T cell suppression is a well established phenomenon, but the mechanisms involved are still a matter of debate. Mouse anergic T cells were shown to suppress responder T cell activation by inhibiting the antigen presenting function of DC. In the present work we studied the effects of co-culturing human anergic CD4+ T cells with autologous dendritic cells (DC) at different stages of maturation. Either DC maturation or survival, depending on whether immature or mature DC where used as APC, was impaired in the presence of anergic cells. Indeed, MHC and costimulatory molecule up-regulation was inhibited in immature DC, whereas apoptotic phenomena were favored in mature DC and consequently in responder T cells. Defective ligation of CD40 by CD40L (CD154) was responsible for CD95-mediated and spontaneous apoptosis of DC as well as for a failure of their maturation process. These findings indicate that lack of activation of CD40 on DC by CD40L-defective anergic cells might be the primary event involved in T cell suppression and support the role of CD40 signaling in regulating both activation and survival of DC.
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a physiologically important stress to which cells respond by the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Using a panel of immortalized and transformed breast epithelial cell lines, we demonstrate that IR regulation of protein synthesis occurs in nontransformed cells and is lost with transformation. In nontransformed cells, IR rapidly activates the MAP kinases ERK1/2, resulting in an early transient increase in cap-dependent mRNA translation that involves mTOR and is radioprotective, enhancing the translation of a subset of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in DNA repair and cell survival. Following a transient increase in translation, IR-sensitive (nontransformed) cells inhibit cap-dependent protein synthesis through a mechanism that involves activation of p53, induction of Sestrin 1 and 2 genes, and stimulation of AMP kinase, inhibiting mTOR and hypophosphorylating 4E-BP1. IR is shown to block proteasome-mediated decay of 4E-BP1, increasing its abundance and the sequestration of eIF4E. The IR signal that impairs mTOR-dependent protein synthesis at late times is assembly of the DNA damage response machinery, consisting of Mre11, Rad50, and NBS1 (MRN); activation of the MRN complex kinase ATM; and p53. These results link genotoxic signaling from the DNA damage response complex to the control of protein synthesis.
Activation of T lymphocytes by specific antigen triggers a 3- to 7-day maturation process. Terminal differentiation begins late after T cell activation and involves expression of effector genes, including the chemokine RANTES and its major transcriptional regulator, RANTES factor of late-activated T lymphocytes-1 (RFLAT-1). In this article we demonstrate that RFLAT-1 expression is translationally regulated through its 5′-UTR and in a cell type–specific manner. Overexpression of the translation initiation factor eIF4E increases RFLAT-1 protein, while inhibition of Mnk1, which phosphorylates eIF4E, reduces RFLAT-1 production, indicating cap-dependent translational regulation. These events are regulated by ERK-1/2 and p38 MAP kinases and allow T cells to rapidly adjust RANTES expression in response to changes in the cellular environment, such as stress and/or growth factors. These findings provide a molecular mechanism for a rheostat effect of increasing or decreasing RANTES expression at sites of inflammation. Memory T cells, already poised to make RANTES, are finely regulated by translational control of the major transcription factor regulating RANTES expression. This is the first example of such a mechanism regulating a chemokine, but it seems likely that this will prove to be a general way for cells to rapidly respond to stress, cytokines, and other proinflammatory factors in their local environment.
The effect of dendritic cell (DC) maturation on MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation is well studied, but less is known about the effects of DC maturation on MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation. We investigated the ability of mature DCs to present antigens from cells infected with Herpes simplex virus-1. Pre-treatment with pure LPS increased cross-presentation, in a manner dependent on both MyD88 and TRIF, while a similar dose of a less pure LPS preparation inhibited cross-presentation. The difference could not be attributed to differences in uptake or phenotypic maturation. The likely contaminant responsible for shutting down cross-presentation is peptidoglycan. Addition of peptidoglycan to pure LPS abrogated its ability to enhance cross-presentation. Direct activation of DCs with peptidoglycan inhibited cross-presentation through nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptor signaling. These results demonstrate that different maturation stimuli can have opposite impacts on the ability of DCs to cross-present viral antigens.
