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1.  Exploring the Developmental Overnutrition Hypothesis Using Parental–Offspring Associations and FTO as an Instrumental Variable 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(3):e33.
The developmental overnutrition hypothesis suggests that greater maternal obesity during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity in later life. If true, this would result in the obesity epidemic progressing across generations irrespective of environmental or genetic changes. It is therefore important to robustly test this hypothesis.
Methods and Findings
We explored this hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with offspring dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)–determined fat mass measured at 9 to 11 y (4,091 parent–offspring trios) and by using maternal FTO genotype, controlling for offspring FTO genotype, as an instrument for maternal adiposity. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass, but the maternal association effect size was larger than that in the paternal association in all models: mean difference in offspring sex- and age-standardised fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation BMI 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.26) for maternal BMI versus 0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.15) for paternal BMI; p-value for difference in effect < 0.001. The stronger maternal association was robust to sensitivity analyses assuming levels of non-paternity up to 20%. When maternal FTO, controlling for offspring FTO, was used as an instrument for the effect of maternal adiposity, the mean difference in offspring fat mass z-score per 1 standard deviation maternal BMI was −0.08 (95% CI: −0.56 to 0.41), with no strong statistical evidence that this differed from the observational ordinary least squares analyses (p = 0.17).
Neither our parental comparisons nor the use of FTO genotype as an instrumental variable, suggest that greater maternal BMI during offspring development has a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9–11 y. Developmental overnutrition related to greater maternal BMI is unlikely to have driven the recent obesity epidemic.
Using parental-offspring associations and theFTO gene as an instrumental variable for maternal adiposity, Debbie Lawlor and colleagues found that greater maternal BMI during offspring development does not appear to have a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9-11.
Editors' Summary
Since the 1970s, the proportion of children and adults who are overweight or obese (people who have an unhealthy amount of body fat) has increased sharply in many countries. In the US, 1 in 3 adults is now obese; in the mid-1970s it was only 1 in 7. Similarly, the proportion of overweight children has risen from 1 in 20 to 1 in 5. An adult is considered to be overweight if their body mass index (BMI)—their weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared—is between 25 and 30, and obese if it is more than 30. For children, the healthy BMI depends on their age and gender. Compared to people with a healthy weight (a BMI between 18.5 and 25), overweight or obese individuals have an increased lifetime risk of developing diabetes and other adverse health conditions, sometimes becoming ill while they are still young. People become unhealthily fat when they consume food and drink that contains more energy than they need for their daily activities. It should, therefore, be possible to avoid becoming obese by having a healthy diet and exercising regularly.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some researchers think that “developmental overnutrition” may have caused the recent increase in waistline measurements. In other words, if a mother is overweight during pregnancy, high sugar and fat levels in her body might permanently affect her growing baby's appetite control and metabolism, and so her offspring might be at risk of becoming obese in later life. If this hypothesis is true, each generation will tend to be fatter than the previous one and it will be very hard to halt the obesity epidemic simply by encouraging people to eat less and exercise more. In this study, the researchers have used two approaches to test the developmental overnutrition hypothesis. First, they have asked whether offspring fat mass is more strongly related to maternal BMI than to paternal BMI; it should be if the hypothesis is true. Second, they have asked whether a genetic indicator of maternal fatness—the “A” variant of the FTO gene—is related to offspring fat mass. A statistical association between maternal FTO genotype (genetic make-up) and offspring fat mass would support the developmental nutrition hypothesis.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In 1991–1992, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) enrolled about 14,000 pregnant women and now examines their offspring at regular intervals. The researchers first used statistical methods to look for associations between the self-reported prepregnancy BMI of the parents of about 4,000 children and the children's fat mass at ages 9–11 years measured using a technique called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring fat mass (that is, fatter parents had fatter children) but the effect of maternal BMI was greater than the effect of paternal BMI. When the researchers examined maternal FTO genotypes and offspring fat mass (after allowing for the offspring's FTO genotype, which would directly affect their fat mass), there was no statistical evidence to suggest that differences in offspring fat mass were related to the maternal FTO genotype.
What Do These Findings Mean?
Although the findings from first approach provide some support for the development overnutrition hypothesis, the effect of maternal BMI on offspring fat mass is too weak to explain the recent obesity epidemic. Developmental overnutrition could, however, be responsible for the much slower increase in obesity that began a century ago. The findings from the second approach provide no support for the developmental overnutrition hypothesis, although these results have wide error margins and need confirming in a larger study. The researchers also note that the effects of developmental overnutrition on offspring fat mass, although weak at age 9–11, might become more important at later ages. Nevertheless, for now, it seems unlikely that developmental overnutrition has been a major driver of the recent obesity epidemic. Interventions that aim to improve people's diet and to increase their physical activity levels could therefore slow or even halt the epidemic.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
See a related PLoS Medicine Perspective article
The MedlinePlus encyclopedia has a page on obesity (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of obesity (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service's health Web site (NHS Direct) provides information about obesity
The International Obesity Taskforce provides information about preventing obesity and on childhood obesity
The UK Foods Standards Agency, the United States Department of Agriculture, and Shaping America's Health all provide useful advice about healthy eating for adults and children
The ALSPAC Web site provides information about the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and its results so far
PMCID: PMC2265763  PMID: 18336062
2.  Adipokines and Body Fat Composition in South Asians: Results of the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study 
To investigate whether leptin and adiponectin are associated with body fat composition in a South Asian population independent of metabolic variables.
