A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress.
A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way.
lectins; Canavalia maritima
A lectin from C. roseum seeds (CRL) has been purified, characterized and crystallized.
A lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds (CRL) was purified, characterized and crystallized. The best crystals grew in a month and were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using a precipitant solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.8, 8%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M proline at a constant temperature of 293 K. A data set was collected to 1.77 Å resolution at a synchrotron-radiation source. CRL crystals are orthorhombic, belonging to space group P212121. Crystallographic refinement and full amino-acid sequence determination are in progress.
Cymbosema roseum; Diocleinae; lectins
A truncated variant of the human RuvBL1–RuvBL2 complex was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallised. Synchrotron diffraction data to 4 Å resolution were used to carry out a preliminary crystallographic analysis of the complex.
The complex of RuvBL1 and its homologue RuvBL2, two evolutionarily highly conserved eukaryotic proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) family of ATPases, was co-expressed in Escherichia coli. For crystallization purposes, the flexible domains II of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were truncated. The truncated RuvBL1–RuvBL2 complex was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals were hexagonal-shaped plates and belonged to either the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.4, b = 188.0, c = 243.4 Å and six monomers in the asymmetric unit, or the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 109.2, b = 243.4, c = 109.3 Å, β = 118.7° and 12 monomers in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure could be solved by molecular replacement in both possible space groups and the solutions obtained showed that the complex forms a dodecamer.
RuvBL1; RuvBL2; ATPases
A fully integrated platform was developed for capturing/fractionating human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera. It comprised multicolumn operated by HPLC pumps and switching valves for the simultaneous depletion of high abundance proteins via affinity-based subtraction and the capturing of fucosylated glycoproteins via lectin affinity chromatography followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) were utilized. The platform allowed the “cascading” of the serum sample from column-to-column in the liquid phase with no sample manipulation between the various steps. This guaranteed no sample loss and no propagation of experimental biases between the various columns. Finally, the fucome was fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to trypsinolysis for LC-MS/MS analysis. This permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in breast cancer serum yielding a broad panel of 35 DEP from the combined LTA and AAL captured proteins and a narrower panel of 8 DEP that were commonly differentially expressed in both LTA and AAL fractions, which are considered as more representative of cancer altered fucome.
Affinity chromatography; Breast cancer; Glycoproteins; Multidimensional liquid chromatography; Differential protein expression
A recombinant mutant (C47S) of cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 from S. cerevisiae was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from protein previously treated with 1,4-dithiothreitol. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (cTPxI or Tsa1) is a bifunctional enzyme with protective roles in cellular defence against oxidative and thermal stress that exhibits both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Protein overoxidation and/or high temperatures induce great changes in its quaternary structure and lead to its assembly into large complexes that possess chaperone activity. A recombinant mutant of Tsa1 from S. cerevisiae, with Cys47 substituted by serine, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained from protein previously treated with 1,4-dithiothreitol by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3000 as precipitant and sodium fluoride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods and structure refinement is currently in progress.
cytosolic thioredoxin peroxidase 1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Crystals of P. platycephala chintinase/lectin (PPL-2) belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.19, b = 59.95, c = 76.60 Å. The preliminary cystal structure of PPL-2 was solved at a resolution of 1.73 Å by molecular replacement, presenting a correlation coefficient of 0.558 and an R factor of 0.439.
A chitin-binding protein named PPL-2 was purified from Parkia platycephala seeds and crystallized. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.19, b = 59.95, c = 76.60 Å, and grew over several days at 293 K using the hanging-drop method. Using synchrotron radiation, a complete structural data set was collected to 1.73 Å resolution. The preliminary crystal structure of PPL-2, determined by molecular replacement, presents a correlation coefficient of 0.558 and an R factor of 0.439. Crystallographic refinement is in progress.
chitin-binding proteins; chitinases; Parkia platycephala; lectins
The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of a leguminous plant, D. lablab, has been crystallized. Molecular-replacement solution using 3.0 Å X-ray diffraction data showed the lectin to be a tetramer.
The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of Dolichos lablab has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.99, b = 84.13, c = 93.15 Å, α = 89.92, β = 76.01, γ = 76.99°. X-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 3.0 Å have been collected under cryoconditions (100 K) using a MAR imaging-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Molecular-replacement calculations carried out using the available structures of legume lectins as search models revealed that the galactose-specific lectin from D. lablab forms a tetramer similar to soybean agglutinin; two such tetramers are present in the asymmetric unit.
