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1.  RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha induce the migration and activation of normal human eosinophil granulocytes 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1992;176(6):1489-1495.
The cellular infiltrates of certain inflammatory processes found in parasitic infection or in allergic diseases consist predominantly of eosinophilic granulocytes, often in association with activated T cells. This suggests the existence of chemotactic agonists specific for eosinophils and lymphocyte subsets devoid of neutrophil-activating properties. We therefore examined four members of the intercrine/chemokine superfamily of cytokines (monocyte chemotactic peptide 1 [MCP-1], RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP- 1 alpha], and MIP-1 beta), which do not activate neutrophils, for their ability to affect different eosinophil effector functions. RANTES strongly attracted normal human eosinophils by a chemotactic rather than a chemokinetic mechanism with a similar efficacy as the most potent chemotactic myeloid cell agonist, C5a. MIP-1 alpha also induced eosinophil migration, however, with lower efficacy. RANTES and MIP-1 alpha induced eosinophil cationic protein release in cytochalasin B- treated eosinophils, but did not promote leukotriene C4 formation by eosinophils, even after preincubation with interleukin 3 (IL-3), in contrast to other chemotactic agonists such as C5a and formyl-methionyl- leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). RANTES, but not MIP-1 alpha, induced a biphasic chemiluminescence response, however, of lower magnitude than C5a. RANTES and MIP-1 alpha both promoted identical transient changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), with kinetics similar to those induced by chemotactic peptides known to interact with G protein-coupled receptors. No cross-desensitization towards other peptide agonists (e.g., C5a, IL-8, FMLP) was observed, suggesting the presence of specific receptors. Despite its weaker eosinophil- activating properties, MIP-1 alpha was at least 10 times more potent on a molar basis than RANTES at inducing [Ca2+]i changes. Interestingly, RANTES deactivated the MIP-1 alpha-induced [Ca2+]i changes, while the RANTES response was preserved after MIP-1 alpha stimulation. MCP-1, a potent monocyte chemoattractant and basophil agonist, as well as MIP-1 beta, a peptide with pronounced homology to MIP-1 alpha, did not activate the eosinophil functions tested. Our results indicate that RANTES and MIP-1 alpha are crucial mediators of inflammatory processes in which eosinophils predominate.
PMCID: PMC2119467  PMID: 1281207
2.  High expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 in human blood basophils. Role in activation by eotaxin, MCP-4, and other chemokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(5):1137-1143.
Eosinophil leukocytes express high numbers of the chemokine receptor CCR3 which binds eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and some other CC chemokines. In this paper we show that CCR3 is also highly expressed on human blood basophils, as indicated by Northern blotting and flow cytometry, and mediates mainly chemotaxis. Eotaxin and MCP-4 elicited basophil migration in vitro with similar efficacy as regulated upon activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and MCP-3. They also induced the release of histamine and leukotrienes in IL-3-primed basophils, but their efficacy was lower than that of MCP-1 and MCP-3, which were the most potent stimuli of exocytosis. Pretreatment of the basophils with a CCR3-blocking antibody abrogated the migration induced by eotaxin, RANTES, and by low to optimal concentrations of MCP-4, but decreased only minimally the response to MCP-3. The CCR3-blocking antibody also affected exocytosis: it abrogated histamine and leukotriene release induced by eotaxin, and partially inhibited the response to RANTES and MCP-4. In contrast, the antibody did not affect the responses induced by MCP-1, MCP-3, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, which may depend on CCR1 and CCR2, two additional receptors detected by Northern blotting with basophil RNA. This study demonstrates that CCR3 is the major receptor for eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-4 in human basophils, and suggests that basophils and eosinophils, which are the characteristic effector cells of allergic inflammation, depend largely on CCR3 for migration towards different chemokines into inflamed tissues.
PMCID: PMC508288  PMID: 9276730
3.  Deletion of the NH2-terminal residue converts monocyte chemotactic protein 1 from an activator of basophil mediator release to an eosinophil chemoattractant 
Chemotactic cytokines of the CC subfamily (CC chemokines) are considered as major mediators of allergic inflammation owing their actions on basophil and eosinophil leukocytes. The monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 is a potent inducer of mediator release from basophils but is inactive on eosinophils. To obtain information on the structural determinants of the activities of MCP-1, we have synthesized several NH2-terminally truncated analogues and tested their effects on basophils and eosinophils. Through deletion of the NH2-terminal residue, MCP-1(2-76) was obtained, which was a potent activator of eosinophils, as assessed by chemotaxis, cytosolic free Ca2+ changes, actin polymerization, and that induction of the respiratory burst. In contrast, the activity of MCP-1(2-76) on basophil leukocytes was dramatically decreased (50-fold) compared with that of full-length MCP- 1. Deletion of the next residue led to total loss of activity on eosinophil and basophil leukocytes. Analogues with three or four residue deletions, MCP-1(4-76) and MCP-1(5-76), were again active on both cells, whereas all further truncation analogues, MCP-1(6-76) through MCP-1(10-76), were inactive. Thus, a minimal structural modification can change receptor and target cell selectivity of MCP-1. Our observations indicate that the recognition sites of CC chemokine receptors on eosinophils and basophils are similar, although they discriminate between MCP-1 and MCP-1(2-76) and suggest NH2-terminal processing as a potential mechanism for the regulation of CC chemokine activities.
