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1.  Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women 
Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women.
Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC).
The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years). After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR) of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC < 80 cm, was 9.5 (95% CI 5.6-16.1). The optimal cutoff value for WC predicting IR was 88.5 cm; with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 64%, respectively.
Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.
PMCID: PMC3170572  PMID: 21831271
Insulin resistance; Waist circumference; HOMA-IR; Cutoff; Iranian women
2.  Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(5):734-737.
The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resistance determined by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and components of metabolic syndrome. The optimal waist circumference cutoff values were 87 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to HOMA-IR and 86 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to value with more than two components of metaobolic syndrome. By using a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, 86 cm for men and 82 cm for women were optimal waist circumference cutoff values. In this study, we suggest that the most reasonable waist circumference cutoff values are 86-87 cm for men and 82-83 cm for women.
PMCID: PMC2858833  PMID: 20436710
Waist Circumference; Cutoff Value; Metabolic Syndrome
3.  Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(4):511-518.
We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population.
Materials and Methods
A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied.
The cutoff value of waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance from the ROC analysis was 84.4 cm for men and 80.6 cm for women. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.0% and 54.2% in men and 71.1% and 59.3% in women, respectively. After being controlled for other covariates, the odds ratio for the risk of insulin resistance using < 70 cm of waist circumference as a reference increased significantly in the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. In addition, statistically significant associations were consistently observed over the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women.
The optimal cutoff value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women, suggesting that the Asian criterion of abdominal obesity (90 cm for men and 80 cm for women) as a component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) might not be applicable for middle-aged to older men in Korea.
PMCID: PMC2880262  PMID: 20499415
Metabolic syndrome; waist circumference; insulin resistance
4.  Association of insulin resistance with bronchial hyperreactivity 
Asia Pacific Allergy  2014;4(2):99-105.
Several epidemiologic studies showed the significant association of insulin resistance with asthma.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of insulin resistance with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in adult population.
1,058 subjects who visited to the Seoul National University Hospital Gangnam Center from October 2007 to January 2009 for a routine health check-up were enrolled. All subjects completed a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, blood tests, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT). Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Thirty-three subjects (3.1%) had AHR based on MBPT. The subjects with AHR had higher BMI, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR than those without AHR (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). In case of men, fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR had significant correlation with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) (r = -0.1440, p = 0.011, and r = -0.1156, p = 0.042, respectively). Fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR were higher in men with AHR than in those without (p = 0.046 and p = 0.040, respectively). In binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, HOMA-IR was the significant risk factor for AHR in men (HOMA-IR: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-10.30). In case of women, fasting insulin, glucose level, or insulin resistance had no significant correlation with lung function. BMI, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in women with AHR than in those without (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.010, respectively). In binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, BMI and HOMA-IR were the significant risk factors for AHR in women (BMI: OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.23-3.82; insulin resistance: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09).
Insulin resistance was significantly associated with bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the most characteristic feature of asthma.
PMCID: PMC4005343  PMID: 24809015
Asthma; Obesity; Bronchial hyperreactivity; Insulin resistance
5.  Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers 
The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk.
3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS.
With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively.
Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and assessment of MS risk, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points in this cohort were developed with variation regarding puberty. HOMA-IR may be useful for early evaluating insulin resistance in children and teenagers and could have a long-term benefit of preventive and diagnostic therapeutic intervention.
PMCID: PMC3833654  PMID: 24228769
Homeostasis model assessment; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Children; Teenagers
6.  Association of chronic viral hepatitis B with insulin resistance 
AIM: To investigate the relationship between chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB) and insulin resistance (IR) in Korean adults.
METHODS: A total of 7880 adults (3851 men, 4029 women) who underwent a comprehensive medical examination were enrolled in this study. Subjects diagnosed with either diabetes mellitus, or any other disorder that could influence their insulin sensitivity, were rejected. Anthropometry, metabolic risk factors, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, hepatitis B core antibody, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured for all subjects. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI), and Mffm index were used for determining insulin sensitivity. Each participant was categorized into a negative, recovery, or CVHB group. To compare variables between groups, a t-test and/or one-way analysis of variance were used. Partial correlation coefficients were computed to present the association between insulin resistance and other variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between CVHB and IR.