The maturation of dendritic cells is accompanied by the redistribution of
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules from the lysosomal
MHC class II compartment to the plasma membrane to mediate presentation of
peptide antigens. Besides MHC molecules, dendritic cells also express CD1
molecules that mediate presentation of lipid antigens. Herein, we show that in
human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, unlike MHC class II, the steady-state
distribution of lysosomal CD1b and CD1c isoforms was unperturbed in response
to lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation. However, the lysosomes in these
cells underwent a dramatic reorganization into electron dense tubules with
altered lysosomal protein composition. These structures matured into novel and
morphologically unique compartments, here termed mature dendritic cell
lysosomes (MDL). Furthermore, we show that upon activation mature dendritic
cells do not lose their ability of efficient clathrin-mediated endocytosis as
demonstrated for CD1b and transferrin receptor molecules. Thus, the
constitutive endocytosis of CD1b molecules and the differential sorting of MHC
class II from lysosomes separate peptide- and lipid antigen-presenting
molecules during dendritic cell maturation.
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a key component of the translational machinery and an important modulator of cell growth and proliferation. The activity of eIF4E is thought to be regulated by interaction with inhibitory binding proteins (4E-BPs) and phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-interacting kinase (MNK) on Ser209 in response to mitogens and cellular stress. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of eIF4E via MNK1 is mediated via the activation of either the Erk or p38 pathway. We further show that expression of active mutants of MNK1 and MNK2 in 293 cells diminishes cap-dependent translation relative to cap-independent translation in a transient reporter assay. The same effect on cap-dependent translation was observed when MNK1 was activated by the Erk or p38 pathway. In line with these findings, addition of recombinant active MNK1 to rabbit reticulocyte lysate resulted in a reduced protein synthesis in vitro, and overexpression of MNK2 caused a decreased rate of protein synthesis in 293 cells. By using CGP 57380, a novel low-molecular-weight kinase inhibitor of MNK1, we demonstrate that eIF4E phosphorylation is not crucial to the formation of the initiation complex, mitogen-stimulated increase in cap-dependent translation, and cell proliferation. Our results imply that activation of MNK by MAP kinase pathways does not constitute a positive regulatory mechanism to cap-dependent translation. Instead, we propose that the kinase activity of MNKs, eventually through phosphorylation of eIF4E, may serve to limit cap-dependent translation under physiological conditions.
p27 is a key regulator of cell proliferation through inhibition of G1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. Translation of the p27 mRNA is an important control mechanism for determining cellular levels of the inhibitor. Nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs are translated through a mechanism involving recognition of the 5′ cap by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). In quiescent cells eIF4E activity is repressed, leading to a global decline in translation rates. In contrast, p27 translation is highest during quiescence, suggesting that it escapes the general repression of translational initiation. We show that the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the p27 mRNA mediates cap-independent translation. This activity is unaffected by conditions in which eIF4E is inhibited. In D6P2T cells, elevated cyclic AMP levels cause a rapid withdrawal from the cell cycle that is correlated with a striking increase in p27. Under these same conditions, cap-independent translation from the p27 5′-UTR is enhanced. These results indicate that regulation of internal initiation of translation is an important determinant of p27 protein levels.
Microbial molecules or cytokines can stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which involves DC migration to lymph nodes and enhanced presentation of Ag to launch T cell responses. Microbial Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are the most studied inducers of DC maturation, but type I interferon (IFN-I) also promotes DC maturation. In response to TLR stimulation, DC maturation involves a burst of Ag processing with enhanced expression of peptide-MHC-II complexes and co-stimulator molecules. Subsequently, MHC-II synthesis and expression in intracellular vacuolar compartments is inhibited, decreasing Ag processing function. This limits presentation to a cohort of Ags kinetically associated with the maturation stimulus and excludes presentation of Ags subsequently experienced by the DC. In contrast, our studies show that IFN-I enhances DC expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules without a concomitant inhibition of subsequent MHC-II synthesis and Ag processing. Expression of mRNA for MHC-II and the transcription factor CIITA is inhibited in DCs treated with TLR agonists but maintained in cells treated with IFN-I. Following stimulation with IFN-I, MHC-II expression is increased on the plasma membrane but is also maintained in intracellular vacuolar compartments, consistent with sustained Ag processing function. These findings suggest that IFN-I drives a distinctive DC maturation program that enhances Ag presentation to T cells without a shutdown of Ag processing, allowing continued sampling of Ags for presentation.