PMCID: PMC2192454  PMID: 8627182
4.  Chemokines in the limbal form of vernal keratoconjunctivitis 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2000;84(12):1360-1366.
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Chemokines are a family of low molecular weight cytokines that attract and activate leucocytes. The CC chemokines act on eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, suggesting that they play an important part in allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of the CC chemokines, RANTES, eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to determine the cellular source of these chemokines.
METHODS—Conjunctival biopsy specimens from nine subjects with active VKC, and six control subjects were studied by immunohistochemical techniques using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. The phenotype of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines was examined by sequential double immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, superficial epithelial cells showed a constitutive, weak cytoplasmic expression of eotaxin. Few inflammatory cells in the perivascular areas expressed RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3. In VKC specimens, the epithelium showed intense cytoplasmic eotaxin staining in all cells, and cytoplasmic RANTES staining mainly in the superficial layers. Furthermore, RANTES and eotaxin were expressed on the vascular endothelium mainly in the upper substantia propria. Compared with normal controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more inflammatory cells expressing RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 (p<0.001, 0.0028, 0.0092, and <0.001, respectively). In VKC specimens, the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing RANTES were significantly higher than the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-2 (all p values <0.001). Colocalisation studies revealed that the majority of inflammatory cells expressing chemokines were CD68 positive monocytes/macrophages.
CONCLUSIONS—These results demonstrate an increase in the expression of RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MCP-3 in the conjunctiva of patients with VKC compared with control subjects. These data suggest a potential role for these chemokines in the pathogenesis of VKC. Antagonists of chemokine receptors may provide new therapeutic modalities in VKC.


doi:10.1136/bjo.84.12.1360
PMCID: PMC1723358  PMID: 11090473
5.  Production of the novel C-C chemokine MCP-4 by airway cells and comparison of its biological activity to other C-C chemokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(5):926-936.
Monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4) is a newly identified C-C chemokine with potent eosinophil chemoattractant properties. We describe studies of its biological activity in vitro to induce chemotaxis of peripheral blood eosinophils and to induce histamine release from IL-3-primed peripheral blood basophils. MCP-4 and eotaxin caused a similar rise in eosinophil intracytoplasmic Ca2+ and complete cross-desensitization. MCP-4 also abolished the eosinophil Ca2+ response to MCP-3 and partially desensitized the response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. MCP-4 activated cell migration via either CCR2b or CCR3 in mouse lymphoma cells transfected with these chemokine receptors. MCP-4 inhibited binding of 125I-eotaxin to eosinophils and CCR3-transfected cells and inhibited 125I-MCP-1 binding to CCR2b-transfectants. MCP-4 mRNA was found in cells collected in bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects and was prominently expressed in human lung and heart. MCP-4 mRNA was expressed in several human bronchial epithelial cell lines after cytokine stimulation. Pretreatment of BEAS-2B epithelial cells with the glucocorticoid budesonide inhibited MCP-4 mRNA expression. These features make MCP-4 a candidate for playing a role in eosinophil recruitment during allergic respiratory diseases.
PMCID: PMC507900  PMID: 9062350
6.  Cell-Specific Expression of RANTES, MCP-1, and MIP-1α by Lower Airway Epithelial Cells and Eosinophils Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(6):4756-4764.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute bronchiolitis in infancy, a syndrome characterized by wheezing, respiratory distress, and the pathologic findings of peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators by basophil and eosinophil leukocytes. Composition and activation of this cellular response are thought to rely on the discrete target cell selectivity of C-C chemokines. We demonstrate that infection in vitro of human epithelial cells of the lower respiratory tract by RSV induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein secretion for RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). Production of MCP-1 and MIP-1α was selectively localized only in epithelial cells of the small airways and lung. Exposure of epithelial cells to gamma interferon (IFN-γ), in combination with RSV infection, induced a significant increase in RANTES production that was synergistic with respect to that obtained by RSV infection or IFN-γ treatment alone. Epithelial cell-derived chemokines exhibited a strong chemotactic activity for normal human blood eosinophils. Furthermore, eosinophils were susceptible to RSV and released RANTES and MIP-1α as a result of infection. Therefore, the inflammatory process in RSV-induced bronchiolitis appears to be triggered by the infection of epithelial cells and further amplified via mechanisms driven by IFN-γ and by the secretion of eosinophil chemokines.