Dolichos lablab; galactose-specific lectins; legume lectins
The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of vitamin D3 hydroxylase isolated from P. autotrophica are reported.
Vitamin D3 hydroxylase (Vdh) is a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase isolated from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia autotrophica and consisting of 403 amino-acid residues. Vdh catalyzes the activation of vitamin D3
via sequential hydroxylation reactions: these reactions involve the conversion of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol or VD3) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)VD3] and the subsequent conversion of 25(OH)VD3 to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [calciferol or 1α,25(OH)2VD3]. Overexpression of recombinant Vdh was carried out using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system and the protein was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The form I crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P31, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.7, c = 98.8 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 47.6%. The form II crystal was grown in the presence of 25(OH)VD3 and belonged to the orthorhombic system P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 65.6 c = 102.2 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 46.7%. Native data sets were collected to resolutions of 1.75 and 3.05 Å for form I and form II crystals, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. The structure solution was obtained by the molecular-replacement method and model refinement is in progress for the form I crystal.
cholecalciferol; CYP107; cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; hydroxylation; Pseudonocardia autotrophica; vitamin D3
The first crystal structure of a Mimosoideae lectin, Parkia platycephala has been solved by MAD phasing using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose as an anomalous X-ray scatterer. This strategy may be useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when molecular replacement methods fail.
Parkia platycephala belongs to the most primitive group of Leguminosae plants. Its seed lectin is made up of three homologous β-prism repeats and exhibits binding specificity for mannose/glucose. The properties of the association between the lectin from P. platycephala seeds and monosaccharide ligands were analysed by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The results are consistent with the lectin bearing three thermodynamically identical binding sites for mannose/glucose per monomer with dissociation constants in the millimolar range. Binding of each ligand by the lectin is enthalpically driven. Crystals have been obtained of the lectin in complex with a brominated derivative of mannose (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose), which were suitable for deriving an electron-density map by MAD phasing. In agreement with the thermodynamic data, six Br atoms were found in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic P21 crystals, which contained two P. platycephala lectin molecules. The availability of other Br derivatives of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fucose) may make this strategy widely useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when (as in the case of the P. platycephala lectin) molecular-replacement methods fail.
protein–carbohydrate interactions; Parkia platycephala lectin; isothermal titration calorimetry; surface plasmon resonance; β-prism domain; MAD phasing
Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare fucose and sialic acid residue expression on fibronectin and α1-acid glycoprotein in the seminal plasma of men suspected of infertility and suffering from leukocytospermia.
Subjects and methods: Seminal ejaculates were collected from 27 leukocytospermic and 18 healthy, normozoospermic men. The relative degree of fucosylation and sialylation of fibronectin and α1-acid glycoprotein was estimated by ELISA using fucose and sialic acid specific lectins from Aleuria aurantia, Lotus tetragonolobus, and Ulex europaeus as well as Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra, respectively.
Results: Leukocytospermic seminal fibronectin, in comparison with fibronectin of normal fertile group, showed lower relative reactivity with AAL, LTA and UEA, and higher reactivity with MAA and SNA, while the AGP of the leukocytospermic group was less reactive with AAL, and the relative reactivity with LTA and MAA was significantly higher. Fibronectin and α1-acid glycoprotein reactivity with UEA and MAA showed high positive correlations.
Discussion: Leukocytospermia was associated with the alterations of terminal monosaccharide expression in human seminal fibronectin and α1-acid glycoprotein. The increase of sialyl-Lewisx antigen in α1-acid glycoprotein can be used as a marker of genital tract inflammation manifested by leukocytospermia.
Fibronectin; α1-acid glycoprotein; fucosylation; sialylation; leukocytospermic human seminal plasma
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AzoR (azoreductase) have been performed.
AzoR (azoreductase), an FMN-dependent NADH-azo compound oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the presence of FMN by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 2-propanol as a precipitant. AzoR catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo groups. The crystals were found to diffract X-rays to beyond 1.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 51.9 Å. The crystals are expected to contain one subunit of the homodimer in the asymmetric unit (V
M = 2.6 Å3 Da−1) and to have a solvent content of 51.6%. Data sets were also collected from heavy-atom derivatives for use in phasing. As a result, crystals soaked in a solution containing K2PtCl4 for 23 d were found to be reasonably isomorphous to the native crystals and the presence of Pt atoms could be confirmed. The data sets from the native crystals and the K2PtCl4-derivatized crystals are being evaluated for use in structure determination by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering.