Dendritic cell; type-I interferon; Toll-like receptor; antigen processing; antigen presentation; maturation
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity. Post-translational modifications of NMDARs, such as phosphorylation, alter both the activity and trafficking properties of NMDARs. Ubiquitination is increasingly being recognized as another post-translational modification that can alter synaptic protein composition and function. We identified Mind bomb-2 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with and ubiquitinates the NR2B subunit of the NMDAR in mammalian cells. The protein-protein interaction and the ubiquitination of the NR2B subunit were found to be enhanced in a Fyn phosphorylation-dependent manner. Immunocytochemical studies reveal that Mind bomb-2 is localized to postsynaptic sites and colocalizes with the NMDAR in apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we show that NMDAR activity is down-regulated by Mind bomb-2. These results identify a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase as a novel interactant with the NR2B subunit and suggest a possible mechanism for the regulation of NMDAR function involving both phosphorylation and ubiquitination.
Local translation of dendritic mRNAs plays an important role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Although several hundred putative dendritic transcripts have been identified in the hippocampus, relatively few have been verified by in situ hybridization and thus remain uncharacterized. One such transcript encodes the protein neuronatin. Neuronatin has been shown to regulate calcium levels in non-neuronal cells such as pancreatic or embryonic stem cells, but its function in mature neurons remains unclear. Here we report that neuronatin is translated in hippocampal dendrites in response to blockade of action potentials and NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic transmission by TTX and APV. Our study also reveals that neuronatin can adjust dendritic calcium levels by regulating intracellular calcium storage. We propose that neuronatin may impact synaptic plasticity by modulating dendritic calcium levels during homeostatic plasticity, thereby potentially regulating neuronal excitability, receptor trafficking, and calcium dependent signaling.
Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts and osteoblastic cells. PMT activates phospholipase C-β through Gqα, and the activation of this pathway is responsible for its mitogenic activity. Here, we investigated the effects of PMT on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in vitro and show a novel activity for PMT. In this regard, PMT activates MDDC to mature in a dose-dependent manner through the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent mobilization of calcium. This activation was accompanied by enhanced stimulation of naïve alloreactive T cells and dominant inhibition of interleukin-12 production in the presence of saturating concentrations of lipopolysaccharide. Surprisingly, although PMT mimics the activating effects of cholera toxin on human MDDC and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we found that PMT is not a mucosal adjuvant and that it suppresses the adjuvant effects of cholera toxin in mice. Together, these results indicate discordant effects for PMT in vitro compared to those in vivo.
Although dendritic cell (DC) activation is a critical event for the induction of immune responses, the signaling pathways involved in this process have not been characterized. In this report, we show that DC activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be separated into two distinct processes: first, maturation, leading to upregulation of MHC and costimulatory molecules, and second, rescue from immediate apoptosis after withdrawal of growth factors (survival). Using a DC culture system that allowed us to propagate immature growth factor–dependent DCs, we have investigated the signaling pathways activated by LPS. We found that LPS induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factor. Inhibition of NF-κB activation blocked maturation of DCs in terms of upregulation of major histocompatibility complex and costimulatory molecules. In addition, we found that LPS activated the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), and that specific inhibition of MEK1, the kinase which activates ERK, abrogated the ability of LPS to prevent apoptosis but did not inhibit DC maturation or NF-κB nuclear translocation. These results indicate that ERK and NF-κB regulate different aspects of LPS-induced DC activation: ERK regulates DC survival whereas NF-κB is responsible for DC maturation.
dendritic cells; maturation; survival; mitogen activated protein kinases; nuclear factor κB
Dendritic cells (DC) are “professional” bone marrow-derived antigen (Ag)-presenting cells of interest both as therapeutic targets and potential cellular vaccines due to their ability to regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Harnessing the inherent tolerogenicity of DC is a promising and incompletely explored approach to the prevention of allograft rejection. Previously, we and others have reported the ability of pharmacologically-modified DC that resist maturation to inhibit CD4+ T cell responses and prolong allograft survival. Here we evaluated the ability of murine myeloid DC conditioned with the immunosuppressive pro-drug rapamycin (RAPA) to acquire and directly present alloAg to syngeneic CD8+ T cells. RAPA-conditioned DC (RAPA-DC) pulsed with allogeneic splenocyte lysate acquired and expressed donor MHC class I and enhanced the apoptotic death of directly-reactive donor Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. Moreover, following their adoptive transfer, they reduced the survival of these T cells in vivo. The ability of RAPA-DC to inhibit the survival of alloAg-specific CD8+ T cells provides a potential mechanism by which host-derived DC may act as negative regulators of T cell alloreactivity and support donor-specific unresponsiveness. Adoptive cell therapy with alloAg-pulsed RAPA-DC may offer an effective approach to suppression of alloimmunity, with reduced dependence on systemic immunosuppression.