PMCID: PMC110009  PMID: 9573240
7.  Identification of RANTES receptors on human monocytic cells: competition for binding and desensitization by homologous chemotactic cytokines 
RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) is a member of the chemotactic cytokine (chemokine) beta subfamily. High affinity receptors for RANTES have been identified on a human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1, which responded to RANTES in chemotaxis and calcium mobilization assays. Steady-state binding data analyses revealed approximately 700 binding sites/cell on THP-1 cells with a Kd value of 400 pM, comparable to that expressed on human peripheral blood monocytes. The RANTES binding to monocytic cells was competed for by monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) alpha, two other chemokine beta cytokines. Although MCAF and MIP-1 alpha competed for RANTES binding to monocytes with apparent lower affinity (with estimated Kd of 6 and 1.6, nM respectively) both of these cytokines effectively desensitized the calcium mobilization induced by RANTES. The chemotactic response of THP- 1 cells to RANTES was also markedly inhibited by preincubation with MCAF or MIP-1 alpha. In contrast, RANTES did not desensitize the THP-1 calcium mobilization and chemotaxis in response to MCAF or MIP-1 alpha. These results, together with our previous observations that RANTES did not compete for MCAF or MIP-1 alpha binding on monocytic cells, indicate the expression of promiscuous receptors on monocytes that recognize one or more cytokines within the chemokine beta family.
PMCID: PMC2190922  PMID: 7679707
8.  RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha selectively enhance immunoglobulin (IgE) and IgG4 production by human B cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(5):2397-2402.
We studied the effects of various chemokines including neutrophil- activating peptide 2 (NAP-2), beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG), platelet factor 4 (PF-4), melanoma growth stimulating activity (GRO), gamma interferon-induced protein (IP-10), regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), MIP-1 beta, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) on Immunoglobulin (IgE) and IgG4 production by human B cells. None of these chemokines with or without interleukin (IL-4), anti-CD40 or -CD58 monoclonal antibody (mAb), induced IgE and IgG4 production by B cells from nonatopic donors. However, RANTES and MIP-1 alpha selectively enhanced IgE and IgG4 production induced by IL-4 plus anti- CD40 or -CD58 mAb without affecting production of IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA1, or IgA2, whereas other chemokines failed to do so. Enhancement of IgE and IgG4 production by RANTES and MIP-1 alpha was specifically blocked by anti-RANTES mAb and anti-MIP-1 alpha antibody (Ab), respectively, whereas anti-IL-5 mAb, anti-IL-6 mAb, anti-IL-10 Ab, anti-IL-13 Ab, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha mAb failed to do so. Purified surface IgE positive (slgE4) and slgG4+ B cells generated either in vitro or in vivo spontaneously produced IgE and IgG4, respectively, whereas sIgE- and sIgG4- B cells failed to do so. RANTES and MIP-1 alpha enhanced spontaneous IgE and IgG4 production in slgE+ and slgG4- B cells, respectively, whereas neither RANTES nor MIP- 1 alpha did so in sIgE- or sIgG4- B cells. Purified sIgE4+ and sIgG4+, but not sIgE- or sIgG4- B cells, generated in vitro and in vivo expressed receptors for RANTES and MIP-1 alpha, whereas they failed to express receptors for other chemokines. These findings indicate that RANTES and MIP-1 alpha enhance IgE and IgG4 production by directly stimulating sIgE+ and sIgG4+ B cells.
PMCID: PMC2192590  PMID: 8642352
9.  Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 is a potent activator of human basophils 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1992;175(5):1271-1275.
Cytokines belonging to the RANTES/SIS family are highly induced in a number of pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune disorders, cancers, atherosclerosis, and chronic inflammation. However, apart from their chemotactic activity on monocytes and particular lymphocyte types, the biological activities in the human system of this recently discovered cytokine family are largely unknown. Here we report that one family member, described as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), strongly activates mature human basophils in a pertussis toxin- sensitive manner. MCP-1 causes a rise in the cytosolic free calcium level in basophils and monocytes, but not in other blood leukocyte types, and triggers basophil degranulation at low concentrations (ED50 = 3-10 nM). Thus, MCP-1 is a cytokine capable of directly inducing histamine release by basophils. Furthermore, MCP-1 promotes the formation of leukotriene C4 by basophils pretreated with interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-5, or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. MCP- 1-induced basophil mediator release may play an important role in allergic inflammation and other pathologies expressing MCP-1.
PMCID: PMC2119199  PMID: 1569397
10.  Monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4), a novel structural and functional analogue of MCP-3 and eotaxin 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(5):2379-2384.
A novel human CC chemokine complementary DNA was identified in a library constructed from human fetal RNA, cloned into a baculovirus vector, and expressed in Sf9 insect cells. The mature recombinant protein that was released had the NH2-terminal sequence pyro- QPDALNVPSTC...and consisted of 75 amino acids. Minor amounts of two variants of 77 and 82 residues (NH2 termini: LAQPDA...and FNPQGLAQPDA...) were released as well. The novel chemokine was designated monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4) and the variants were designated (LA)MCP-4 and (FNPQGLA)MCP-4. MCP-4 shares the pyroglutamic acidproline NH2-terminal motif and 56-61% sequence identity with the three known monocyte chemotactic proteins and is 60% identical to eotaxin. It has marked functional similarities to MCP-3 and eotaxin. Like MCP-3, MCP-4 is a chemoattractant of high efficacy for monocytes and T lymphocytes. On these cells, it binds to receptors that recognize MCP-1, MCP-3, and RANTES. On eosinophils, MCP-4 has similar efficacy and potency as MCP-3, RANTES, and cotaxin. It shares receptors with eotaxin and shows full cross-desensitization with this cosinophil- selective chemokine. Of the two variants, only (LA)MCP-4 could be purified in sufficient quantities for testing and was found to be at least 30-fold less potent than MCP-4 itself. This suggests that the 75- residue form with the characteristic NH2 terminus of an MCP is the biologically relevant species.
