymes; APE2540