rapamycin; dendritic cells; alloantigen presentation; T cells; apoptosis
Transcriptional regulation of gene expression has been widely studied. More recently, there has been increasing appreciation of the role that translational regulation plays in gene expression, resulting in a number of new fields engaging in translational studies. Regulation of protein synthesis is critical for cell growth, development and survival, and is primarily controlled at the initiation step. Eukaryotic cells utilize multiple mechanisms to initiate translation, depending on cell stress, growth conditions, viral infection, or the sequences present in the mRNA. While the vast majority of mRNAs are translated in a cap-dependent manner, an important subset of mRNAs use an alternative mechanism, whereby ribosomes are recruited internally to the message to initiate cap-independent translation. Some of these mRNAs contain an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR). However, establishing that an RNA element is a functional IRES requires a number of carefully executed experiments with specific controls. This review will clearly explain the required experiments, and the pros and cons of various assays, used to determine whether (or not) an RNA element functions as an IRES to promote initiation of translation. We hope that demystifying the accepted methods for assaying IRES activity will open the study of this important mechanism to the broader community.
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are active participants during the immune response against infection, but whether they play a role in maintaining self-tolerance under steady-state conditions is not known. Here we investigated the differentiation of monocytes, their ability to ingest apoptotic cells, and their potential functionality in vivo. We observed that Ly6C (Gr-1)low mature monocytes up-regulate their MHC II level in the spleen, express high levels of PDL-1 (programmed death ligand 1), and are more efficient than Ly6Chigh immature monocytes in the ingestion of apoptotic cells in vivo. Sorted circulating Ly6Clow monocytes were able to cross-present both apoptotic cell-associated OVA and soluble OVA protein. Monocytes containing apoptotic cells can further differentiate into CD11c+CD8α− MHC II+ splenic dendritic cells that maintained high expression of PDL-1. Since wild-type but not PDL-1-deficient peripheral blood monocytes containing apoptotic cell-associated OVA suppressed the response to OVA immunization, PDL-1 expression was required for monocyte-mediated T cell tolerance. These observations demonstrate that Ly6Clow mature monocytes can promote tolerance to self Ag contained in apoptotic cells through a PDL-1-dependent mechanism.
Hypoxic stress results in a rapid and sustained inhibition of protein synthesis that is at least partially mediated by eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase PERK. Here we show through microarray analysis of polysome-bound RNA in aerobic and hypoxic HeLa cells that a subset of transcripts are preferentially translated during hypoxia, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an important mediator of the unfolded protein response. Changes in mRNA translation during the unfolded protein response are mediated by PERK phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α at Ser-51. Similarly, PERK is activated and is responsible for translational regulation under hypoxic conditions, while inducing the translation of ATF4. The overexpression of a C-terminal fragment of GADD34 that constitutively dephosphorylates eIF2α was able to attenuate the phosphorylation of eIF2α and severely inhibit the induction of ATF4 in response to hypoxic stress. These studies demonstrate the essential role of ATF4 in the response to hypoxic stress, define the pathway for its induction, and reveal that GADD34, a target of ATF4 activation, negatively regulates the eIF2α-mediated inhibition of translation. Taken with the concomitant induction of additional ER-resident proteins identified by our microarray analysis, this study suggests an important integrated response between ER signaling and the cellular adaptation to hypoxic stress.
Viruses have developed numerous mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation apparatus. Dengue virus (DEN) and other flaviviruses, such as West Nile and yellow fever viruses, contain a 5′ m7GpppN-capped positive-sense RNA genome with a nonpolyadenylated 3′ untranslated region (UTR) that has been presumed to undergo translation in a cap-dependent manner. However, the means by which the DEN genome is translated effectively in the presence of capped, polyadenylated cellular mRNAs is unknown. This report demonstrates that DEN replication and translation are not affected under conditions that inhibit cap-dependent translation by targeting the cap-binding protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, a key regulator of cellular translation. We further show that under cellular conditions in which translation factors are limiting, DEN can alternate between canonical cap-dependent translation initiation and a noncanonical mechanism that appears not to require a functional m7G cap. This DEN noncanonical translation is not mediated by an internal ribosome entry site but requires the interaction of the DEN 5′ and 3′ UTRs for activity, suggesting a novel strategy for translation of animal viruses.