RESULTS: The mean age of men and women were 48.9 and 48.6 years, respectively. Subjects in the CVHB group had significantly higher waist circumference [(86.0 ± 7.7 cm vs 87.3 ± 7.8 cm, P = 0.004 in men), (78.3 ± 8.6 cm vs 80.5 ± 8.5 cm, P < 0.001 in women)], cystatin C [(0.96 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 1.02 ± 0.22 mg/dL, P < 0.001 in men), (0.84 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 0.90 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P < 0.001 in women)], fasting insulin [(5.47 ± 3.38 μU/mL vs 6.12 ± 4.62 μU/mL, P < 0.001 in men), (4.57 ± 2.82 μU/mL vs 5.06 ± 3.10 μU/mL, P < 0.001 in women)] and HOMA index [(1.24 ± 0.86 vs 1.43 ± 1.24, P < 0.001 in men), (1.02 ± 0.76 vs 1.13 ± 0.87, P = 0.033 in women)] compared to control group. The HOMA index revealed a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.378, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r =0.356, P < 0.001), percent body fat (r = 0.296, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.202, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.134, P < 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.292, P < 0.001), cystatin C (r = 0.069, P < 0.001) and uric acid (r = 0.142, P < 0.001). The QUICKI index revealed a negative correlation with BMI (r = -0.254, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0-0.243, P < 0.001), percent body fat (r = -0.217, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.132, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = -0.106, P < 0.001), triglycerides (r = -0.205, P < 0.001), cystatin C (r = -0.044, P < 0.001) and uric acid (r = -0.096, P < 0.001). For subjects identified with IR, the odds ratio of an accompanying diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was 1.534 (95% CI: 1.158-2.031, HOMA index criteria) or 1.566 (95% CI: 1.124-2.182, QUICKI criteria) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and amount of alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that CVHB is associated with IR. CVHB may need to be monitored for occurrence of IR and diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC3496889  PMID: 23155341
Hepatitis B; Insulin resistance; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Metabolic syndrome
7.  Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0125365.
Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR.
A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index.
After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio.
SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.
PMCID: PMC4423830  PMID: 25951458
8.  Cutoff Values of Surrogate Measures of Insulin Resistance for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Non-diabetic Adults 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):695-700.
We investigated the cutoff values of surrogate of insulin resistance for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The data from 976 non-diabetic individuals (484 men and 492 women) aged 30-79 yr were analyzed. We determined the odds ratios for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the quartiles of fasting insulin, homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as independent variables, while adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. The cutoff values of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI were estimated by the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The cutoff points for defining insulin resistance are a fasting insulin level of 12.94 µU/mL, HOMA-IR=3.04 as the 75th percentile value, and QUICKI=0.32 as the 25th percentile value. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the highest quartiles of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI were 1.95 (1.26-3.01), 2.27 (1.45-3.56), and 2.27 (1.45-3.56), respectively. The respective cutoff values for fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI by ROC analysis were 10.57 µU/mL (sensitivity 58.5%, specificity 66.8%), 2.34 (sensitivity 62.8%, specificity 65.7%), and 0.33 (sensitivity 61.2%, specificity 66.8%). Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI can be used as surrogate measures of insulin resistance in Korean non-diabetic adults.
PMCID: PMC2729893  PMID: 16891815
Insulin Resistance; Metabolic Syndrome X
9.  Predicting insulin resistance using the triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in Taiwanese adults 
The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) has been advocated as a simple clinical indicator of insulin resistance. Thresholds of TG/HDL-C appeared to depend on ethnicity. However, no studies have specifically compared the accuracy of TG/HDL-C with and without other clinical and demographic factors in predicting insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. The aim of the present investigation was to use TG/HDL-C and other clinical available factors to predict insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults.
A total of 812 subjects were recruited from at the time of their general health examination at the Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taiwan. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained. Insulin resistance was defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to obtain probabilities of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 2) using TG/HDL-C with (Model 2) and without (Model 1) other clinical variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the two models to correctly discriminate between subjects of low and elevated HOMA-IR.
Female sex, greater waist circumferences, and higher ALT levels were significantly associated with the risk of elevated HOMA-IR in addition to TG/HDL-C in the multiple logistic regression (Model 2). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Model 2 was 0.71 [95% CI = 0.67-0.75] and was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than the AUC 0.66 [95% CI = 0.62-0.71] of Model 1.