PMCID: PMC2192560  PMID: 8642349
11.  Key role of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, nonstructural protein1 and myeloperoxidase in cytokine storm induced by influenza virus PR-8 (A/H1N1) infection in A549 bronchial epithelial cells 
Microbiology and immunology  2011;55(12):874-884.
Influenza virus infection causes severe respiratory disease such as that due to avian influenza (H5N1). Influenza A viruses proliferate in human epithelial cells, which produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines as a “cytokine storm” attenuated with the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Cytokine/chemokine production in A549 epithelial cells infected with influenza A/H1N1 virus (PR-8) or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plasmid was examined in vitro. Because tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) are predominantly produced from cells infected with PR-8 virus, the effects of mRNA knockdown of these cytokines were investigated. Small interfering (si)TNF-α down-regulated RANTES expression and secretion of RANTES, interleukin (IL)-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In addition, siRANTES suppressed interferon (IFN)-γ expression and secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1, suggesting that TNF-α stimulates production of RANTES, IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ, and RANTES also increased IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ. Furthermore, administration of TNF-α promoted increased secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1. Administration of RANTES enhanced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 production without PR-8 infection. These results strongly suggest that, as an initial step, TNF-α regulates RANTES production, followed by increase of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 and IFNs concentrations. At a later stage, cells transfected with viral NS1 plasmid showed production of a large amount of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the presence of the H2O2-myeloperoxidse (MPO) system, suggesting that NS1 of PR-8 may induce a “cytokine storm” from epithelial cells in the presence of an H2O2-MPO system.
doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2011.00396.x
PMCID: PMC4158925  PMID: 22039999
bronchial epithelial cells; influenza viral NS1; myloperoxidase; regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted
12.  Chemokine-induced eosinophil recruitment. Evidence of a role for endogenous eotaxin in an in vivo allergy model in mouse skin. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(7):1657-1666.
Selective eosinophil recruitment into tissues is a characteristic feature of allergic diseases. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in various allergic conditions in man. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of eosinophil recruitment in which we have compared the in vivo chemoattractant activity of different C-C chemokines. Furthermore, we describe the use of antibodies to chemokines and receptor blockade to address the endogenous mechanisms involved in eosinophil recruitment in a late-phase allergic reaction in mouse skin. Intradermal injection of mEotaxin and mMIP-1alpha, but not mMCP-1, mRANTES, mMCP-5, or mMIP-1beta, induced significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment in mouse skin. Significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment was also observed in an active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Pretreatment of skin sites with antieotaxin antiserum, but not an antiMIP-1alpha antibody, suppressed 111In-eosinophil recruitment in this delayed-onset allergic reaction. Similarly, desensitization of the eosinophil eotaxin receptor CCR3 with mEotaxin, or blockade of the receptor with metRANTES, significantly inhibited 111In-eosinophil recruitment in the allergic reaction. These results demonstrate an important role for endogenous eotaxin in mediating the 111In-eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation, and suggest that blockade of the CCR3 receptor is a valid strategy to inhibit eosinophil migration in vivo.
PMCID: PMC508348  PMID: 9312163
13.  Chemokine receptor usage by human eosinophils. The importance of CCR3 demonstrated using an antagonistic monoclonal antibody. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(2):178-184.
Chemokines bind and signal through G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptors. Various chemokine receptors are expressed on leukocytes, and these may impart selective homing of leukocyte subsets to sites of inflammation. Human eosinophils express the eotaxin receptor, CCR3, but respond to a variety of CC chemokines apart from eotaxin, including RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4. Here we describe a mAb, 7B11, that is selective for CCR3 and has the properties of a true receptor antagonist. 7B11 blocked binding of various radiolabeled chemokines to either CCR3 transfectants, or eosinophils. Pretreatment of eosinophils with this mAb blocked chemotaxis and calcium flux induced by all CCR3 ligands. In all individuals examined, including allergic and eosinophilic donors, > 95% of the response of eosinophils to eotaxin, RANTES, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-4 was shown to be mediated through CCR3. The IL-8 receptors, particularly CXCR2, were induced on IL-5 primed eosinophils, however these eosinophils responded to CC chemokines in the same manner as unprimed eosinophils. These results demonstrate the importance of CCR3 for eosinophil responses, and the feasibility of completely antagonizing this receptor.
PMCID: PMC507784  PMID: 9005985
14.  Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(11):5820-5826.
Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity.
PMCID: PMC96961  PMID: 10531235
15.  Borrelia burgdorferi induces chemokines in human monocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(11):4384-4388.
Lyme disease is clinically and histologically characterized by strong inflammatory reactions that contrast the paucity of spirochetes at lesional sites, indicating that borreliae induce mechanisms that amplify the inflammatory response. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of chemoattraction and activation of responding leukocytes, we investigated the induction of chemokines in human monocytes exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by a dose-response and kinetic analysis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli was used as a positive control stimulus. The release of the CXC chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and GRO-alpha and the CC chemokines MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES was determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the corresponding gene expression patterns were determined by Northern blot analysis. The results showed a rapid and strong borrelia-inducible gene expression which was followed by the release of chemokines with peak levels after 12 to 16 h. Spirochetes and LPS were comparably effective in stimulating IL-8, GRO-alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES expression, whereas MIP-1alpha production preceded and exceeded chemokine levels induced by LPS. Unlike other bacteria, the spirochetes themselves did not bear or release factors with intrinsic chemotactic activity for monocytes or neutrophils. Thus, B. burgdorferi appears to be a strong inducer of chemokines which may, by the attraction and activation of phagocytic leukocytes, significantly contribute to inflammation and tissue damage observed in Lyme disease.
PMCID: PMC175630  PMID: 9353009
16.  RANTES and MCP-3 inhibit the replication of T-cell-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains (SF-2, MN, and HE). 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(10):7300-7304.
The effects of the C-C chemokines RANTES (regulation upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and MCP-3 (monocyte chemotactic protein 3) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were investigated. The following T-cell line-tropic (T-tropic) HIV strains were tested: HIV type 1 (HIV-1) SF-2, HIV-1 IIIB, HIV-1 MN, HIV-1 NDK, HIV-1 HE, HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-2 ROD, and HIV-2 EHO. The strain most sensitive to the antiviral effects of RANTES and MCP-3 appeared to be HIV-1 SF-2. A 50% inhibitory concentration for HIV-1 SF-2 of 4 ng of RANTES per ml was obtained, and that of MCP-3 was about 1 ng/ml. However, MCP-3 was inactive at 100 ng/ml. Other HIV-1 strains, such as MN and HE, were less sensitive to the antiviral effects of RANTES and MCP-3, whereas all the other HIV strains tested were insensitive. Although the ratio of CD3+ CD4+ to CD3+ CD8+ T cells was the same in HIV-infected PBMC cultures treated or untreated with the chemokines, RANTES and MCP-3 interfered with the binding of monoclonal antibody (MAb) OKT4 to the CD4 receptor on T cells but not with the binding of MAb OKT4A. Therefore, RANTES and MCP-3 not only interfere with the HIV-induced fusion process but also have some modulating effect on the CD4 cell receptor. The chemokines did not affect HIV-1 binding to PHA-stimulated PBMC. Taken together, our observations point to the important role that both RANTES and MCP-3 may play in inhibiting HIV-1 replication of certain T-tropic strains in primary PBMC cultures. This may have important implications for immunotherapeutic strategies designed to slow down disease progression in AIDS.
PMCID: PMC192073  PMID: 9311806
17.  Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), -2, and -3 are chemotactic for human T lymphocytes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(3):1370-1376.
Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 all have been shown to induce monocyte/macrophage migration in vitro and MCP-1, also known as MCAF, chemoattracts basophils and mast cells. We report here that natural MCP-1 as well as synthetic preparations of MCP-2 and MCP-3 stimulate significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. This MCP-induced migration was dose-dependent and directional, but not chemokinetic. Phenotypic analysis of the T cell population responsive to MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 demonstrates that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrated in response to these chemokines. Similar results were observed using human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Neutralizing antisera to MCAF or MCP-2 abrogated T cell migration in response to MCP-1 and MCP-2, respectively, but not to RANTES. Subcutaneous administration of purified MCP-1 into the hind flanks of SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced significant human CD3+ T cell infiltration into the site of injection at 4 h. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 are inflammatory mediators that specifically stimulate the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes and may play an important role in immune cell recruitment into sites of antigenic challenge.
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PMCID: PMC441477  PMID: 7883984
18.  Chemokine receptor specific for IP10 and mig: structure, function, and expression in activated T-lymphocytes  
A human receptor that is selective for the CXC chemokines IP10 and Mig was cloned and characterized. The receptor cDNA has an open reading frame of 1104-bp encoding a protein of 368 amino acids with a molecular mass of 40,659 dalton. The sequence includes seven putative transmembrane segments characteristic of G-protein coupled receptors. It shares 40.9 and 40.3% identical amino acids with the two IL-8 receptors, and 34.2-36.9% identity with the five known CC chemokine receptors. The IP10/Mig receptor is highly expressed in IL-2-activated T lymphocytes, but is not detectable in resting T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. It mediates Ca2+ mobilization and chemotaxis in response to IP10 and Mig, but does not recognize the CXC-chemokines IL-8, GRO alpha, NAP-2, GCP-2. ENA78, PF4, the CC- chemokines MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta. RANTES, 1309, eotaxin, nor lymphotactin. The exclusive expression in activated T-lymphocytes is of high interest since the receptors for chemokines which have been shown so far to attract lymphocytes, e.g., MCP-1, MCP- 2, MCP-3, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and RANTES, are also found in monocytes and granulocytes. The present observations suggest that the IP10/Mig receptor is involved in the selective recruitment of effector T cells.