Cross-sectional study
150 South Asian men and women, between the ages of 45–79 years, in the San Francisco Bay Area without pre-existing clinical cardiovascular disease.
Blood samples were obtained to measure glucose metabolism variables, lipid profiles and adipokines. Total body fat was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Abdominal computed tomography was used to measure subcutaneous, visceral, and hepatic fat.
Average body mass index (BMI) was overweight at 26.1±4.6 kg/m2 and did not differ by sex. However, women had significantly more total body fat (p<0.001) and subcutaneous fat (p<0.001) than men, while men had significantly more visceral fat (p<0.001) and hepatic fat (p=0.04) than women. Women had significantly higher levels of adiponectin (p<0.01) and leptin (p<0.01). In sex-stratified analyses, leptin was strongly associated with all body composition measures in women (p<0.05) as well as in men (p<0.05 except for hepatic fat) while there was an insignificant trend towards an inverse association between adiponectin and body composition in both women and men which was significant in combined bivariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, leptin was strongly associated with all measures of adiposity, including BMI (p<0.001), total body fat (p<0.001), visceral fat (p<0.001), and hepatic fat (p=0.01). However, adiponectin’s inverse association with adiposity was significantly attenuated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and insulin resistance. The association between adipokines and diabetes was markedly attenuated after adjusting for body composition.
Despite only modestly elevated BMI, South Asians have elevated levels of total and regional adiposity. Leptin is strongly associated with adiposity while adiponectin’s association with adiposity is attenuated by metabolic variables in South Asians. Adipokines in association with adiposity play an important role in the development of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3224670  PMID: 21863003
South Asians; body composition; sex differences in adiposity; adiponectin and leptin; hepatic fat
3.  The impact of gestational diabetes mellitus on pubertal changes in adiposity and metabolic profiles in Latino offspring 
The Journal of pediatrics  2012;162(4):741-745.
To examine the impact of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) status on longitudinal changes in adiposity and metabolic variables in overweight Latino offspring (from age 8– 20 years) across puberty.
Study design
This is a longitudinal cohort of 210 overweight Latino children who were measured annually for 3 ± 1 years for: Tanner stage via physical examination, adiposity via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, lipids, glucose and insulin action via oral glucose tolerance test and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Linear mixed-effects modeling estimated the impact of maternal GDM status on baseline and changes in adiposity and metabolic variables across puberty.
Twenty-two percent of offspring were from GDM pregnancies. At baseline, GDM offspring were heavier at birth, had more family history of type 2 diabetes, and were less likely to have been breastfeed (any duration). GDM offspring compared with non-GDM offspring had greater increases in total body fat (+6.5% vs +4.5%; p=0.03) and steeper declines in acute insulin response (−39% vs. −17%; p<0.001) and disposition index (−57% vs. −35%; p<0.001) across Tanner stages, independent of ethnicity, sex, breastfeeding status, family history of diabetes, and baseline and changes in body composition.
These findings confirm the elevated risk for excess adiposity and type 2 diabetes in GDM offspring, and further highlight the need for interventions targeting Latino GDM and their offspring.
PMCID: PMC3578029  PMID: 23149173
Longitudinal study; Hispanics; overweight and obesity; Gestional diabetes; type 2 diabetes risk; puberty
4.  Correlation of Adiponectin and Leptin with Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study in Healthy North Indian Population 
The increasing incidence of obesity, leading to metabolic complications is now recognized as a major public-health problem. Insulin resistance is a central abnormality of the metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X, originally hypothesized by Reaven Insulin resistance is more strongly linked to intra abdominal fat than to fat in other depots. Adipose tissue secretes numerous factors (adipokines) known to markedly influence lipid and glucose/insulin metabolism, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular integrity. Some of these adipokines have been shown to directly or indirectly affect insulin sensitivity through modulation of insulin signaling and the molecules involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. A pilot study was conducted with 80 healthy subjects who were non diabetic, non hypertensive and having no family history of hypertension, the aim was to evaluate the correlation of adiponectin and leptin levels with obesity and insulin resistance markers in healthy north Indian adult population. Serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin was estimated by sandwich ELISA method. In our study, Leptin correlated significantly with BMI (P value of 0.0000), WC (P value = 0.007), and HC (P value = 0.000). leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (P value 0.002), post prandial insulin (P value = 0.000) and HOMA-IR (P value = 0.002). Adiponectin showed significant positive correlation with triglycerides (P value = 0.038), strong negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol (P value = 0.017). Serum concentrations of leptin are associated with central body fat distribution. Insulin resistance and adiponectin is associated with dyslipidemia and these all disorders may ultimately lead to metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3107404  PMID: 22468049
Adiponectin; Leptin; Insulin resistance; Cytokines
5.  CRP Is Related to Higher Leptin Levels in Minority Peripubertal Females Regardless of Adiposity Levels 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;20(3):512-516.