The diagnostic accuracy of insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR, using TG/HDL-C can be significantly enhanced by including three additional clinically available factors - sex, waist circumferences, and ALT levels.
PMCID: PMC3224454  PMID: 22004541
prediction; insulin resistance; Chinese; ethnic groups
10.  The Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia but Not Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Men with Sleep Apnea 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71000.
Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients.
The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference.
Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = −0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance.
Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.
PMCID: PMC3741390  PMID: 23951064
11.  The Waist Circumference of Risk in Black South African Men Is Lower Than in Men of European Ancestry 
Central obesity measured by waist circumference is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor; however, the waist circumference of risk in populations of African descent has not been identified. The International Diabetes Federation currently suggests that cutoffs established in men of European descent be applied to sub-Saharan men—a waist circumference ≥94 cm.
Subjects and Methods
Participants were 203 South African black men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They were divided into quartiles of waist circumference (>88 cm, 88–94 cm, 95–103 cm, >103 cm). Cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance (IR), measured by modified homeostasis model assessement of IR (HOMA-IR), and the triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-to-HDL-C) ratio, were compared across quartiles.
Age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, and smoking were similar across waist circumference quartiles. Overall, for both lipids and measures of IR, there was variation across waist circumference quartiles, but no significant differences between quartiles 2 and 3. Therefore, data from these two quartiles were pooled. Between the first and second+third (88–103 cm) quartiles, there were significant differences in HDL-C (1.30±0.43, 1.10±0.43 mmol/L, P=0.003), TG (medians 1.10, 1.60 mmol/L P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 2.40±0.93, 2.85±1.03 mmol/L, P=0.01), non-HDL-C (3.05±1.18, 3.70±1.16 mmol/L, P=0.002), HOMA-IR (medians 0.90, 2.10, P<0.001), and TG-to-HDL-C ratio (medians 0.89, 1.17, P<0.001). Additional comparisons were made between men with waist circumference <90 cm and 90–93 cm. Values for each lipid and for IR parameters were more favorable in the <90-cm group (all P<0.05).
For black South African diabetic men, CVD risk substantially increased with waist circumference >90 cm. The waist circumference cut point of >94 cm has the potential to misclassify many black South African diabetic men at risk for CVD.
PMCID: PMC3225062  PMID: 21875336
12.  Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort 
While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults.
Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR). Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points.
Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females) were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.71(0.64,0.79) for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79) for women. Using the Youden Index (J) the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38) while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12). In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39) and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35).
The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower than the IDF recommended WC cut point. Sex differences in WC cut points for identifying IR were less marked in this population than in other ethnic groups.
PMCID: PMC3017019  PMID: 21134291
13.  Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents 
Revista Paulista de Pediatria  2014;32(1):55-62.
To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators.
A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity.
The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%.
All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.
PMCID: PMC4182990  PMID: 24676191
metabolic syndrome x; insulin resistance; obesity; adolescent; body composition; anthropometry
14.  Prevalence of insulin resistance and its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults over 35 years old 
To estimate the prevalence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and to study its relationship with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults.
This cross-sectional study was comprised of 227 men and 990 women undergoing routine health check-up. The prevalence of insulin resistance was estimated using diagnostic criteria previously employed in Asian and other populations. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations of HOMA-IR with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate associations of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-Cholesterolemia, and hypertension with varying HOMA-IR values.
Approximately 25.1% of men (HOMA-IR ≥ 1.56) and 21.5% of women (HOMA-IR ≥1.64) were classified as having insulin resistance. HOMA-IR values were statistically significantly and positively associated with body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and serum triglycerides. The values were inversely correlated with HDL-Cholesterol. When compared with those whose HOMA-IR values were within the lowest quartile (<0.45), men with HOMA-IR values in the highest quartile (≥1.58) had higher risks of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR=2.83), low HDL-Cholesterolemia (adjusted OR=2.79), and hypertension (adjusted OR=2.76). Similar associations were observed among women.
Insulin resistance, as determined using HOMA-IR, was positively associated with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults.