Cancer sera have higher levels of serum protein-bound fucose than sera from healthy individuals. In an attempt to identify the cause of this increase, fucoproteins were extracted from the sera of cancer patients and healthy individuals using a fucose-specific lectin (lotus tetragonolobus) coupled to Sepharose, and were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Of the several consistent changes observed for the cancer sera, the most striking was a large increase in a component of 40-45 Kdaltons. The expression of this component in the cancer sera was related to the elevation in serum fucose levels. Two dimensional (2D) electrophoretic analysis of lectin extracts showed that this component had a similar isoelectric point to the beta chains of haptoglobin. Its identity as haptoglobin was confirmed using Western blotting and an anti-haptoglobin antibody. Fucosylated haptoglobins (FHp) were also isolated from some rheumatoid arthritis sera, but there was no correlation between serum fucose levels and the FHp expression. The FHp in cancer sera was of higher molecular weight than that found in rheumatoid sera. Serial specimens from two ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy had elevated FHp associated with increased amounts of tumour. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a molecule of this type has been reported in cancer sera and because of its uniqueness it deserves further investigation as a potential cancer marker.
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported.
HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P212121 grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized.
red marine algal lectin; Hypnea musciformis; novel lectin family
The S. epidermidis carrier protein DltC has been crystallized in order to elucidate the functional role of DltC in the alanylation of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.
The d-alanyl lipoteichoic acids (d-alanyl LTAs) present in the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria play crucial roles in autolysis, cation homeostasis and biofilm formation. The alanylation of LTAs requires the d-alanyl carrier protein DltC to transfer d-Ala onto a membrane-associated LTA. Here, DltC from Staphylococcus epidermidis (SeDltC) was purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.83 Å and belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.26, b = 53.28, c = 88.05 Å, β = 98.22°. The results give a preliminary crystallographic analysis of SeDltC and shed light on the functional role of DltC in the alanylation of LTAs.
d-alanyl lipoteichoic acids; lipoteichoic acids; Staphylococcus epidermidis
S. parahyba chymotrypsin inhibitor in complex with chymotrypsin has been purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and preliminarily analysis has been performed using X-ray diffraction.
A binary complex of the Schizolobium parahyba chymotrypsin inhibitor (SPCI) with chymotrypsin was purified by size-exclusion chromatography and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 100 mM MES–NaOH pH 5.5, 20%(w/v) PEG 6000, 200 mM LiCl as precipitant and 200 mM nondetergent sulfobetaine molecular weight 201 Da (NDSB-201) as an additive. SPCI is a small protein with 180 amino-acid residues isolated from S. parahyba seeds and is able to inhibit chymotrypsin at a 1:1 molar ratio by forming a stable complex. X-ray data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution from a single crystal of the SPCI–chymotrypsin binary complex under cryogenic conditions. The crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.28, b = 64.57, c = 169.23 Å, and the R
merge is 0.122 for 11 254 unique reflections. A molecular-replacement solution was found using the preliminary crystal structure of SPCI and the structure of chymotrypsin (PDB code 4cha) independently as search models.
proteinase inhibitors; Kunitz inhibitors; Schizolobium parahyba
A galactose specific lectin was purified from the seeds of a tropical tree, Butea monosperma. Its X-ray structure was solved by molecular replacement.
The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of Butea monosperma has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.45, b = 78.91, c = 101.85 Å, α = 74.30, β = 76.65, γ = 86.88°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.44 Å under cryoconditions (100 K) using a MAR image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Molecular-replacement calculations carried out using the coordinates of several structures of legume lectins as search models indicate that the galactose-specific lectin from B. monosperma forms an octamer.
galactose-specific lectin; Butea monosperma
Canavalia boliviana lectin (Cbol) was purified using a Sephadex G-50 column and crystallized in the presence of X-Man by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. After optimization, crystals suitable for diffraction were obtained using 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 and 3.0 M sodium formate.
