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1.  Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and bone marrow transplantation: identification of a specific high risk group. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1993;46(5):415-419.
AIMS--To study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion and interstitial pneumonitis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients, with reference to donor and recipient CMV antibody response. METHODS--The incidence of CMV excretion was prospectively studied in 62 allogeneic bone marrow transplantations performed on adults and children. All recipients received CMV seronegative blood products. Prophylaxis with high dose acyclovir and CMV immune globulin was given to high risk patients (donor or recipient, or both, CMV seropositive). RESULTS--CMV excretion was detected in eight of 26 (31%) high risk patients but in only one of 36 low risk patients (donor and recipient both CMV seronegative). Five of the eight (63%) excretors in the high risk category developed CMV, of whom four (80%) belonged to the seropositive recipient/seronegative donor group, and included the three CMV seropositive recipients whose CMV complement fixation antibody titres were 64 or greater before transplantation. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that there is a subgroup of patients at especially high risk of developing CMV.
PMCID: PMC501249  PMID: 8391547
2.  Autoimmune response to U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) associated with cytomegalovirus infection 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(4):253-258.
The induction of autoantibodies to U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) complexes is not well understood. We present evidence that healthy individuals with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have an increased frequency and quantity of antibodies to ribonucleoprotein, directed primarily against the U1-70k protein. A significant association between the presence of antibodies to CMV and antibodies to the total RNP targeted by the immune response to the spliceosome (to both the Sm and RNP; Sm/RNP) was found for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but not those with mixed connective-tissue disease. CMV thus may play a role in inducing autoimmune responses in a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
PMCID: PMC34115  PMID: 11438044
autoantibodies; cytomegalovirus; spliceosome; systemic lupus erythematosus
3.  Direct Relationship between Suppression of Virus-Specific Immunity and Emergence of Cytomegalovirus Disease in Simian AIDS 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(10):5749-5758.
Although opportunistic infections like cytomegalovirus (CMV) are common sequelae of end-stage AIDS, the immune events leading to CMV reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are not well defined. The role of cellular and humoral CMV-specific immune responses in immune control of latent CMV infection was evaluated prospectively in a cohort of 11 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected CMV-seropositive rhesus macaques, 6 of whom had histologic evidence of CMV disease at death. Macaques with CMV disease differed from macaques without CMV disease in having significantly higher levels of plasma SIV RNA and CMV DNA and significantly lower titers of anti-CMV binding antibodies (Abs) at the time of death. A significant decline in anti-CMV Abs and CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes over time was observed in the macaques with CMV disease, but not in the macaques without CMV disease. Reduction in CMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and anti-CMV neutralizing Abs was significantly correlated with a decline in CMV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Although declines in CMV-specific T lymphocytes alone were sufficient for reactivation of low-level CMV viremia, high-level viremia (>1,000 copies of CMV DNA per ml of plasma) was observed when anti-CMV neutralizing and binding Abs had also declined. Thus, the occurrence of CMV reactivation-associated disease in AIDS is associated with suppression of both cellular and humoral CMV-specific immune responses. The underlying mechanism may be a dysfunction of memory B and CD8+ T lymphocytes associated with SIV-induced impairment of CMV-specific CD4+ T-cell help.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.10.5749-5758.2003
PMCID: PMC154043  PMID: 12719568
4.  Comparison of In Vitro Lymphocyte Proliferations Induced by Cytomegalovirus-Infected Human Fibroblasts and Cell-Free Cytomegalovirus 
Infection and Immunity  1980;30(3):621-627.
In vitro lymphocyte reactivity (LR) to cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected human fetal fibroblasts (CMVFF) and cell-free CMV were measured by using lymphocytes from healthy donors. Lymphocytes from all seropositive donors were stimulated by CMVFF, whereas lymphocytes from negative donors were not. The optimal stimulator cell-to-lymphocyte ratio was in the range of 1:5 to 1:50, dependent on the virus dose used. LR to cell-free CMV was positive for 15 out of 18 seropositive donors and negative for 14 out of 16 seronegative donors. In most cases LR to CMVFF was considerably higher than LR to cell-free CMV. Within the CMV seropositive group there was no significant correlation between the LR to either CMVFF or cell-free CMV and the levels of antibodies to CMV early antigens or CMV late antigens. There was no strict correlation between LR to CMVFF and to cell-free CMV, especially not in tests with lymphocytes from two patients with CMV mononucleosis. Our data suggest that CMVFF and cell-free CMV are recognized (partly) by different subpopulations of CMV-specific memory lymphocytes. We conclude that the use of CMV-infected cells, in addition to cell-free CMV, in LR tests gives more reproducible and possibly also additional information about CMV-specific cellular immunity.