PMCID: PMC2919620  PMID: 20466446
Insulin Resistance; HOMA-IR; Risk Factors; Epidemiology; Thailand
15.  Waist circumference and insulin resistance in elderly men: an analysis of Kahrizak elderly study 
Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is crucial for health care practitioners to identify at risk people for early treatment. Visceral obesity may make unnecessary other laborious measures of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to see whether waist circumference (WC) can predict insulin resistance as well as MS in a group of Iranian elderly.
Out of 94 nondiabetic elderly, thirty three subjects were recognized with MS. MS diagnosis was based on NCEP ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) and IDF (International Diabetes Federation) definitions. HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index was used to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as top quartile of HOMA.
In both sexes, WC and HOMA index were significantly positively correlated. The optimal waist circumference (OWC) cutoff point was 94.5 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women. The high sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.84) of WC in males indicates the proportion of IR which is correctly identified and recognizes all non-IR males as such. In regression model only the TG level was associated with WC. But the WC is strongly associated with HOMA-IR.
While OWC is very likely a good measure to exclude non-IR subjects in our study, determination of optimal WC to identify elderly IR subjects warrants further study in a larger sample of the general population.
PMCID: PMC3929157  PMID: 24495315
Waist circumference; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Elderly
16.  The Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Fails to Predict Insulin Resistance in African-American Women: An Analysis of Jackson Heart Study 
Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans.
In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35–80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m2, range 18.5–55 kg/m2] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index.
HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P < 0.001) and TG/HDL-C (1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 2.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001). For men, AUC-ROC for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was: 0.77 ± 0.01, mean ± standard error (SE), with an optimal cutoff of ≥2.5. For women, the AUC-ROC was 0.66 ± 0.01, rendering an optimal cutoff indefinable. When women were divided in two groups according to age, 35–50 years and 51–80 years, the results did not change.
In African-American men, the recommended TG/HDL-C threshold of 2.0 should be adjusted upward to 2.5. In African-American women, TG/HDL-C cannot identify insulin resistance. The Jackson Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.
PMCID: PMC3125564  PMID: 20715971
17.  The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2013;28(1):33-40.
We investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.
Nine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men) in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.
One hundred forty-six subjects (15.4%) showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7%) had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women).
In our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC3811801  PMID: 24396648
Coronary artery calcium score; Waist-hip ratio; Obesity, abdominal
18.  Long-Term Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes and Measures of Overall and Regional Obesity: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(6):e1001230.
A collaborative re-analysis of data from the InterAct case-control study conducted by Claudia Langenberg and colleagues has established that waist circumference is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of body mass index.
Waist circumference (WC) is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future diabetes by WC at different levels of body mass index (BMI).
Methods and Findings
The prospective InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centres in eight European countries and consists of 12,403 incident T2D cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We used Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods to estimate hazard ratios for T2D. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of T2D were calculated. BMI and WC were each independently associated with T2D, with WC being a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Risk increased across groups defined by BMI and WC; compared to low normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5–22.4 kg/m2) with a low WC (<94/80 cm in men/women), the hazard ratio of T2D was 22.0 (95% confidence interval 14.3; 33.8) in men and 31.8 (25.2; 40.2) in women with grade 2 obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) and a high WC (>102/88 cm). Among the large group of overweight individuals, WC measurement was highly informative and facilitated the identification of a subgroup of overweight people with high WC whose 10-y T2D cumulative incidence (men, 70 per 1,000 person-years; women, 44 per 1,000 person-years) was comparable to that of the obese group (50–103 per 1,000 person-years in men and 28–74 per 1,000 person-years in women).
WC is independently and strongly associated with T2D, particularly in women, and should be more widely measured for risk stratification. If targeted measurement is necessary for reasons of resource scarcity, measuring WC in overweight individuals may be an effective strategy, since it identifies a high-risk subgroup of individuals who could benefit from individualised preventive action.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Worldwide, more than 350 million people have diabetes, and this number is increasing rapidly. Diabetes is characterized by dangerous levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by insulin, a hormone that the pancreas releases after meals (digestion of food produces glucose). In people with type 2 diabetes (the commonest form of diabetes), blood sugar control fails because the fat and muscle cells that normally respond to insulin by removing sugar from the blood become insulin resistant. Type 2 diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise, and with drugs that help the pancreas make more insulin or that make cells more sensitive to insulin. The long-term complications of diabetes, which include an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, reduce the life expectancy of people with diabetes by about 10 years compared to people without diabetes.