Overweight is related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin, which have been independently associated with increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. Elevated CRP may trigger leptin resistance by inhibiting the binding of leptin to its receptors. We cross-sectionally examined the relationship between CRP, leptin, BMI z-score, percent body fat (%BF) assessed by air plethysmography (BodPod), and insulin sensitivity (SI) and acute insulin response (AIRg) measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test in 51 Latina and African-American females (77% Latina), mean age 9.2 (±0.9) years, at either Tanner Pubertal Stage (TPS) 1 (n = 25) or TPS 2 (n = 26). Females at TPS 2 had higher BMI z-scores, %BF (23% ± 10.1 vs. 30% ± 10.0, P = 0.02), AIRg (976.7 ± 735.2 vs. 1555.3 ± 1,223 µIU/ml, P = 0.05), fasting insulin (11.0 ± 10.8 vs. 17.2 ± 13.6 µlU/ml, P = 0.00) and leptin levels (11.0 ± 7.1 vs. 19.6 ± 10.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001) than those at TPS 1. There were no ethnic differences in any of the measured variables. CRP was positively correlated with BMI z-score (P = 0.001), %BF (P = 0.006), fasting insulin and AIRg (P = 0.02), and fasting leptin (P = 0.00), and negatively correlated with SI (P = 0.05). A linear regression model showed that CRP independently explained 10% (P = 0.00) of the variance in leptin after adjusting %BF, TPS, ethnicity, habitual physical activity and SI. Hence, low-grade inflammation may contribute to prolonged leptin exposure and leptin resistance, even in healthy children.
PMCID: PMC3200494  PMID: 21436796
6.  Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(6):415-421.
Central fat mass (CFM) correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM) is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.
Total of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT) and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4), leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms) was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms) as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM). PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.
Median age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.
These results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3530712  PMID: 23275935
Adiponectin; Adiposity; Insulin resistance; Leptin; Retinol binding protein-4
7.  Serum adiponectin and leptin in relation to risk for preeclampsia: results from a large case-control study 
Metabolism: clinical and experimental  2011;60(11):1539-1544.
Conditions resulting in insulin resistance, as well as metabolic, immune and angiogenic perturbations, have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Our purpose was to assess whether the adipose tissue secreted hormones: adiponectin, which has immune modulating, metabolic and angiogenic properties, and leptin, which reflects overall fat mass, are associated with PE risk.
We performed a case-control design study within a hospital-based cohort of 368 pregnant women (106 with PE and 262 controls; mean age: 26.6 ± 6.8 years; mean gestational age at admission: 38.2 ± 2.8 weeks) between March 2005 and August 2007 at the Hospital of Pennsylvania University. Serum adiponectin and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of data was performed using simple and multiple regression analyses.
No significant differences in adiponectin or leptin levels between pre-eclamptic and control pregnant women emerged in univariate analyses (p=0.57 and p=0.15 respectively). Among pre-eclamptic women, there were also no differences in adipokines between those with mild and severe disease. Serum adiponectin and leptin were not associated with higher risk of PE before and after adjustment for maternal age, race, primigravida, smoking status, body mass index at screening, gestational age at admission, history of preeclampsia, chronic hypertension and gestational diabetes (OR: 0.93, 95% C.I.: 0.83–1.04 and OR: 1, 95% C.I.0.97–1.03, respectively).
Maternal serum adiponectin and leptin levels, drawn at the time of PE diagnosis, were not associated with PE.
PMCID: PMC3178730  PMID: 21632080
Adiponectin; Adipokine; Hypertension; Leptin; Preeclampsia
8.  Association of serum adipocytokine levels with cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients 
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of diabetes associated with poor prognosis. In addition, the autonomic imbalance is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes. It is thought that adipocytokines contribute to the increased risk of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, literature data on the association between CAN with adipocytokines such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin in subjects with T2DM is limited.
Therefore, in the present study, we examined the relationship between fasting serum leptin, TNF- alpha and adiponectin and CAN in Korean T2DM patients.
A total of 142 T2DM patients (94 males, 48 females) were recruited. CAN was assessed by the five tests according to the Ewing's protocol and the time and frequency domain of the heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated. Serum TNF-alpha and adiponectin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum leptin levels were measured using radioimmunoassay.
Although, the mean levels of leptin, TNF-alpha and adiponectin were not significantly different between the groups with and without CAN, the levels of leptin and adiponectin had a tendency to increase as the score of CAN increased (p = 0.05, p = 0.036). Serum leptin levels demonstrated a negative correlation with low frequency (LF) in the upright position (p = 0.037). Regarding TNF-alpha, a significant negative correlation was observed with SDNN and RMSSD in the upright position (p = 0.023, p = 0.019). Adiponectin levels were not related to any HRV parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of CAN increased with a longer duration of diabetes (1.25, [1.07-1.47]) and higher homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (5.47, [1.8-16.5]). The relative risks for the presence of CAN were 14.1 and 51.6 for the adiponectin 2nd, 3rd tertiles when compared with first tertile (p-value for trend = 0.022).