PMCID: PMC2192763  PMID: 9064356
19.  The kinetics of allergen-induced transcription of messenger RNA for monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and RANTES in the skin of human atopic subjects: relationship to eosinophil, T cell, and macrophage recruitment 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1995;181(6):2153-2159.
The C-C chemokines RANTES and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) are potent chemoattractants in vitro for eosinophils and other cell types associated with allergic reactions. We tested the hypothesis that the allergen-induced infiltration of eosinophils, T cells, and macrophages in the skin of atopic subjects is accompanied by the appearance of mRNA+ cells for RANTES and MCP-3. Cryostat sections were obtained from skin biopsies from six subjects 6, 24, and 48 h after allergen challenge. Tissue was processed for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and for in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled riboprobes for RANTES and MCP-3. In contrast to diluent controls, allergen provoked a significant increase in mRNA+ cells for MCP-3, which peaked at 6 h and progressively declined at 24 and 48 h. This paralleled the kinetics of total (major basic protein positive [MBP]+) and activated (cleaved form of eosinophil cationic protein [EG2]+) eosinophil infiltration. The allergen-induced expression of cells mRNA+ for RANTES was also clearly demonstrable at 6 h. However, the numbers were maximal at 24 h and declined slightly at the 48-h time point. The number of mRNA+ cells for RANTES paralleled the kinetics of infiltration of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells whereas the number of CD68+ macrophages was still increasing at 48 h. These data support the view that MCP-3 is involved in the regulation of the early eosinophil response to specific allergen, whereas RANTES may have more relevance to the later accumulation of T cells and macrophages.
PMCID: PMC2192079  PMID: 7539041
20.  Cultured human liver fat-storing cells produce monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Regulation by proinflammatory cytokines. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;92(4):1674-1680.
Monocytes infiltrate the portal space during chronic liver inflammation. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a cytokine that induces monocyte chemotaxis and activation. We investigated if human liver fat-storing cells (FSC) secrete MCP-1, and the mechanisms that regulate MCP-1 production. Unstimulated FSC secrete MCP-1 as measured by radioimmunoassay as well as a chemotactic assay and express mRNA that encodes for this cytokine. A two- to threefold increase in MCP-1 secretion was observed when FSC were treated with either interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) also increased MCP-1 secretion, although to a lesser extent (1.6-fold). Northern blot analysis showed that IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma strongly increase the levels of mRNA that encodes for MCP-1, whereas TNF alpha appears to be a weaker stimulus. Analysis of FSC-conditioned medium by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed three bands of MCP-1 that most likely represent isoforms of different apparent molecular weights. Pretreatment of FSC with H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor, blocked cytokine-induced increase in both MCP-1 gene expression and secretion. To determine the potential role of MCP-1 in vivo, we also analyzed normal and pathologic human liver tissue. Northern blot analysis showed that MCP-1 mRNA expression is more abundant in liver tissue obtained from patients with chronic active hepatitis compared with normal liver tissue. These studies indicate that MCP-1 secreted by FSC is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines and that MCP-1 gene expression is upregulated in chronic inflammatory liver disease. MCP-1 released by FSC may participate in the recruitment and activation of monocytes at sites of liver injury.
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PMCID: PMC288326  PMID: 8408620
21.  Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(6):2437-2448.
The chemokine eotaxin is unusual in that it appears to be a highly specific chemoattractant for eosinophils. Ligand-binding studies with radiolabeled eotaxin demonstrated a receptor on eosinophils distinct from the known chemokine receptors CKR-1 and -2. The distinct eotaxin binding site on human eosinophils also bound RANTES (regulated on activation T expressed and secreted) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)3. We have now isolated a cDNA from eosinophils, termed CKR-3, with significant sequence similarity to other well characterized chemokine receptors. Cells transfected with CKR-3 cDNA bound radiolabeled eotaxin specifically and with high affinity, comparable to the binding affinity observed with eosinophils. This receptor also bound RANTES and MCP-3 with high affinity, but not other CC or CXC chemokines. Furthermore, receptor transfectants generated in a murine B cell lymphoma cell line migrated in transwell chemotaxis assays to eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-3, but not to any other chemokines. A monoclonal antibody recognizing CKR-3 was used to show that eosinophils, but not other leukocyte types, expressed this receptor. This pattern of expression was confirmed by Northern blot with RNA from highly purified leukocyte subsets. The restricted expression of CKR-3 on eosinophils and the fidelity of eotaxin binding to CKR-3, provides a potential mechanism for the selective recruitment and migration of eosinophils within tissues.