Why Was This Study Done?
A high body mass index (BMI, a measure of body fat calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared) is a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes. Although the risk of diabetes is greatest in obese people (who have a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m2), many of the people who develop diabetes are overweight—they have a BMI of 25–30 kg/m2. Healthy eating and exercise reduce the incidence of diabetes in high-risk individuals, but it is difficult and expensive to provide all overweight and obese people with individual lifestyle advice. Ideally, a way is needed to distinguish between people with high and low risk of developing diabetes at different levels of BMI. Waist circumference is a measure of fat distribution that has the potential to quantify diabetes risk among people with different BMIs because it estimates the amount of fat around the abdominal organs, which also predicts diabetes development. In this case-cohort study, the researchers use data from the InterAct study (which is investigating how genetics and lifestyle interact to affect diabetes risk) to estimate the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes associated with BMI and waist circumference. A case-cohort study measures exposure to potential risk factors in a group (cohort) of people and compares the occurrence of these risk factors in people who later develop the disease and in a randomly chosen subcohort.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers estimated the association of BMI and waist circumference with type 2 diabetes from baseline measurements of the weight, height, and waist circumference of 12,403 people who subsequently developed type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 16,154 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Both risk factors were independently associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but waist circumference was a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Obese men (BMI greater than 35 kg/m2) with a high waist circumference (greater than 102 cm) were 22 times more likely to develop diabetes than men with a low normal weight (BMI 18.5–22.4 kg/m2) and a low waist circumference (less than 94 cm); obese women with a waist circumference of more than 88 cm were 31.8 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women with a low normal weight and waist circumference (less than 80 cm). Importantly, among overweight people, waist circumference measurements identified a subgroup of overweight people (those with a high waist circumference) whose 10-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was similar to that of obese people.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, among people of European descent, waist circumference is independently and strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, particularly among women. Additional studies are needed to confirm this association in other ethnic groups. Targeted measurement of waist circumference in overweight individuals (who now account for a third of the US and UK adult population) could be an effective strategy for the prevention of diabetes because it would allow the identification of a high-risk subgroup of people who might benefit from individualized lifestyle advice.
Additional Information
Please access these web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse provides information about diabetes for patients, health care professionals, and the general public, including detailed information on diabetes prevention (in English and Spanish)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information on all aspects of overweight and obesity (including some information in Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients and carers about type 2 diabetes, about the prevention of type 2 diabetes, and about obesity; it also includes peoples stories about diabetes and about obesity
The charity Diabetes UK also provides detailed information for patients and carers, including information on healthy lifestyles for people with diabetes, and has a further selection of stories from people with diabetes; the charity Healthtalkonline has interviews with people about their experiences of diabetes
More information on the InterAct study is available
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources and advice about diabetes and diabetes prevention and about obesity (in English and Spanish)
PMCID: PMC3367997  PMID: 22679397
19.  Factors Associated with Insulin Resistance in a Middle-Aged Non-Obese Rural Population: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study 
Epidemiology and Health  2011;33:e2011009.
We aimed to determine the characteristics affecting insulin resistance in non-obese middle-aged adults in a rural community.
A total of 1,270 non-diabetic adults aged between 40 and 64 years old with body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m2 were analyzed. Subjects with insulin resistance were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population.
A total of 217 subjects (20.6%) had insulin resistance. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in insulin-resistant subjects in both men (29.3% vs. 10.3%) and women (34.1% vs. 15.6%). Among metabolic syndrome components, elevated waist circumference and elevated triglyceride were higher in insulin-resistant subjects in both genders. After being controlled for socioeconomic status and lifestyle related covariates, the association between insulin resistance and BMI was statistically significant in the category of 23.0-24.9 kg/m2 in men (adjusted OR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.77-12.15) using the category of 18.5-20.9 kg/m2 as a reference. In addition, the association between insulin resistance and abdominal obesity was statistically significant only for men (adjusted OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.29-5.11).
Insulin resistance appears to be highly associated with high BMI and abdominal obesity, even in non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged men.