In the present study, the higher serum adiponectin levels and HOMA-IR were associated with an increased risk for the presence of CAN. Also, the CAN score correlated with the serum adiponectin. Serum adipocytokines such as leptin and TNF-alpha were significantly correlated with parameters of HRV, representative markers of CAN. Future prospective studies with larger number of patients are required to establish a direct relationship between plasma adipocytokine concentrations and the development or severity of CAN.
PMCID: PMC3353195  PMID: 22413919
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy; heart rate variability; leptin; TNF- alpha; adiponectin; type 2 diabetes mellitus
9.  Plasma Adiponectin Does Not Correlate With Insulin Resistance and Cardiometabolic Variables in Nondiabetic Asian Indian Teenagers  
Diabetes Care  2008;31(12):2374-2379.
OBJECTIVE—The objectives of this study were to determine age- and sex-specific concentrations of adiponectin in Asian Indian teenagers and adults and to assess whether its blood levels correlated with insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic parameters.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied 196 teenagers (94 boys, 102 girls) 12–18 years of age, selected from a cohort of 2,640 individuals from a cross-sectional school-based survey in Chennai, India. For comparison, adiponectin and plasma insulin were measured in 84 healthy adults. Correlation of adiponectin with plasma levels of insulin, proinsulin, insulin resistance, anthropometry, and family history of diabetes were studied.
RESULTS—Adiponectin showed a sex dimorphism, with girls having higher values (in μg/ml) (10.3 ± 5.0) than boys (8.4 ± 3.5) (P < 0.0001), and it showed a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol in boys only and not with other lipid parameters, insulin resistance, proinsulin, anthropometry, and family history of diabetes. In the adults, adiponectin correlated with fasting glucose and inversely with triglycerides.
CONCLUSIONS—In Asian Indian adults and teenagers, adiponectin did not correlate directly with measures of insulin sensitivity, overweight, and other cardiometabolic variables. This was at variance with several reports in other populations showing an inverse association of adiponectin with insulin resistance, proinsulin, and BMI, suggesting ethnic differences in the relationship of adiponectin with insulin sensitivity. The role of adiponectin in relation to action of insulin needs more detailed studies in Asian Indians.
PMCID: PMC2584198  PMID: 18809626
10.  Prognostic Effect of Circulating Adiponectin in a Randomized 2 × 2 Trial of Low-Dose Tamoxifen and Fenretinide in Premenopausal Women at Risk for Breast Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;30(2):151-157.
Adipokines are linked to obesity and insulin sensitivity and have recently been related to breast cancer risk and prognosis. We investigated the associations of plasma leptin and adiponectin with mammographic density and disease status and assessed their prognostic effect on recurrence-free survival in premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
We measured circulating lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity (calculated by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] index), leptin, adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 160), or 5-year Gail risk of 1.3% or greater (n = 54) who participated in a 2 × 2 trial of low-dose tamoxifen, fenretinide, both agents, or placebo over a 2-year period.
At baseline, adiponectin levels were directly associated with mammographic density and HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA index. Median adiponectin levels were lower in affected than in unaffected women (P = .006). After a median of 7.2 years and total of 57 breast neoplastic events, there was a 12% reduction in the risk of breast neoplastic events per unit increase of adiponectin (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.96; P = .03). There was no interaction between treatment and adiponectin levels.
Low adiponectin levels are associated with a history of prior intraepithelial neoplasia or pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer and higher risk of second breast neoplastic events in premenopausal women. The associations are independent of BMI, mammographic density, and treatment. Our findings support the role of adiponectin as a potential target for premenopausal breast cancer prevention and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3255561  PMID: 22162577
11.  Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children 
Public health nutrition  2012;16(9):1656-1666.
We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children.
Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy).
Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India.
Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38 % of fathers were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2), but only 4 % of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI ≥ 18·2 kg/m2). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity.
In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population.
PMCID: PMC3622715  PMID: 22895107
Adiposity; Cardiovascular risk factors; Children; India; Insulin resistance; Intergeneration; Maternal and paternal effects
12.  Altered distribution of adiponectin isoforms in children with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS): association with insulin sensitivity and circulating satiety peptide hormones 
Clinical endocrinology  2007;67(6):944-951.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by relative hypoinsulinaemia and normal or increased insulin sensitivity despite profound obesity. We hypothesized that this increased insulin sensitivity is mediated by increased levels of total and high molecular weight adiponectin and associated with changes in levels of satiety hormones.
Design, patients and measurements
We measured total adiponectin and its isoforms [high molecular weight (HMW), middle molecular weight (MMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin] and satiety hormones in 14 children with PWS [median age 11.35 years, body mass index (BMI) Z-score 2.15] and 14 BMI-matched controls (median age 11.97 years, BMI Z-score 2.34).