PMCID: PMC551360  PMID: 6262238
5.  Rises in antibody to human herpesvirus 6 detected by enzyme immunoassay in transplant recipients with primary cytomegalovirus infection. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1990;28(5):851-854.
Immunoglobulin G to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in sera from solid organ recipients was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) before and after transplant. The HHV-6 ELISA was developed from glycine extracts of HHV-6-infected and uninfected HSB-2 cells. At a serum dilution of 1:500, 80 (91%) of 88 recipients were seropositive for HHV-6 before transplant, while only 14 (16%) were seropositive for CMV. Posttransplant HHV-6 serologic rises were observed in 38 (43%) recipients; rises in 25 of these recipients were associated with primary CMV infection. Titration of sera revealed much higher HHV-6 titer rises among those with primary CMV infection than among those with CMV reactivation or with no CMV infection. Elevated HHV-6 antibody titers persisted for up to 2 years after primary CMV infection. No correlation was noted between CMV and HHV-6 antibody titers in individual serum samples.
PMCID: PMC267822  PMID: 2161867
6.  Immunoglobulin M to cytomegalovirus in primary and reactivation infections in renal transplant recipients. 
Two commercially available enzyme immunoassays and one assembled in house were used to measure immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a total of 220 serum specimens from 104 renal transplant recipients. All assays included a step in which interfering IgG antibody was removed or complexed. Concordance of results between pairs of assays ranged from 84 to 96%. All sera from patients with recent seroconversion (primary CMV infection) had measurable anti-CMV IgM. Among those already seropositive to CMV when transplanted, 26 to 55% had IgM antibody posttransplant, depending on the assay. This was observed regardless of the CMV serologic status of the kidney donor, indicating that reactivation of endogenous CMV, as well as reinfection, can induce this antibody in transplant recipients. Four cadaver donors known to transmit CMV to eight recipients did not have measurable IgM antibody to CMV.
PMCID: PMC265822  PMID: 3025251
7.  Comparison of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot and CMV Quantiferon Gamma Interferon-Releasing Assays in Assessing Risk of CMV Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(8):2501-2507.
Assessing cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) represents an appealing strategy for identifying transplant recipients at risk of infection. In this study, we compared two gamma interferon-releasing assays (IGRAs), Quantiferon-CMV and CMV enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT), to determine the ability of each test to predict protective CMV-specific T-cell responses. Two hundred twenty-one Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT tests were conducted on 120 adult kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including 100 CMV-seropositive transplant recipients (R+) and 20 CMV-seronegative transplant recipients of a CMV-positive donor (D+/R−). As a control cohort, 39 healthy adult subjects (including 33 CMV-seropositive and 6 CMV-seronegative subjects) were enrolled. CMV IgG serology was used as a reference for both tests. In the CMV-seropositive individuals, the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays provided 46% concordance with the serology, 12% discordance, 18% disagreement between ELISPOT or Quantiferon-CMV and the serology, and 24% gray areas when one or both tests resulted in weak positives. None of the CMV-seronegative subjects showed detectable responses in the ELISPOT or the Quantiferon-CMV test. In transplant recipients, both the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with CMV DNAemia in a significant way (P < 0.05). During the antiviral prophylaxis, all 20 D+/R− KTRs we examined displayed undetectable Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT results, and there was no evidence of CMV seroconversion. The receiving operator curve (ROC) statistical analysis revealed similar specificities and sensitivities in predicting detectable viremia (areas under the curve [AUC], 0.66 and 0.62 for Quantiferon-CMV and ELISPOT, respectively). ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV values of >150 spots/200,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and >1 to 6 IU gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were associated with protection from CMV infection (odds ratios [OR], 5 and 8.75, respectively). In transplant recipients, the two tests displayed similar abilities for predicting CMV infection. Both the ELISPOT and Quantiferon-CMV assays require several ameliorations to avoid false-negative results.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00563-13
PMCID: PMC3719636  PMID: 23678073
8.  Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Among Some Voluntary Blood Donors at the 37 Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana 
Ghana Medical Journal  2006;40(3):99-104.