PMCID: PMC3195816  PMID: 22025967
Abdominal obesity; BMI; Insulin resistance
20.  Indicators of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents 
To assess the prevalence of metabolic risk indicators for the metabolic syndrome (MS) in a sample of obese Egyptian adolescents and to compare anthropometric and biochemical parameters in subjects with one or two parameters of the MS with those who meet MS criteria.
Material and methods
A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 obese adolescents, with a mean age of 15.45 ±2.54 years. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), insulin and insulin resistance (IR) measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the predictive powers of anthropometric parameters associated with increased risk for the MS.
The overall prevalence of the MS was 20%. Individuals meeting 3 or more MS criteria had significantly higher levels of BP, TG, glucose, insulin and HOMA-R and low HDL levels compared with those who had 1 or 2 MS criteria. Area under the curve (AUC) for identifying the MS risk factors was the highest for WHR, followed by WC and BMI in both genders (p < 0.001).
The most prevalent metabolic risk factors that compose the MS were arterial hypertension, low HDL and hypertriglyceridemia; BMI tended to be the weakest index for identifying MS risk factors, while WHR was the best predictive index in both genders.
PMCID: PMC4379376  PMID: 25861294
obesity; metabolic risk factors; adolescents; anthropometry
21.  Osteoprotegerin in relation to insulin resistance and blood lipids in sub-Saharan African women with and without abdominal obesity 
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that inhibits bone resorption, has been suggested as a potential marker of cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to assess the relationship between insulin resistance, lipid profile and OPG levels in obese and non-obese sub-Saharan African women.
Sixty obese (44) and non-obese (16) volunteer women aged 18 to 40 years were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical (age, height, weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures) and biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)) were measured using standard methods. Insulin levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, while OPG levels were measured using the ELISA technique. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), body mass index (BMI) and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated using standard methods. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥ 80 cm.
OPG levels were higher in obese than in normal subjects, though the difference was not significant (p = 0.9). BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). In these subjects, only age significantly correlated with OPG levels (r = 0.831, p = 0.003), while none of the anthropometric nor metabolic parameter did, even after adjustment for age. In obese subjects, OPG levels fairly correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.298, p = 0.058), and significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = −0.438, p = 0.018). After adjustment for age, OPG levels remained negatively correlated to HOMA-IR (r = −0.516, p = 0.020) and LDL-C (r = −0.535, p = 0.015) and positively correlated to HDL-C (r = 0.615, p = 0.004). In multiple linear regression analysis, age was a main determinant of OPG levels in non-obese (β = 0.647, p = 0.006) and obese (β = 0.356, p = 0.044) women. HDL-C was also associated to OPG levels in obese women (β = 0.535, p = 0.009).
The positive correlation of OPG with HDL-C and HOMA-IR, and its negative correlation with LDL-C suggest that it may be a marker of insulin sensitivity/resistance and atherogenic risk in obese African women.
PMCID: PMC4450452  PMID: 26034511
Osteoprotegerin; Insulin resistance; Lipids; Obesity; Sub-Saharan Africans
22.  The Association of Obesity with Insulin Resistance in Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Korea 
Psychiatry Investigation  2011;8(3):245-249.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether insulin resistance is associated with OSAS independent of obesity.
A total of 183 male patients with OSAS and 52 healthy controls were assessed by nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). After NPSG, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by calculating the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Subjects were divided into normal control, mild-to-moderate OSA group (n=96) and severe OSA group (n=87). There were no significant differences among groups in age, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference or waist circumference. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR scores of normal controls did not differ from those of the mild-to-moderate or severe OSAS groups. HOMA-IR significantly correlated with anthropometric variables, oxygen desaturation index, triglyceride and LDL cholesterol. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that waist circumference (β=0.35) and triglycerides (β=0.27) were significant determinants of HOMA-IR (adjusted R2=20%, p<0.01).
Insulin resistance was related to obesity itself rather than OSAS severity or nocturnal hypoxemia-related variables. In preventing cardiovascular complications in OSAS patients, weight reduction should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3182390  PMID: 21994512
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Insulin resistance; Obesity; HOMA-IR
23.  Association between Obesity Indices and Insulin Resistance among Healthy Korean Adolescents: The JS High School Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0125238.