Despite comparable BMI Z-scores and leptin levels, the PWS children exhibited lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) scores compared to obese controls. For any given BMI Z-score, the PWS children showed higher concentrations of fasting total and HMW adiponectin and higher HMW/total adiponectin ratios. The HMW/total adioponectin ratio was preserved in children with PWS at high degrees of obesity. In PWS children, fasting plasma total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin and HMW/total adiponectin ratio correlated negatively with age (P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), BMI Z-score (P < 0.05), insulin (P < 0.01) and leptin (P < 0.05). In addition to higher fasting ghrelin concentrations, the PWS children showed significantly higher fasting levels of total peptide YY (PYY) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) compared to obese controls.
Relative to controls of similar age and BMI Z-score, the PWS children had significantly higher levels of total and HMW adiponectin, and increased ratios of HMW/total adiponectin. These findings may explain in part the heightened insulin sensitivity of PWS children relative to BMI-matched controls.
PMCID: PMC2605973  PMID: 17666087
13.  Change of Body Composition and Adipokines and Their Relationship with Insulin Resistance across Pubertal Development in Obese and Nonobese Chinese Children: The BCAMS Study 
A transient increase in insulin resistance (IR) is a component of puberty. We investigated the impact of body composition and adipokines on IR during puberty in Chinese children. This study included 3223 schoolchildren aged 6–18 years. IR was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). We revealed that body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increased gradually during puberty in both genders, while fat-mass percentage (FAT%) increased steadily only in girls. Change of leptin showed striking sexual dimorphisms: in girls leptin increased steadily during puberty, whereas in boys, after a transient rise at the beginning of puberty, leptin declined by Tanner staging even in those overweight or obese. Inversely, adiponectin level decreased significantly during puberty. In both genders, HOMA-IR started to increase at the beginning of puberty, peaked in the middle, and revised at late puberty in overweight/obesity boys while it stayed high till the end of puberty in girls and normal weight boys. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that leptin presented a stronger indicator of HOMA-IR than anthropometric measures during puberty. Our results demonstrated that gender-specific FAT% and leptin changed with pubertal development. Leptin emerged as a stronger predictor of IR than traditional anthropometric indices, suggesting a prominent role in the development of pubertal IR.
PMCID: PMC3534211  PMID: 23316228
14.  Effects of Sugar-sweetened Beverages on plasma Acylation Stimulating Protein, Leptin & Adiponectin and Metabolic Parameters 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;21(12):10.1002/oby.20437.
We determined the effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity.
Design and Methods
32 overweight/obese adults consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages (25% energy requirement) with their ad libitum diets for 8 weeks, followed by sweetened beverage consumption for 2 weeks with a standardized, energy-balanced diet. Plasma variables were measured at baseline, 2, 8 and 10 weeks, and body adiposity and insulin sensitivity at baseline and 10 weeks.
Fasting and postprandial ASP concentrations increased at 2 and/or 8 weeks. ASP increases correlated with changes in late-evening triglyceride concentrations. At 10 weeks, fasting adiponectin levels decreased in both groups, and decreases were inversely associated with baseline intra-abdominal fat volume. Sugar consumption increased fasting leptin concentrations; increases were associated with body weight changes. 24-h leptin profiles increased during glucose consumption and decreased during fructose consumption. These changes correlated with changes of 24-h insulin levels.
The consumption of fructose and glucose beverages induced changes in plasma concentrations of ASP, adiponectin and leptin. Further study is required to determine if these changes contribute to the metabolic dysfunction observed during fructose consumption.
PMCID: PMC3732502  PMID: 23512943
fructose; glucose; obesity; acylation stimulating protein; leptin; adiponectin
15.  Waist circumference, ghrelin and selected adipose tissue-derived adipokines as predictors of insulin resistance in obese patients: Preliminary results 
The aim of the study was to estimate the association between anthropometric obesity parameters, serum concentrations of ghrelin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) in obese non-diabetic insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients.
Study subjects included 37 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) out-clinic patients aged 25 to 66 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR. Serum fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and leptin were measured by using the ELISA method. Body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured to calculate BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values for all the patients. According to HOMA-IR, patients were divided into two groups: A, insulin sensitive (n=19); and B, insulin resistant (n=18).
Patients with insulin resistance have greater mean waist circumference (WC) higher mean serum insulin level and leptin concentration, but lower concentrations of adiponectin and ghrelin. In the insulin-sensitive patient group we observed positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR, WC and HOMA-IR, and adiponectin and leptin, and negative correlations between ghrelin and HOMA-IR, WC and adiponectin, and WHR and adiponectin. In the insulin-resistant group, there was a positive correlation between resistin and ghrelin and a negative correlation between WHR and leptin.
Waist circumference, adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin are associated with insulin resistance and may be predictors of this pathology.