Summary
Background
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most significant pathogens infecting immunosuppressed individuals. CMV is transmissible through transfusion of blood components.
Aim
The goal of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to CMV among blood donors seen at the 37 Military Hospital Blood Transfusion Unit, (MHBTU) Accra, Ghana.
Methods
The seroprevalence of antibodies specific for CMV was tested using CMV IgG/IgM particle agglutination test kit and ELISA.
Results
Of the 264 blood donors, 18 were negative and 246 were positive for CMV IgG antibodies, giving an overall CMV prevalence rate of 93.2%. None of the 264 blood donors was positive for CMV IgM antibodies. About 96% of the donors aged between 30 to 39 years were seropositive for CMV, as against 91.9% in those aged 20–29 years, 88.6% in 40 to 49 years, 75.0% (3 out of 4) in 50 to 59 years, and 100% (1 out 1) in 60–69 years. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the CMV IgG status in different age groups. The blood donors comprised largely of male donors (236 out of 264), making sex comparisons statistically undesirable. However, all the female (n=28) donors were positive for CMV IgG.
Conclusion
Since about 93% of blood donors at the MHBTU are seropositive for CMV, it would be very useful to screen blood donors in Ghana for CMV to identify the very few CMV-seronegative blood donors, and maintain an inventory of them for use as donors.
PMCID: PMC1790848  PMID: 17299575
Cytomegalovirus; blood donors; seroprevalence
9.  Cytomegalovirus-Specific T Cells Persist at Very High Levels during Long-Term Antiretroviral Treatment of HIV Disease 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(1):e8886.
Background
In healthy, HIV seronegative, CMV seropositive adults, a large proportion of T cells are CMV-specific. High-level CMV-specific T cell responses are associated with accelerated immunologic aging (“immunosenesence”) in the elderly population. The impact of untreated and treated HIV infection on the frequency of these cells remains undefined.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We measured the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responding to CMV pp65 and IE proteins was measured using flow cytometry in 685 unique HIV seronegative and seropositive individuals. The proportion of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells was consistently higher in the HIV-seropositive subjects compared to the HIV-seronegative subjects. This HIV effect was observed even in patients who lacked measurable immunodeficiency. Among the HIV-seropositive subjects, CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were proportionately lower during recent infection, higher during chronic untreated infection and higher still during long-term antiretroviral treated infection. The CD8+ T cell response to just two CMV proteins (pp65 and IE) was approximately 6% during long-term therapy, which was over twice that seen in HIV-seronegative persons. CMV-specific CD4+ T cell responses followed the same trends, but the magnitude of the effect was smaller.
Conclusions/Significance
Long-term successfully treated HIV infected patients have remarkably high levels of CMV-specific effector cells. These levels are similar to that observed in the elderly, but occur at much younger ages. Future studies should focus on defining the potential role of the CMV-specific inflammatory response in non-AIDS morbidity and mortality, including immunosenescence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008886
PMCID: PMC2813282  PMID: 20126452
10.  Cytomegalovirus-specific, high-avidity IgG with neutralizing activity in maternal circulation enriched in the fetal bloodstream 
Background
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the major cause of congenital infection and disease leading to permanent birth defects. In about 35–40% of pregnant women with primary CMV infection, virus crosses the placenta, resulting in the birth of congenitally infected babies. In contrast, this happens in only 1–3% of seropositive women with strong CMV-specific humoral immunity. Whether CMV reaches the fetus and disseminates depends on the level of high-avidity antibodies in the maternal circulation and the passive immunity of the fetus.
Objectives and study design
To identify CMV infection in uncomplicated deliveries based on detection of viral DNA in placental biopsy specimens at term. To quantify CMV-specific IgG avidity, neutralizing titer, IgG1 concentration, and characterize the immunoblot profiles for CMV proteins in paired samples of placental and cord blood sera.
Results
In accord with earlier reports, CMV DNA was detected in 39% (11/28) of placentas with mean- to high-avidity CMV-specific IgG. In seropositive women, the concentration of antiviral antibodies, specifically IgG1, increased in the fetal bloodstream, and CMV neutralizing titers in maternal and fetal blood were comparable.