In response to inflammatory stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable pattern of differentiation (maturation) that exhibits specific mechanisms to control antigen processing and presentation. One of these mechanisms is the sorting of polyubiquitinated proteins in large cytosolic aggregates called dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS). DALIS formation and maintenance are tightly linked to protein synthesis. Here, we took advantage of an antibody recognizing the antibiotic puromycin to follow the fate of improperly translated proteins, also called defective ribosomal products (DRiPs). We demonstrate that DRiPs are rapidly stored and protected from degradation in DALIS. In addition, we show that DALIS contain the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E225K, and the COOH terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein ubiquitin ligase. The accumulation of these enzymes in the central area of DALIS defines specific functional sites where initial DRiP incorporation and ubiquitination occur. Therefore, DCs are able to regulate DRiP degradation in response to pathogen-associated motifs, a capacity likely to be important for their immune functions.
DRiPs; DALIS; puromycin; dendritic cells; antigen processing
Rapamycin inhibits the activity of the target of rapamycin (TOR)-dependent signaling pathway, which has been characterized as one dedicated to translational regulation through modulating cap-dependent translation, involving eIF4E binding protein (eIF4E-BP) or 4E-BP. Results show that rapamycin strongly inhibits global translation in Drosophila cells. However, Hsp70 mRNA translation is virtually unaffected by rapamycin treatment, whereas Hsp90 mRNA translation is strongly inhibited, at normal growth temperature. Intriguingly, during heat shock Hsp90 mRNA becomes significantly less sensitive to rapamycin-mediated inhibition, suggesting the pathway for Hsp90 mRNA translation is altered during heat shock. Reporter mRNAs containing the Hsp90 or Hsp70 mRNAs’ 5′ untranslated region recapitulate these rapamycin-dependent translational characteristics, indicating this region regulates rapamycin-dependent translational sensitivity as well as heat shock preferential translation. Surprisingly, rapamycin-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 mRNA translation at normal growth temperature is not caused by 4E-BP-mediated inhibition of cap-dependent translation. Indeed, no evidence for rapamycin-mediated impaired eIF4E function is observed. These results support the proposal that preferential translation of different Hsp mRNA utilizes distinct translation mechanisms, even within a single species.
Translation; Heat shock; Rapamycin; Hsp90; Hsp70
Infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium is the cause of malaria. Plasmodium infects host erythrocytes causing the pathology of the disease. Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can modulate the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and alter their capacity to activate T cells.
Mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii and isolated P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes were used to study their effect on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells.
DCs are not able to mature in response to LPS injection during the late stage of P. yoelii infection in mice, indicating impaired functionality of these cells in vivo. P. yoelii- infected erythrocytes inhibit the maturation of DCs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with the inhibition found during late infection when parasite burden is highest. The inhibition of DC maturation and the cytokine secretion profile of DCs are modulated by soluble factors released by P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes. A small, heat-stable, non-hydrophobic molecule of P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes rapidly inhibits the LPS induced phenotypic maturation of DCs in a reversible manner.
These findings add evidence to the malaria associated immune suppression in vivo and in vitro and provide insight into the nature and mechanism of the Plasmodium factor(s) responsible for altering DC functions.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E), which possesses cap-binding activity, functions in the recruitment of mRNA to polysomes as part of a three-subunit complex, eIF-4F (cap-binding complex). eIF-4E is the least abundant of all translation initiation factors and a target of growth regulatory pathways. Recently, two human cDNAs encoding novel eIF-4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) which function as repressors of cap-dependent translation have been cloned. Their interaction with eIF-4E is negatively regulated by phosphorylation in response to cell treatment with insulin or growth factors. The present study aimed to characterize the molecular interactions between eIF-4E and the other subunits of eIF-4F and to similarly characterize the molecular interactions between eIF-4E and the 4E-BPs. A 49-amino-acid region of eIF-4 gamma, located in the N-terminal side of the site of cleavage by Picornaviridae protease 2A, was found to be sufficient for interacting with eIF-4E. Analysis of deletion mutants in this region led to the identification of a 12-amino-acid sequence conserved between mammals and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is critical for the interaction with eIF-4E. A similar motif is found in the amino acid sequence of the 4E-BPs, and point mutations in this motif abolish the interaction with eIF-4E. These results shed light on the mechanisms of eIF-4F assembly and on the translational regulation by insulin and growth factors.