PMCID: PMC3539504  PMID: 22037753
adipokines; ghrelin; insulin resistance; obese patients; waist circumference
16.  Comparison of salivary and plasma adiponectin and leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome 
The relationship of saliva with plasma protein levels makes saliva an attractive diagnostic tool. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy individuals or diabetes mellitus patients have been previously reported. Nevertheless, salivary levels of these adipocytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have never been investigated. This study was aimed to determine adiponectin and leptin levels in saliva and plasma from patients with metabolic syndrome, and evaluate any correlation of these levels with MS.
Forty-six healthy and 82 MS patients were enrolled. Demographic data and blood biochemistries were recorded. Saliva and plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Adiponectin and leptin were higher in plasma than in saliva (p < .001). Plasma adiponectin was decreased and plasma leptin increased in patients with MS (p < .001). Salivary adiponectin and salivary leptin were not different between healthy subjects and MS patients (p = .619 and p = .523). Correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin showed significant association (r = .211, p = .018) while salivary and plasma leptin had no correlation (r = -.161, p = .069). Significant correlation was observed between the salivary adiponectin/salivary leptin ratio and plasma adiponectin (r = .371, p < .001), but not with any component of MS. Increased triglyceride and waist circumference were associated with risk of having a low level of plasma adiponectin (OR = 1.009; 95% CI 1.002–1.015 and OR = 1.125; 95% CI 1.029–1.230). For leptin, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with a high level of plasma leptin (OR = 1.621; 95% CI 1.212–2.168 and OR = .966; 95% CI .938–.996). The OR for MS as predicted by plasma adiponectin was .928 (95% CI .881-.977).
This study showed that salivary adiponectin and leptin do not correlate with MS. Although correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin was observed, no association with MS was observed. Only plasma adiponectin may be useful for the prediction of MS.
PMCID: PMC3926677  PMID: 24528653
Saliva; Plasma; Adiponectin; Leptin; Metabolic syndrome
17.  The relationship between regional abdominal fat distribution and both insulin resistance and subclinical chronic inflammation in non-diabetic adults 
Obesity is associated with a high risk of insulin resistance (IR) and its metabolic complications. It is still debated that distributions of adipose tissue relate to an excess risk of IR and chronic inflammation in different race. This study was designed to examine the relation between insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and central fat distribution in non-diabetic volunteers in Taiwanese.
There were 328 volunteers without family history of diabetes mellitus and with normal oral glucose tolerance test enrolled. Total body fat and abdominal fat were measured. Abdominal fat was categorized into intraperitoneal (IP), retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) fat. The IR index was estimated by homeostatic model assessment. Five inflammatory markers: adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosing factor-α (TNF-α), resistin and high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) were measured.
IR was related to IP fat (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), but not RP fat, SC fat or total body fat. After correcting for age and sex, IP fat was the only significant predictor of IR (r2 = 58%, p = 0.001). Leptin showed the strongest relationship with all fat compartments (IP fat: r = 0.44, p = 0.001; RP fat: r = 0.36, p = 0.005, SC fat: r = 0.54, p < 0.001; total body fat: r = 0.61, p < 0.001). The hs-CRP and adiponectin were closely related both to IP (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.20, p = 0.046, respectively) and total body fat (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.29, p = 0.005, respectively), but not RP, or SC fat. TNF-α and resistin were not correlated to any fat compartment. After correcting for age and sex, leptin variance was mostly explained by SC fat (41.3%), followed by IP fat (33.6%) and RP fat (25.3%). The hs-CRP and adiponectin variance were mostly explained by IP fat (40% and 49% respectively).
IP fat is better predictors of IR and subclinical chronic inflammation in Taiwanese adults. A disproportionate accumulation of abdominal fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3978053  PMID: 24684833
Subcutaneous fat; Intra-peritoneal fat; Retroperitoneal fat; Insulin resistance; High sensitive C-reactive protein; Adiponectin
18.  Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio 
Journal of Obesity  2013;2013:409679.
Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mL)and high (≥6.5 μg/mL)adiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.
PMCID: PMC3606776  PMID: 23533722
19.  Relationships Between Plasma Adiponectin and Body Fat Distribution, Insulin Sensitivity, and Plasma Lipoproteins in Alaskan Yup’ik Eskimos: The CANHR Study 
Adiponectin, a protein, secreted by adipose tissue has anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing actions. We examined the relationship between plasma adiponectin and adiposity, insulin resistance, plasma lipids, glucose, leptin and anthropometric measurements in adult 316 men and 353 women Yup’ik Eskimos in Southwest Alaska. Adiponectin concentration was negatively associated with BMI, percent of body fat, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin, and leptin in both men and women, and also with glucose in women. Adiponectin concentration correlated positively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, and also with low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. Insulin sensitive individuals (HOMA-IR < 3.52, n = 442) had higher plasma adiponectin concentrations than more insulin resistant individuals (HOMA-IR ≥ 3.52, n = 224): 11.02 ± 0.27 μg/mL vs. 8.26 ± 0.32 μg/mL, P <.001. Adiponectin concentrations did not differ between groups of participants with low and high level of risk for developing coronary heart disease. No difference in plasma adiponectin levels was found among Yup’ik Eskimos and Caucasians matched for sex, age and BMI. In conclusion, circulating adiponectin concentrations were most strongly associated with sum of skin folds in Yup’ik men and with HDL-C levels, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, insulin and triglycerides concentrations in Yup’ik women.