Conclusions
CMV-specific, high-avidity neutralizing antibodies from maternal circulation are transcytosed to the fetal bloodstream, contribute to suppression of viral replication in the placenta and could prevent congenital disease.
doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.10.004
PMCID: PMC2794836  PMID: 19854676
congenital CMV infection; passive immunity; neonatal Fc receptor; high-avidity IgG; neutralizing titer
11.  CMV Latent Infection Improves CD8+ T Response to SEB Due to Expansion of Polyfunctional CD57+ Cells in Young Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88538.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection has a deleterious effect on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly, suggesting that CMV restricts immunological diversity impairing the immune system functionality in old age. Polyfunctional T cells produce multiple cytokines and higher amounts than mono-functional T cells. High number of polyfunctional T cells correlates with better prognosis during infection. Thus, the efficiency of T cell response associates with quality (polyfunctionality) rather than with quantity (percentage of T cells). We analyze the effect of CMV infection on CD8+ T cells polyfunctionality ―degranulation (CD107a), IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production―, from young CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative individuals and in middle age CMV-seropositive donors, in response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB). Our results show a higher percentage of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young CMV-seropositive individuals compared to CMV-seronegative. Also, we find an expansion of CD8+CD57+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, which are more polyfunctional than CD8+CD57− cells. In middle age individuals there is a higher frequency of SEB-responding CD8+ T cells, mainly TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma producers, whereas the percentage of polyfunctional cells (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/CD107a) is similar to the percentages found in young CMV-seropositive. Therefore, whereas it has been shown that CMV latent infection can be detrimental for immune response in old individuals, our results indicate that CMV-seropositivity is associated to higher levels of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young and middle age donors. This increase in polyfunctionality, which can provide an immunological advantage in the response to other pathogens, is due to a CD8+CD57+ T cell expansion in CMV-seropositive individuals and it is independent of age. Conversely, age could contribute to the inflammation found in old individuals by increasing the percentage of cells producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings highlight the necessity of further studies on the benefits/detrimental effects of CMV infection in the response to vaccination and other infections.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088538
PMCID: PMC3922920  PMID: 24533103
12.  Reduced IgG anti-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with positive IgM anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies 
Introduction
Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by production of autoantibodies to RNA or DNA–protein complexes such as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). A role of Epstein–Barr virus in the pathogenesis has been suggested. Similar to Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects the majority of individuals at a young age and establishes latency with a potential for reactivation. Homology of CMV glycoprotein B (UL55) with the U1snRNP-70 kDa protein (U1–70 k) has been described; however, the role of CMV infection in production of anti-snRNPs is controversial. We investigated the association of CMV serology and autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods
Sixty-one Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were tested for CMV and Epstein–Barr virus serology (viral capsid antigen, IgG, IgM) and autoantibodies by immunoprecipitation and ELISA (IgG and IgM class, U1RNP/Sm, U1–70 k, P peptide, rheumatoid factor, dsDNA, β2-glycoprotein I).
Results
IgG anti-CMV and IgM anti-CMV were positive in 95% (58/61) and 33% (20/61), respectively, and two cases were negative for both. Clinical manifestation and autoantibodies in the IgM anti-CMV(+) group (n = 20) versus the IgM anti-CMV(-)IgG (+) (n = 39) group were compared. Most (19/20) of the IgM anti-CMV(+) cases were IgG anti-CMV(+), consistent with reactivation or reinfection. IgM anti-CMV was unrelated to rheumatoid factor or IgM class autoantibodies and none was positive for IgM anti-Epstein–Barr virus–viral capsid antigen, indicating that this is not simply due to false positive results caused by rheumatoid factor or nonspecific binding by certain IgM. The IgM anti-CMV(+) group has significantly lower levels of IgG anti-U1RNP/Sm and IgG anti-U1–70 k (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0046, respectively). This finding was also confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Among the IgM anti-CMV(-) subset, anti-Su was associated with anti-U1RNP and anti-Ro (P < 0.05). High levels of IgG anti-CMV were associated with production of lupus-related autoantibodies to RNA or DNA–protein complex (P = 0.0077).
Conclusions
Our findings suggest a potential role of CMV in regulation of autoantibodies to snRNPs and may provide a unique insight to understand the pathogenesis.
doi:10.1186/ar2621
PMCID: PMC2688261  PMID: 19232124
13.  Glycoprotein B Vaccine Is Capable of Boosting Both Antibody and CD4 T-Cell Responses to Cytomegalovirus in Chronically Infected Women 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;203(11):1534-1541.