PMCID: PMC2192612  PMID: 8676064
22.  Neutralization of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2 (MIP-2) and MIP-1α Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment in the Central Nervous System during Experimental Bacterial Meningitis 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(5):2590-2601.
Chemokines are low-molecular-weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a central role in the perivascular transmigration and accumulation of specific subsets of leukocytes at sites of tissue damage. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we investigated the mRNA induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), MIP-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES. Challenge of infant rats’ brains with Haemophilus influenzae type b intraperitoneally resulted in the time-dependent expression of MIP-2, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and RANTES, which was maximal 24 to 48 h postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increases in neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the meninges, the ventricular system, and the periventricular area. The kinetics of MIP-2, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and RANTES mRNA expression paralleled those of the recruitment of inflammatory cells and disease severity. Administration of anti-MIP-2 or anti-MIP-1α antibodies (Abs) resulted in significant reduction of neutrophils. Administration of anti-MCP-1 Abs significantly decreased macrophage infiltration. Combined studies of ISH and immunohistochemistry showed that MIP-2- and MIP-1α-positive cells were neutrophils and macrophages. MCP-1-positive cells were neutrophils, macrophages, and astrocytes. Expression of RANTES was localized predominantly to resident astrocytes and microglia. The present study indicates that blocking of MIP-2 or MIP-1α bioactivity in vivo results in decreased neutrophil influx. These data are also the first demonstration that the C-C chemokine MIP-1α is involved in neutrophil recruitment in vivo.
PMCID: PMC116008  PMID: 10225925
23.  Chemokines regulate cellular polarization and adhesion receptor redistribution during lymphocyte interaction with endothelium and extracellular matrix. Involvement of cAMP signaling pathway 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1995;131(2):495-508.
Leukocyte recruitment is a key step in the inflammatory reaction. Several changes in the cell morphology take place during lymphocyte activation and migration: spheric-shaped resting T cells become polarized during activation, developing a well defined cytoplasmic projection designated as cellular uropod. We found that the chemotactic and proinflammatory chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, and, to a lower extent, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and IL-8, were able to induce uropod formation and ICAM-3 redistribution in T lymphoblasts adhered to ICAM-1 or VCAM- 1. A similar chemokine-mediated effect was observed during T cells binding to the fibronectin fragments of 38- and 80-kD, that contain the binding sites for the integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5, respectively. The uropod structure concentrated the ICAM-3 adhesion molecule (a ligand for LFA-1), and emerged to the outer milieu from the area of contact between lymphocyte and protein ligands. In addition, we found that other adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, CD43, and CD44, also redistributed to the lymphocyte uropod upon RANTES stimulation, whereas a wide number of other cell surface receptors did not redistribute. Chemokines displayed a selective effect among different T cell subsets; MIP-1 beta had more potent action on CD8+ T cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), whereas RANTES and MIP-1 alpha targeted selectively CD4+ T cells. We have also examined the involvement of cAMP signaling pathway in uropod formation. Interestingly, several cAMP agonists were able to induce uropod formation and ICAM-3 redistribution, whereas H-89, a specific inhibitor of the cAMP- dependent protein kinase, abrogated the chemokine-mediated uropod formation, thus pointing out a role for cAMP-dependent signaling in the development of this cytoplasmic projection. Since the lymphocyte uropod induced by chemokines was completely abrogated by Bordetella pertussis toxin, the formation of this membrane projection appears to be dependent on G proteins signaling pathways. In addition, the involvement of myosin-based cytoskeleton in uropod formation and ICAM-3 redistribution in response to chemokines was suggested by the prevention of this phenomenon with the myosin-disrupting agent butanedione monoxime. Interestingly, this agent also inhibited the ICAM- 3-mediated cell aggregation, but not the cell adhesion to substrata. Altogether, these results demonstrate that uropod formation and adhesion receptor redistribution is a novel function mediated by chemokines; this phenomenon may represent a mechanism that significantly contributes to the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to inflammatory foci.
PMCID: PMC2199975  PMID: 7593174
24.  TNF-α and IL-1α but not MCP-1 and Rantes increase significantly the formation of p-H2AX foci in naïve BM-derived TNFR1/p55KO EPCs 
Journal of Radiation Research  2014;55(Suppl 1):i122-i123.
Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) binds two receptors TNFR1/p55 and TNFR2/p75 and activates several signaling cascades. Ionizing radiation (IR) increases tissue levels of TNF. TNF signaling regulates numerous cytokines and chemokines that are known to mediate radiation-induced non-targeted effects (NTEs), a phenomenon where cells that are not directly ‘hit’ by IR exhibit IR effects as a result of signals received from nearby or distant IR cells. Little is known about the role of p55 or p75 in regulating NTE in bone marrow (BM) cells, specifically in BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In media transfer experiments, we have previously shown that compared with WT EPCs, early NTEs (within 1–5 h) are inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed NTEs (within 3–5 days) are amplified in p55KO and to a lesser degree in p75KO EPCs, suggesting significant role of TNFR/p75 signaling (the remaining active receptor in p55KO EPCs) in mediating delayed NTEs. We hypothesized that signaling through TNFR2/p75 may alter radiation-induced TNF-mediated inflammatory response increasing tissue levels of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors that could then induce NTE, possibly, via activation of NFkB and other stress response transcription factors.