PMCID: PMC2629667  PMID: 19059527
coronary heart disease; central adiposity; glucose; HOMA-IR; type 2 diabetes
20.  Racial differences in adiponectin and leptin in healthy premenopausal women 
Endocrine  2012;43(3):586-592.
To longitudinally investigate racial differences in serum adiponectin and leptin in European-American [EA] and African-American [AA] women in the overweight and weight-reduced states.
Sixty-two EA and 58 AA premenopausal women were weight-reduced from BMI 27–30 kg/m2 to BMI ≤24. Fasting serum adiponectin and leptin were determined; body composition and intra-abdominal adipose tissue [IAAT] were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively.
In repeated-measures MANOVA there was a significant race-effect for IAAT and total fat mass; compared to AA women, EA women had higher IAAT and total fat mass [p<.0001 and p=0.027, respectively]. In the mixed-model for adiponectin that adjusted for IAAT, limb fat and total fat, race was significantly associated with adiponectin [p=0.046]. AA women had significantly lower adjusted adiponectin compared to EA women at baseline [7.67 [6.85, 8.60] versus 9.32 [8.34, 10.4] µg/ml, p<0.05] and following weight loss [9.75 [8.70, 10.9] versus 11.8 [10.6, 13.2] µg/ml, p<0.05]. In a mixed-model for leptin that adjusted for insulin, estradiol and fat mass, race was significantly associated with leptin [p<.0001]. African-American women had significantly higher adjusted leptin compared to EA women at baseline [24.7 [22.3, 27.4] versus 19.9 [18.1, 21.8] ng/dl, p<0.05] and following weight loss [11.7 [10.2, 13.3] versus 8.48 [7.50, 9.57] ng/dl, p<0.05].
Despite having a more favorable body fat distribution, AA women had lower adjusted adiponectin and higher leptin. Differences in body composition and fat distribution do not appear to be significant factors in explaining lower adiponectin and higher leptin in AA women.
PMCID: PMC3541432  PMID: 22983832
21.  Maternal history of diabetes is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in Chinese 
Nutrition & Diabetes  2014;4(3):e112-.
Positive family history is associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, and reflects both genetic and environmental risks. Several studies have suggested an excess maternal transmission of T2D, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between maternal diabetes and cardiometabolic risk in the offspring.
Parental history of diabetes and clinical data including anthropometric traits, fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FPG, FPI), blood pressure and lipid profile were collected from 2581 unrelated Chinese offspring (2026 adolescents from a population-based school survey and 555 adults from a community-based health screening programme). A subset of subjects (n=834) underwent oral glucose tolerance test to measure the glucose and insulin concentrations at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min for evaluation of the areas under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin at 0–120 min, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and bell-cell function, insulinogenic index, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and oral disposition index (DI).
A positive parental history of diabetes was associated with increased risk of obesity (odd ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=1.48 (1.10–2.00)), central obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.67 (1.21–2.32)), higher FPI, HOMA-IR, 2-h insulin, AUC of glucose at 0–120 min, triglycerides, reduced ISI and DI. Compared with individuals without parental diabetes, offspring with diabetic mother had significantly increased risk of obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.59 (1.07–2.35)), central obesity (OR (95% CI)=1.88 (1.23–2.88)), higher glucose levels and BP, were more insulin resistant but also had impaired first-phase insulin response and worse lipid profile. However, paternal history of diabetes had no effect on any of the studied traits, except higher body mass index, waist circumference in females and FPG.
Our findings suggested that maternal history of diabetes conferred increased risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities, and was associated with both insulin resistance and impaired first-phase insulin secretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of transgenerational diabetes is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3974036  PMID: 24614663
22.  Adipocytokine Levels in Genetically High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in the Indian Population: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2012;2012:386524.
Introduction. In view of the noteworthy role of adipocytokines in the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes in gene-knockout-rat-model-cell-line studies we aimed to study the influence of genetic predisposition for diabetes on adipocytokine levels and their role in building insulin-resistance-like environment well before the onset of diabetes; thus a hypothesis can be drawn on their role in developing diabetes in high risk population. Methods. Ages between 18 and 22 years were selected and divided into three groups. Group I (n = 81): control group with no family history of diabetes. Group II (n = 157): with one of their parents with history of type 2 diabetes. Group III (n = 47): with both parents having history of type 2 diabetes. In all the groups we estimated fasting plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines like adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6. Results. Of all adipocytokines we observed significantly lower levels of adiponectin (8.7 ± 1 μg/mL in group III and 9.5 ± 1.3 μg/mL group II) when compared to control (11.0 ± 1.2 μg/mL; P < 0.01) and it has strong correlation with family history of diabetes with Pearson's coefficient of −0.502. Linear regression analysis showed significant negative association with HOMA-IR (P < 0.01) and logistic regression analysis showed highest association with parental diabetes (P < 0.01; OR .260, 95% CI .260–.468). Conclusion. Genetic predisposition for diabetes may influence adiponectin gene expression leading to decrease in its plasma concentration, which might play a key role in developing diabetes in near future.