(See the editorial commentary by Schleiss, on pages 1513–6.)
Traditionally, vaccines have been utilized to generate immune responses to a pathogen in a naive population. In the setting of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a vaccine that, when administered to women already infected with CMV, could boost the mother's immunity to CMV would most likely be beneficial in diminishing in utero transmission of CMV. However, the ability to boost an immune response in a population of individuals seropositive for a pathogen of interest is not well studied. This study examines the ability of a recombinant CMV glycoprotein B vaccine with MF59 adjuvant to boost both antibody (neutralizing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay end point dilution titer) and CD4+ T-cell responses in previously CMV-seropositive women by way of natural infection. These data suggest that this vaccine is capable of boosting immunity in a population of CMV-infected women and warrants additional evaluation to determine whether these boosted responses may prevent mother to child transmission of CMV.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir138
PMCID: PMC3096785  PMID: 21592981
14.  Detection of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against cytomegalovirus early and late antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1984;20(4):763-771.
A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for the detection of immunoglobulin M and antibodies with specifity for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) early (CMV-EA) and late (CMV-LA) antigens. The emphasis is on the production of high-quality CMV antigens, CMV-EA and CMV-LA separately, and conditions for their application in the ELISA. The induction of CMV-EA and -LA in infected cell extracts was studied in detail by using human sera with defined antibody specificity for CMV-EA and CMV-LA. This resulted in the development of a simple whole cell extraction procedure that provided a high yield of CMV antigens with reproducible antigen quality. The antigens were specific for the detection of anti-CMV antibodies. The influence of autoantibodies on the determination of CMV-specific antibodies was investigated. Parallel analysis of 322 human sera by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA showed a high correlation between both assays (r = 0.9674 for CMV-EA and 0.9362 for CMV-LA). Antibody titers determined by ELISA were equal to (for CMV-EA) or slightly higher (for CMV-LA) that those determined by immunofluorescence but significantly higher (20- to 5,120-fold) than those determined by complement fixation. From 191 sera positive by ELISA (titer greater than or equal to 40) 4 (2.1%) were negative by immunofluorescence (titer less than 40), and from 61 ELISA-positive sera 12 (19.6%) were negative (titer less than 8) when tested by complement fixation. Consequently, ELISA for CMV may prove to be more reliable for the selection of CMV-seronegative blood donors than these other methods. The use of high-quality antigens allows more economic handling of large-scale serum determinations. Possibilities for further automation are discussed.
PMCID: PMC271427  PMID: 6208220
15.  Seropositivity and Higher Immunoglobulin G Antibody Levels Against Cytomegalovirus Are Associated With Mortality in the Population-Based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk Cohort 
After adjustment for a range of possible confounders, cytomegalovirus seropositivity and cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G antibody levels were associated with all-cause mortality in the EPIC-Norfolk population-based cohort study.
Background. The relationship between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and mortality among immunocompetent individuals is uncertain. We aimed to examine whether seropositivity for CMV and the level of CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody are associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
Methods. We used data from a random sample of 13 090 participants aged 40–79 years at recruitment in 1993–1997 to the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk population-based cohort study. We measured baseline IgG antibody levels against CMV. Death certificates were obtained for all participants who died before 31 March 2011. Codes for the underlying cause of death were used to investigate cause-specific mortality.
Results. A total of 2514 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 14.3 years (SD, 3.3 years). Compared to seronegative participants (age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate, 12.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 11.3–13.2] per 1000 person-years at risk), rates increased across thirds of IgG antibody levels (score test of trend P < .0001). CMV seropositivity (prevalence 59%) was associated with increased all-cause mortality (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16 [95% CI, 1.07–1.26]), similarly in men and women (P for interaction = .52). The association persisted after additionally adjusting for measures of socioeconomic status and possible confounders. Cause-specific analyses suggested that increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, .91–1.24]), cancer (HR, 1.13 [95% CI, .98–1.31]), and other causes (HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.04–1.47) all appeared to contribute to the overall associations.
Conclusions. Seropositivity and higher IgG antibody levels against CMV are associated with increased mortality and after adjustment for a range of potential confounders in the general population.
doi:10.1093/cid/cit083
PMCID: PMC3634310  PMID: 23442763
cytomegalovirus; cancer; mortality; cohort study; cardiovascular disease
16.  Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to cytomegalovirus in normal and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(11):7725-7733.
Disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a frequent occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans and in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques are a suitable animal model with which to study in vivo interactions between CMV and AIDS-associated retroviruses. Since cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a major role in control of viral infections, we have characterized CMV-specific CTL responses in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. Autologous fibroblasts infected with rhesus CMV were used to stimulate freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CMV-seropositive animals. Following in vitro stimulation, specific CTL activity against CMV-infected autologous fibroblasts was detected in CMV-seropositive but not in CMV-seronegative normal macaques. CMV-specific CTL activity comparable to that in normal animals was also detected in two CMV-seropositive macaques infected with a live attenuated SIV strain (SIVdelta3) and in two of three macaques infected with pathogenic SIV strains. The CMV-specific CTL response was class I major histocompatibility complex restricted and mediated by CD8+ cells. An early CMV protein(s) was the dominant target recognized by bulk CTL, although the pattern of CTL recognition of CMV proteins varied among animals. Analysis of CMV-specific CTL responses in macaques should serve as a valuable model for CMV immunopathogenesis and will facilitate prospective in vivo studies of immune interactions between CMV and SIV in AIDS.
PMCID: PMC190842  PMID: 8892893
17.  Hepatitis C Viremia Is Associated with Cytomegalovirus IgG Antibody Levels in HIV-Infected Women 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61973.
Background
Individuals with HIV infection exhibit high cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG levels, but there are few data regarding the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the immune response against CMV.
Methods
Associations of HCV with CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG levels were studied in 635 HIV-infected women, 187 of whom were HCV-seropositive, with adjustment in multivariable models for age, race/ethnicity, and HIV disease characteristics. Eighty one percent of the women reported receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to or at CMV testing.
Results
In adjusted models women with chronic HCV had higher CMV IgG levels than those without HCV RNA (β = 2.86, 95% CI:0.89 – 4.83; P = 0.004). The association of HCV RNA with CMV IgG differed by age (Pinteraction = 0.0007), with a strong association observed among women in the low and middle age tertiles (≤45.3 years of age; β = 6.21, 95% CI:3.30 – 9.11, P<0.0001) but not among women in the high age tertile. CMV IgG levels were not associated with non-invasive measures of liver disease, APRI and FIB-4, or with HCV RNA level and adjustment for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG levels did not affect the association between HCV and CMV.
Conclusions
CMV IgG levels are higher in HCV/HIV co-infected women than in HIV mono-infected women. Further research on the association of HCV with CMV IgG is indicated because prior studies have found CMV IgG to be associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061973
PMCID: PMC3629158  PMID: 23613990
18.  Enhancive and suppressive effects of cytomegalovirus on human lymphocyte responses in vitro. 
Journal of Virology  1986;58(3):909-913.
Virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) without and with monocytes was studied in healthy persons. Three categories of lymphocyte response could be distinguished: seropositive low responders, naturally high responders, and lymphocyte populations responding well to CMV antigen in the presence of added CMV-incubated autologous monocytes. This latter category could be identified by preincubating autologous monocytes with CMV. CMV-seronegative persons were nonresponders. Early CMV antigens were produced in monocytes but not in lymphocytes by all CMV isolates. Infection of monocytes as detected by antibody to early viral protein did not appear to abort the antigen-presenting ability. The virus-specific responding lymphocytes were mainly of the T4+ phenotype. In contrast, addition of CMV to polyclonal mitogens significantly suppressed total lymphocyte DNA synthesis. CMV thus may have an enhanced virus-specific stimulatory effect on lymphocytes together with monocytes but a suppressive effect on the total lymphocyte population.
PMCID: PMC252999  PMID: 3009895
19.  Cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity in lower-socioeconomic-class adolescent women with local cytomegalovirus infections. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1983;17(4):582-587.
The factors that regulate cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion from the genitourinary tract are poorly understood. To assess the role of cell-mediated immunity in such excretion, a CMV-specific mononuclear blastogenesis assay was used to study a predominantly lower-socioeconomic-status population of 92 healthy nonpregnant adolescent women who also had CMV complement-fixing antibody titers and viral cultures of cervix, urine, saliva, and blood performed. Eighteen were studied more than once. No blood cultures were positive and no seroconversions were noted. There was no significant difference for frequency or degree of systemic CMV-specific blastogenesis between the 20 who were culture positive and the 41 who were seropositive but culture negative, although 40% of the culture-positive group and 27% of the seropositive, culture-negative group lacked CMV-specific blastogenesis. One of 31 seronegative subjects displayed CMV-specific blastogenesis. No systematic deficits were noted in any groups or individuals for E rosette number or mitogen response, though some isolated significant differences among groups for mitogen responses existed. Local CMV excretion in the study population was not related to systemic CMV-specific mononuclear blastogenesis.