The human telomeric protein TRF2 is required to protect chromosome ends by facilitating their organization into the protective capping structure. Post-translational modifications of TRF2 such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, methylation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation have been shown to play important roles in telomere function. Here we show that TRF2 specifically interacts with the histone acetyltransferase p300, and that p300 acetylates the lysine residue at position 293 of TRF2. We also report that p300-mediated acetylation stabilizes the TRF2 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and is required for efficient telomere binding of TRF2. Furthermore, overexpression of the acetylation-deficient mutant, K293R, induces DNA-damage response foci at telomeres, thereby leading to induction of impaired cell growth, cellular senescence and altered cell cycle distribution. A small but significant number of metaphase chromosomes show no telomeric signals at chromatid ends, suggesting an aberrant telomere structure. These findings demonstrate that acetylation of TRF2 by p300 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of functional telomeres as well as in the regulation of the telomere-associated DNA-damage response, thus providing a new route for modulating telomere protection function.
Translational regulation of the dendritically localized mRNA encoding for the neurotrophin receptor TrkB has important ramifications for synaptic function. We examined whether the TrkB mRNA is translated through an internal initiation entry site (IRES). The human TrkB 5′ leaders are derived from the use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing, but all 5′ leaders share a common exon. Insertion of a full-length 5′ leader, as well as the common exon into the intercistronic region of a dicistronic luciferase construct, yielded luciferase activity generated from the second cistron that was either equivalent or higher than that observed from the encephalomyocarditis virus IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo and in in vitro lysates had only a minimal effect on the translation of mRNA containing the TrkB 5′ leader. Dissecting the 5′ leader showed that the IRES is located in the exon common to all TrkB 5′ leaders. Moreover, six regions ranging from 2 to 25 nt were identified that either promoted or inhibited IRES activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the 5′ leader of the human TrkB mRNA contains multiple cis-elements that regulate internal initiation of translation and that this mechanism may contribute significantly to the translation of the TrkB mRNA in neuronal dendrites.
The γ134.5 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 is an essential factor for viral virulence. In infected cells, this viral protein prevents the translation arrest mediated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R. Additionally, it associates with and inhibits TANK-binding kinase 1, an essential component of Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent pathways that activate interferon regulatory factor 3 and cytokine expression. Here, we show that γ134.5 is required to block the maturation of conventional dendritic cells (DCs) that initiate adaptive immune responses. Unlike wild-type virus, the γ134.5 null mutant stimulates the expression of CD86, major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), and cytokines such as alpha/beta interferon in immature DCs. Viral replication in DCs inversely correlates with interferon production. These phenotypes are also mirrored in a mouse ocular infection model. Further, DCs infected with the γ134.5 null mutant effectively activate naïve T cells whereas DCs infected with wild-type virus fail to do so. Type I interferon-neutralizing antibodies partially reverse virus-induced upregulation of CD86 and MHC-II, suggesting that γ134.5 acts through interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms. These data indicate that γ134.5 is involved in the impairment of innate immunity by inhibiting both type I interferon production and DC maturation, leading to defective T-cell activation.
The lung environment actively inhibits apoptotic cell (AC) uptake by alveolar macrophages (AMø) via lung collectin signaling through signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Even brief glucocorticoid treatment during maturation of human blood monocyte-derived or murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (Mø) increases their AC uptake. Whether glucocorticoids similarly impact differentiated tissue Mø and the mechanisms for this rapid response are unknown and important to define, given the widespread therapeutic use of inhaled glucocorticoids. We found that the glucocorticoid fluticasone rapidly and dose-dependently increased AC uptake by murine AMø without a requirement for protein synthesis. Fluticasone rapidly suppressed AMø expression of SIRPα mRNA and surface protein, and also activated a more delayed, translation-dependent upregulation of AC recognition receptors that was not required for the early increase in AC uptake. Consistent with a role for SIRPα suppression in rapid glucocorticoid action, murine peritoneal macrophages (PMø) that had not been exposed to lung collectins showed delayed but not rapid increase in AC uptake. However, pretreatment of PMø with the lung collectin surfactant protein D inhibited AC uptake and fluticasone treatment rapidly reversed this inhibition. Thus, glucocorticoids act not only by upregulating AC recognition receptors during Mø maturation but also via a novel rapid down-regulation of SIRPα expression by differentiated tissue Mø. Release of AMø from inhibition of AC uptake by lung collectins may in part explain the beneficial role of inhaled glucocorticoids in inflammatory lung diseases, especially emphysema, in which there is both increased lung parenchymal cell apoptosis and defective AC uptake by AMø.