Plant lectins are the most studied group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Despite the high similarity between the members of the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) group, they present differing biological activities. Canavalia boliviana lectin (Cbol) was purified using a Sephadex G-50 column and crystallized in the presence of X-Man by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. After optimization, crystals suitable for diffraction were obtained under the condition 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 and 3.0 M sodium formate. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.70, b = 66.64, c = 64.99 Å, α = 90.0, β = 120.8, γ = 90.0°. Assuming the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 46%. A complete data set was collected at 1.5 Å resolution.
lectins; Canavalia boliviana Piper
Prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating factor-I (PPAF-I) is a catalytically active clip-domain SP, cleaves which proPO. The results of crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the SP domain of PPAF-I are reported here.
Clip-domain serine proteases (SPs) have been identified in invertebrates as crucial enzymes that are involved in diverse extracellular signalling pathways. Prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating factor-I (PPAF-I), a catalytically active clip-domain SP, cleaves proPO. To date, no crystal structures of a catalytically active clip-domain SP have been determined. Here, the results of crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the SP domain of PPAF-I are reported. The crystal of the PPAF-I SP domain was obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in a precipitant solution containing 0.15 M lithium sulfate, 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 and 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0. The crystal diffracts X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to space group P212121, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 38.3, b = 53.3, c = 116.6 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using kallikrein as a starting model, resulting in an interpretable electron-density map.
serine proteases; clip domains; PPAF-I; easter
The crystallization and characterization of a lectin isolated and purified from C. arietinum and possessing complex sugar specificity is reported.
The lectin isolated from mature seeds of Cicer arietinum (CAL) agglutinates pronase-treated rabbit and human erythrocytes and its haemagglutination activity is inhibited by fetuin and desialated fetuin but not by simple monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. The purified lectin is a dimer of molecular weight 43 000 Da composed of two identical subunits (MW 21 500), as confirmed by SDS–PAGE. The lectin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K over a well solution containing 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and 14%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000. The triangular prism-shaped crystals belong to space group R3 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.2, c = 69.4 Å. The diffraction data are 93.8% complete to 2.3 Å Bragg spacing with an R
merge of 0.103.
complex sugar specificity; legume lectin; seed albumins
Lectins conjugated with either peroxidase or ferritin were used to detect specific monosaccharide residues on the luminal front of he fenestrated endothelium in the capillaries of murine pancreas and intestinal mucosa. The lectins tested recognize, if accessible, the following residues: alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl (soybean lectin), beta- D-galactosyl (peanut agglutinin [PA] and Ricinus communis agglutinin- 120 [RCA]), beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl residues (wheat germ agglutinin [WGA]), alpha-L-fucosyl (lotus tetragonolobus lectin), and alpha-D-glucosyl and beta-D-mannosyl (concanavalin A [ConA]). Thi labeled lectins were introduced by perfusion in situ after thoroughly flushing with phosphate-buffered saline the microvascular beds under investigation. Specimens were fixed by perfusion, and subsequently processed for peroxidase detection and electron microscopy. Control experiments included perfusion with: (a) unlabeled lectin before lectin conjugate; (b) labeled lectin together with the cognate hapten sugar, and (c) horseradish peroxidase or ferritin alone. Binding sites were found to be relatively homogeneously distributed on the plasmalemma proper, except for Lotus tetragonolobus lectin and Con A, which frequently bound in patches. Plasmalemmal vesicles, transendothelial channels, and their associated diaphragms were particularly rich in residues recognized by RCA and PA (beta-D-galactosyl residues) and by WGA (beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl residues). Receptors for all lectins tested appeared to be absent or considerably less concentrated on fenestral diaphragms. The results reported here extend and complement previous findings on the existence of microdomains generated by the preferential distribution of chemically different anionic sites (Simionescu et al., 1981, J. Cell Biol., 9:605-613 and 614-621).
Human Thrsp has been crystallized as a prelude to the determination of its three-dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography.