PMCID: PMC272696  PMID: 6304140
20.  In Vitro Cell-Mediated Immune Responses of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and -Uninfected Individuals to Whole Cytomegalovirus Antigens and Their Subunits▿  
The aim of this study was to optimize the ability to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specfic cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals by comparing different assays (the lymphocyte proliferation assay [LPA] and assays for gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and interleukin-2 [IL-2] production) and CMV antigenic preparations. Thresholds discriminating positive from negative CMI results were developed with specimens from 36 CMV-seropositive and 21 CMV-seronegative healthy individuals. The analysis showed that the CMI elicited by any of the four CMV whole lysates tested in this study tended to be more robust and sensitive than the responses to the subunit antigens gB and pp65. LPA and inducible IFN-γ but not IL-2 were highly sensitive measures of CMV-specific CMI in HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals. The ability to detect CMV-specific LPA or IFN-γ responses in HIV-infected individuals significantly increased with higher CD4 cell numbers. Nevertheless, the proportion of HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts of ≥500 cells/μl who had a detectable CMV-specific CMI remained significantly lower than that of healthy adults. The ability to detect CMV-specific CMI in HIV-infected individuals decreased with higher levels of HIV replication, with discriminative thresholds of 103 to 104 HIV RNA copies/ml of plasma, for LPA or inducible IFN-γ production elicited by different antigens. The LPA responses obtained with CMV whole lysate and phytohemagglutinin were significantly correlated in HIV-infected subjects but not uninfected controls, indicating a novel characteristic of the CMI defect caused by HIV. The intrasubject variabilities of the CMV-specific CMI were similar in HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals. These data show that LPA and the inducible IFN-γ production elicited by CMV whole lysates may be used to assess modifications of the immune competency of HIV-infected individuals.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00479-07
PMCID: PMC2546686  PMID: 18579698
21.  Neutralizing Activity of Saliva against Cytomegalovirus▿ 
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is the leading cause of permanent disability in neonates in the United States. Neutralizing antibodies in saliva may protect against maternal CMV infection by blocking viral entry into oral epithelial cells, but the antibody response to CMV in the saliva following natural infection is not well characterized. Saliva specimens from naturally infected individuals were tested for CMV-neutralizing activity using epithelial and fibroblast cells. Saliva from seronegative adults had no inherent anti-CMV activity. Neutralizing activity of saliva from naturally infected adults was not detectable using fibroblast cells, and saliva from young children, adolescents, and Towne vaccine recipients did not have activity using either cell type. However, when using epithelial cells, neutralizing activity was present in saliva from 50% of seropositive adults, correlated with serum-neutralizing activity, and was more prevalent in mothers of children in day care than in non-day care-associated adults. Three day care mothers with high salivary neutralizing activities (>1:20) had exceptionally high serum-neutralizing titers (3- to 8-fold higher than typical seropositives) and were immunoblot positive for serum antibodies to the epithelial entry mediator UL130. These results suggest that salivary neutralizing activities are attainable by induction of high serum IgG levels and could be utilized to evaluate candidate cytomegalovirus vaccines.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05128-11
PMCID: PMC3165217  PMID: 21795465
22.  Specific lymphocyte blastogenic responses in children with cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infections acquired early in infancy. 
Infection and Immunity  1981;34(1):166-170.