To investigate whether indices of obesity are associated with insulin resistance in Korean adolescents.
This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis of 817 healthy adolescents aged 15–16 years without diabetes. Percentiles group of weight-for-height, body mass index (BMI)-for-age, waist circumference (WC)-for-age, and skin fold thickness (SFT)-for-age were based on the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Percentiles of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and percent body fat were calculated for the study population. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio for insulin resistance according to seven obesity indices. Generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between obesity indices and continuous HOMA-IR levels.
Sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for insulin resistance, defined as HOMA-IR>2.50, of the 75–94th and ≥95th percentiles of weight-for-height were 3.87 (2.38–6.30) and 11.37 (5.87–22.02), compared to the <50th percentile. Corresponding odds ratios were 3.27 (2.02–5.28) and 11.72 (6.05–22.73) for BMI-for-age, 4.72 (2.82–7.88) and 13.22 (6.42–27.23) for WC-for-age, 3.67 (2.27–5.94) and 13.58 (6.71–27.48) for WHR, 4.78 (2.99–7.67) and 12.84 (6.23–26.46) for WHtR, 2.62 (1.61–4.26) and 6.68 (3.46–12.90) for SFT-for-age, and 2.29 (1.33–4.26) and 10.06 (4.39–23.06) for body fat. These associations were more prominent when insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR>3.16 and were stronger in males than in females. Continuous measure of HOMA-IR was significantly associated with body weight, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and SFT in both sexes (p<0.001), and with percent body fat in males only (p<0.001).
Our findings suggest that obesity indices are positively associated with insulin resistance in apparently healthy adolescents.
PMCID: PMC4429969  PMID: 25970186
24.  Daily Physical Activity Assessed by a Triaxial Accelerometer Is Beneficially Associated with Waist Circumference, Serum Triglycerides, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Patients with Prediabetes or Untreated Early Type 2 Diabetes 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2015;2015:526201.
Aim. To investigate the association between daily physical activity and metabolic risk factors in Japanese adults with prediabetes or untreated early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Daily physical activity level was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. We assessed correlations between physical activity level and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting levels of plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. A total of 80 patients were studied. After adjustment for age and body mass index, in all subjects, physical activity level was negatively associated with waist circumference (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) and fasting serum triglycerides (β = −0.239, P = 0.035), insulin (β = −0.224, P = 0.022). In men, physical activity level was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (β = −0.351, P = 0.044), fasting plasma glucose (β = −0.369, P = 0.025) and insulin (β = −0.362, P = 0.012), and HOMA-IR (β = −0.371, P = 0.011). No significant associations were found between physical activity level and metabolic risk factors in women. Conclusion. Objectively measured daily physical activity is beneficially associated with waist circumference, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes or untreated early T2D. (This trial is registered with UMIN000015774.)
PMCID: PMC4441997  PMID: 26064983
25.  Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein Levels Are Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  
Diabetes Care  2009;32(1):147-152.
OBJECTIVE—Adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein (A-FABP) is a major cytoplasmic protein in adipocytes and macrophages and is closely associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated whether A-FABP was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We enrolled 181 type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical and biochemical metabolic parameters were measured. The severity of NAFLD was measured by ultrasound. A-FABP, adiponectin, and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS—A-FABP levels, defined as more than a moderate degree of fatty liver compared with men, those without metabolic syndrome, and those without NAFLD, were higher in women, patients with metabolic syndrome, and patients with overt NAFLD, respectively. Adiponectin was decreased according to the severity of NAFLD, but RBP-4 showed no difference. Age- and sex-adjusted A-FABP showed positive correlations with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, triglycerides, γ-glutamyltransferase, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), A1C, and C-reactive protein (CRP) but showed negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of overt NAFLD with increasing levels of sex-specific A-FABP was significantly increased (OR 2.90 [95% CI 1.15–7.29] vs. 7.87 [3.20–19.38]). The OR in the highest tertile of A-FABP remained significant after adjustments for BMI, waist circumference, A1C, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, CRP, and hepatic enzymes.
CONCLUSIONS—Our study demonstrates that serum A-FABP is significantly associated with NAFLD in type 2 diabetes, independent of BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, A1C, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and CRP.
PMCID: PMC2606851  PMID: 18835952

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