PMCID: PMC3505654  PMID: 23213322
23.  The relation of sugar intake to β cell function in overweight Latino children123 
Few studies have investigated the association between sugar intake and insulin dynamics in children, and none have examined this association in overweight Latino youth.
We aimed to examine the relation between dietary components, especially sugar intake, and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth.
We examined 63 overweight Latino children aged 9–13 y. Dietary intake was determined by 3-d records, and body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and disposition index (an index of β cell function) were measured by using a frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test and minimal modeling. Hierarchical regression analysis ascertained the potential independent relation between insulin dynamics and dietary components.
The relation between macronutrient intake and any variable related to insulin dynamics was not significant. However, higher total sugar intake, although not related to SI, was significantly associated with lower AIR (β = −0.296, P = 0.045) and lower β cell function (β = −0.421, P = 0.043), independent of the covariates age, sex, body composition, Tanner stage, and energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage intakes trended toward inverse association with lower AIR (β = −0.219, P = 0.072) and β cell function (β = −0.298, P = 0.077).
In overweight Latino children, higher intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower AIR and disposition index, which suggested that these children already have early signs of poor β cell function. These results emphasize the need for early nutritional interventions to reduce daily sugar intake in overweight Latino children and potentially reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2538439  PMID: 16280431
Latino adolescents; overweight; obesity; sugar; sugary beverages; β cells; disposition index; type 2 diabetes
24.  Correlation of the leptin:adiponectin ratio with measures of insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals 
Diabetologia  2009;52(11):2345-2349.
Obesity is the dominant cause of insulin resistance. In adult humans it is characterised by a combination of adipocyte hypertrophy and, to a lesser extent, adipocyte hyperplasia. As hypertrophic adipocytes secrete more leptin and less adiponectin, the plasma leptin:adiponectin ratio (LAR) has been proposed as a potentially useful measure of insulin resistance and vascular risk. We sought to assess the usefulness of the LAR as a measure of insulin resistance in non-diabetic white adults.
Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 2,097 non-diabetic individuals from the Ely and European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Risk (RISC) study cohorts. LAR was compared with fasting insulin and HOMA-derived insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) in all individuals and with the insulin sensitivity index (M/I) from hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp studies in 1,226 EGIR RISC participants.
The LAR was highly correlated with HOMA-S in men (r = −0.58, p = 4.5 × 10−33 and r = −0.65, p = 1.1 × 10−66 within the Ely and EGIR RISC study cohorts, respectively) and in women (r = −0.51, p = 2.8 × 10−36 and r = −0.61, p = 2.5 × 10−73). The LAR was also strongly correlated with the clamp M/I value (r = −0.52, p = 4.5 × 10−38 and r = −0.47, p = 6.6 × 10−40 in men and women, respectively), similar to correlations between HOMA-S and the M/I value.
The leptin:adiponectin ratio is a useful measure of insulin resistance in non-diabetic white adults. These data highlight the central role of adipocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Given that variations between fasting and postprandial leptin and adiponectin levels tend to be small, the leptin to adiponectin ratio might also have potential value in assessing insulin sensitivity in the non-fasted state.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-009-1508-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2759015  PMID: 19756488
Adipocytokine; Adiponectin; Insulin resistance; Leptin
25.  Pancreatic cancer expresses adiponectin receptors and is associated with hypoleptinemia and hyperadiponectinemia: a case-control study 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2008;20(5):625-633.
Obesity and insulin resistance have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC). Whether adiponectin and/or leptin, two adipocyte-secreted hormones important in metabolic regulation, are associated with PC pathogenesis and whether adiponectin receptors are expressed in PC remains unknown. In a hospital-based case-control study, we studied 81 cases with incident, histologically confirmed PC and 81 controls matched on gender and age between 2000 and 2007 to investigate the role of adiponectin and leptin adjusting for risk factors linked to PC. In a separate study, we also studied for the first time whether adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 are expressed in PC by studying 16 PC tumor tissue samples which were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. When subjects were divided into control-defined quartiles of adiponectin and leptin, lower leptin but higher adiponectin levels were associated with PC (p=0.001 and p=0.05 respectively) before and after controlling for age, gender, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, history of diabetes, and family history of pancreatic cancer. Of the PC tumor tissue samples analyzed, 87.5% had positive or strong positive expression of AdipoR1 and 93.7% had positive or strong positive expression of AdipoR2. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether the elevated adiponectin and low leptin levels reported in this study reflect compensatory changes during PC progression and thus can be used as markers for PC or whether they are causally implicated in PC.
PMCID: PMC2720089  PMID: 19051043
leptin; adiponectin; adipokine; pancreatic cancer; obesity

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