Cell-mediated immune responses in 27 infants and children with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection acquired between birth and 1 year of age were compared with responses in 13 children who had neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Infection was asymptomatic in 25 of 27 CMV-infected children; the 13 patients with HSV infection were all ill as newborns. The median age when studied was 46 months for children infected with CMV and 24 months for those infected with HSV. We measured lymphocyte transformation responses (LTRs) to CMV antigens in the former group and to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) (and in six cases to HSV-2) in the latter group, with the results expressed as a stimulation index. Based on the results in seropositive and seronegative adult control subjects, stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 3 were considered indicative of a positive LTR. Among the CMV-infected children, a positive LTR was observed in 0 to 13 assays performed before 1 year of age, 3 of 8 assays performed between 1 and 4 years of age, and 9 of 15 assays performed over 4 years of age. In contrast, a positive LTR to HSV-1 was seen in 15 to 18 assays performed in children under 1 year of age and in 14 of 16 assays performed in survivors of neonatal HSV infection older than 1 year. Six HSV-2-infected patients were tested simultaneously 13 times with HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens. Those patients under 6 months of age responded similarly to each antigen, whereas those who were older had significantly higher LTRs to HSV-2. Children with CMV infection that was acquired early had persistently diminished specific LTRs. In contrast, after neonatal HSV infection, LTRs to HSV were present even in infancy and became more specific for the infecting type with increasing age.
PMCID: PMC350838  PMID: 6271679
23.  National Serosurvey of Cytomegalovirus in Australia▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;13(11):1181-1184.
In anticipation of the development of a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV), we conducted a large, nationally representative serosurvey to examine the seroprevalence of CMV in Australia. Sera were collected opportunistically from laboratories around Australia. Age- and gender-representative samples were tested for CMV antibody. The population-weighted rate of CMV seropositivity in subjects between 1 and 59 years of age was 57% (95% confidence interval, 55.2 to 58.6%). An association between CMV seroprevalence and increasing age was recognized; however, little overall difference in seroprevalence between the sexes was found. The finding that high levels of CMV exposure occur in the first few years of life suggests that for a universal vaccination program to have maximal impact, the vaccine would need to be delivered to infants and have a long duration of protective efficacy. This is the first national serosurvey looking at cytomegalovirus in the Australian community. This study provides valuable information that can be used to examine the incidence of infection in the community and help focus the administration of a future CMV vaccine to appropriate target populations.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00203-06
PMCID: PMC1656547  PMID: 16957061
24.  Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with glucose regulation in the oldest old. Results from the Leiden 85-plus Study 
Background
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and post-transplantation diabetes. However, CMV infection has not been evaluated as a possible risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate potential associations between CMV seropositivity, CMV IgG antibody level and glucose regulation in the oldest old.
Results
CMV seropositive subjects were more likely to have type 2 diabetes (17.2% vs 7.9%, p = 0.016), had a higher level of HbA1c (p = 0.014) and higher non-fasting glucose (p = 0.024) in the oldest olds. These associations remained significant after adjustment for possible confounders. CMV IgG antibody level was not significantly associated with glucose regulation (all p > 0.05).
Conclusions
In the oldest old, CMV seropositivity is significantly associated with various indicators of glucose regulation. This finding suggests that CMV infection might be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in the elderly.
doi:10.1186/1742-4933-9-18
PMCID: PMC3478991  PMID: 22929089
Cytomegalovirus; Seropositivity; IgG antibody level; Type 2 diabetes; HbA1c; Non-fasting glucose; C-reactive protein; Elderly; Oldest olds
25.  Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 is Associated with Cytomegalovirus and Age 
Journal of medical virology  2012;84(11):1797-1802.
Recent studies have shown that Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be an emerging marker of immunosenescence. CMV can affect the immune system by directly infecting leukocytes and hematopoietic cells or by eliciting an expansion of oligoclonal CD8+ T cells/contraction of the naïve T cell compartment that may reduce the host’s ability to fight other pathogens. To investigate further CMV-associated changes in immunity, a study was conducted with 1,454 adults (ages 25–91) to determine the association between CMV and reactivation of another latent herpesvirus, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as indexed by antibody titers. Elevated antibody titers to latent HSV-1 were significantly associated with both CMV seropositivity and high CMV antibody levels. Evaluation by specific age groups (<45, 45–64, and 65+ years old) revealed that this association was detectable early in life (<45 years of age). Increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age occurred in CMV seropositive individuals but not CMV seronegative subjects. Within CMV seropositive subjects, increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age were only found in individuals with low CMV antibody levels as those with high CMV antibodies already exhibited elevated HSV-1 antibodies. These associations remained significant after accounting for body mass index, gender, and socioeconomic status. These results suggest that CMV can influence the immune response to another pathogen and support the concept that CMV may accelerate immunosenescence.
doi:10.1002/jmv.23397
PMCID: PMC3463941  PMID: 22997083
herpesvirus; Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1); Cytomegalovirus (CMV); aging; immunosenescence

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