Thyroid hormone responsive protein (Thrsp, also known as Spot 14 and S14) is a carbohydrate-inducible and thyroid-hormone-inducible nuclear protein specific to liver, adipose and lactating mammary tissues. Thrsp functions to activate genes encoding fatty-acid synthesis enzymes. Recent studies have shown that in some cancers human Thrsp (hS14) localizes to the nucleus and is amplified, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of lipogenic enzymes during tumourigenesis. Thrsp, a member of the Spot 14 superfamily, is an acidic homodimeric protein with no sequence similarity to other mammalian gene products and its biochemical function is elusive. To shed light on the structure–function relationship of this protein, human Thrsp was crystallized. Recombinant human Thrsp (hThrsp), the N-terminally truncated human Thrsp10–146 (hThrsp9) and their selenomethionyl (SeMet) derivatives were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction-quality crystals were grown at 293 K using Li2SO4 as a precipitant. Using synchrotron radiation, data for the hThrsp SeMet derivative, hThrsp9 and its SeMet derivative were collected to 4.0, 3.0 and 3.6 Å resolution, respectively, at 100 K. The crystals of full-length hThrsp and its SeMet derivative belonged to space group P41212, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.9, c = 242.1 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. In contrast, the crystals of the truncated hThrsp9 and its SeMet derivative belonged to space group P212121, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 100.8, c = 193.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. A molecular-replacement solution calculated using a murine Spot 14 structure as a search model indicated the presence of six molecules per asymmetric unit, comprising three hThrsp homodimers.
breast cancer; lipogenesis; Spot 14; S14; Thrsp
l-asparaginase, a potential antileukaemic agent, has been crystallized. Crystals diffract to 2.6 Å using a rotating-anode source and belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.
Bacterial l-asparaginases have been used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia for over 30 y. However, their use is limited owing to the glutaminase activity of the administered enzymes, which results in serious side effects. In contrast, l-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora exhibits low glutaminase activity at physiological concentrations of l-asparagine and l-glutamine in the blood. Recombinant Er. carotovora
l-asparaginase was crystallized in the presence of l-glutamate by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 10 mg ml−1 purified enzyme, 16–18%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M NaF. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å at 293 K using an in-house rotating-anode generator. The crystals belong to the monoclinic P21 space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.0, b = 112.3, c = 78.7 Å, β = 101.9° and a homotetramer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been found and refinement is currently in progress. The crystal structure may provide leads towards protein-engineering efforts aimed at safer asparaginase administration in leukaemia treatment.
asparaginase therapy; asparagine; leukaemia; Erwinia carotovora
A galactose specific lectin was purified from the seeds of a tropical plant, Spatholobus parviflorus. Its X-ray crystallographic structure was solved by the molecular replacement method.
A galactose-specific seed lectin was purified from the legume Spatholobus parviflorus and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 60.998, b = 60.792, c = 78.179 Å, α = 101.32, β = 91.38, γ = 104.32°. X-ray diffraction data were collected under cryoconditions (100 K) to a resolution of 2.04 Å using a MAR image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray (Cu Kα) generator. Molecular replacement using legume-lectin coordinates as a search model gave a tetrameric structure.
galactose-specific lectins; Spatholobus parviflorus; seed lectins
Blue laccase from the white-rot basidiomycete P. tigrinus, an enzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, has been crystallized. The crystals obtained give diffraction data at 1.4 Å, the best resolution to date for this class of enzymes, which may assist in further elucidation of the catalytic mechanism of multicopper oxidases.
The blue laccase from the white-rot basidiomycete fungus Panus tigrinus, an enzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, has been crystallized. P. tigrinus laccase crystals grew within one week at 296 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in 22%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.2 M CaCl2, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 7.5. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.2, b = 111.6, c = 97.1, β = 97.7°, and contain 46% solvent. A complete native data set was collected to 1.4 Å resolution at the copper edge. Molecular replacement using the Coprinus cinereus laccase structure (PDB code ) as a starting model was performed and initial electron-density maps revealed the presence of a full complement of copper ions. Model refinement is in progress. The P. tigrinus laccase structural model exhibits the highest resolution available to date and will assist in further elucidation of the catalytic mechanism and electron-transfer processes for this class of enzymes.
laccases; phenol oxidases; multicopper oxidases; lignin
Thioredoxin reductase 1 (Trr1) from S. cerevisiae is a component of the thioredoxin system, which is involved in several biological processes, including the reduction of disulfide bonds and response to oxidative stress. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of yeast Trr1 are reported.
Thioredoxin reductase 1 (Trr1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases capable of reducing the redox-active disulfide bond of the cytosolic thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and thioredoxin 2 (Trx2). NADPH, Trr1 and Trx1 (or Trx2) comprise the thioredoxin system, which is involved in several biological processes, including the reduction of disulfide bonds and response to oxidative stress. Recombinant Trr1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3000 as precipitant after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.4 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to the centred monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.97, b = 135.41, c = 75.81 Å, β = 89.95°. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods and structure refinement is in progress.
thioredoxin reductase I (TRR1); Saccharomyces cerevisiae