Methods: To test our hypothesis ex vivo, expanded p55KO EPCs were irradiated with 1 Gy of γ-IR, then IR-conditioned medium (CM) was collected at 1, 5, 24 h, and 3, 5 days post-IR. CM from IR p55KO EPCs were processed for multiplex ELISA (12 proteins). After determining concentrations of each of 12 proteins in control and IR-CM media of p55KO EPCs over 5 days, we treated naïve p55KO EPCs with various concentrations of four mouse recombinant (rm) proteins that were steadily increased in IR-CM between Days 3–5. After 24 h incubation, naïve p55KO EPCs were stained with anti-p-H2AX antibodies and the formation of p-H2AX foci was visualized at ×100 magnification using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The p-H2AX foci were quantified manually by a single investigator blindfolded to the treatment conditions and were confirmed using computer-assisted algorithm.
Results: ELISA profiling of 12 proteins in IR-CM over 5 days post-IR showed 200–1600% increases (P < 0.02, at least, p55KO vs WT, Days 3–5) in cumulative levels of TNF, IFNr, IL1α, IL1β, IL6, EGF, MIP-1α, MCP-1, GCSF, GM-CSF, Rantes and Leptin. The steadiest and the highest increases between Days 3 and 5 were observed in IL-1α, MCP-1 and Rantes.
Naïve p55KO EPCs were then treated ex vivo with concentrations determined in the ELISA: IL-1α (290, 580 pg/ml), MCP-1 (580, 1160, 2900 pg/ml), Rantes (600, 1500 pg/ml) and TNF (100 pg/ml, 1, 40 ng/ml). After 24 h incubation with rm proteins, p55KO EPCs were stained with anti-p-H2AX antibodies. The cells were imaged and the quantification of the p-H2AX foci was performed as described above.
Results showed that the mean p-H2AX foci count of MCP-1 and Rantes was not significantly different from control which had a mean of 0.98 p-H2AX foci/cell count, with the exception of MCP-1 at 1160 pg/ml (P < 0.03, mean foci count of 1.9). TNF-treated naïve p55KO EPCs showed a significant increase in the mean p-H2AX foci/cell count at all concentration compared with the control, MCP-1 and Rantes (P < 0.0001 with the mean p-H2AX foci ranging from 2.8 to 3.9).
IL1α-treated p55KO EPCs showed the greatest increase in p-H2AX foci with the mean foci count of 7.1 at 290 pg/ml and 9.3 at 580 pg/ml, and was significantly different from all tested mouse recombinant proteins. Analysis of p-H2AX foci distribution of EPCs with one or more foci showed that in control p55KO EPCs, <1% of cells had a maximum of 4–9 p-H2AX foci/cell. Whereas in TNF- and IL-1α-treated p55KO EPCs, >2% and >4% of cells had 9–18 foci/cell, respectively. Remarkably, 1% of cells had as many as 18–31 foci/cell for TNF-treated cells and as many as 19–51 foci/cell for IL-1α-treated p55KO EPCs.
We conclude that TNF-TNFR2/p75 axis may induce NTEs in naïve BM-EPCs and suggest that blocking/neutralizing TNFR2/p75 signaling could represent a mitigating measure for prevention of delayed NTEs, specifically, in BM-derived EPCs and, conceivably, in BM milieu in general.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrt199
PMCID: PMC3941533
TNF; TNFR2/p75; BM-EPCs; non-targeted; IL-1α
25.  Cloning, expression, and characterization of the human eosinophil eotaxin receptor 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(5):2349-2354.
Although there is a mounting body of evidence that eosinophils are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation by a number of beta- chemokines, particularly eotaxin and RANTES, the receptor that mediates these actions has not been identified. We have now cloned a G protein- coupled receptor, CC CKR3, from human eosinophils which, when stably expressed in AML14.3D10 cells bound eotaxin, MCP-3 and RANTES with Kds of 0.1, 2.7 and 3.1 nM, respectively. CC CKR3 also bound MCP-1 with lower affinity, but did not bind MIP-1 alpha or MIP-1 beta. Eotaxin, RANTES, and to a lessor extent MCP-3, but not the other chemokines, activated CC CKR3 as determined by their ability to stimulate a Ca(2+) - flux. Competition binding studies on primary eosinophils gave binding affinities for the different chemokines which were indistinguishable from those measured with CC CKR3. Since CC CKR3 is prominently expressed in eosinophils we conclude that CC CKR3 is the eosinophil eotaxin receptor. Eosinophils also express a much lower level of a second chemokine receptor, CC CKR1, which appears to be responsible for the effects of MIP-1 alpha.
PMCID: PMC2192548  PMID: 8642344

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