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1.  Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women 
Background
Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women.
Methods
Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC).
Results
The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years). After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR) of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC < 80 cm, was 9.5 (95% CI 5.6-16.1). The optimal cutoff value for WC predicting IR was 88.5 cm; with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 64%, respectively.
Conclusions
Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-3-18
PMCID: PMC3170572  PMID: 21831271
Insulin resistance; Waist circumference; HOMA-IR; Cutoff; Iranian women
2.  Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(5):734-737.
The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resistance determined by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and components of metabolic syndrome. The optimal waist circumference cutoff values were 87 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to HOMA-IR and 86 cm for men and 83 cm for women by ROC analysis to value with more than two components of metaobolic syndrome. By using a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, 86 cm for men and 82 cm for women were optimal waist circumference cutoff values. In this study, we suggest that the most reasonable waist circumference cutoff values are 86-87 cm for men and 82-83 cm for women.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.5.734
PMCID: PMC2858833  PMID: 20436710
Waist Circumference; Cutoff Value; Metabolic Syndrome
3.  Association between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic risk factors in pre-school children 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:170.
Background
The world health organization (WHO) and the Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants- study (IDEFICS), released anthropometric reference values obtained from normal body weight children. This study examined the relationship between WHO [body mass index (BMI) and triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds], and IDEFICS (waist circumference, waist to height ratio and fat mass index) anthropometric indices with cardiometabolic risk factors in pre-school children ranging from normal body weight to obesity.
Methods
A cross-sectional study with 232 children (aged 4.1 ± 0.05 years) was performed. Anthropometric measurements were collected and BMI, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds sum and fat mass index were calculated. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model analysis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids and apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 (Apo B) and Apo A-I were determined. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis and the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were run.
Results
51 % (n = 73) of the boys and 52 % (n = 47) of the girls were of normal body weight, 49 % (n = 69) of the boys and 48 % (n = 43) of the girls were overweight or obese. Anthropometric indices correlated (p < 0.001) with insulin: [BMI (r = 0.514), waist circumference (r = 0.524), waist to height ratio (r = 0.304), triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds sum (r = 0.514) and fat mass index (r = 0.500)], and HOMA-IR: [BMI (r = 0.509), waist circumference (r = 0.521), waist to height ratio (r = 0.296), triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds sum (r = 0.483) and fat mass index (r = 0.492)]. Similar results were obtained after adjusting by age and sex. The areas under the curve (AUC) to identify children with insulin resistance were significant (p < 0.001) and similar among anthropometric indices (AUC > 0.68 to AUC < 0.76).
Conclusions
WHO and IDEFICS anthropometric indices correlated similarly with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. The diagnostic accuracy of the anthropometric indices as a proxy to identify children with insulin resistance was similar. These data do not support the use of waist circumference, waist to height ratio, triceps- and subscapular- skinfolds sum or fat mass index, instead of the BMI as a proxy to identify pre-school children with insulin resistance, the most frequent alteration found in children ranging from normal body weight to obesity.
doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0500-y
PMCID: PMC4636828  PMID: 26546280
Childhood; Pre-school children; Obesity; Cardiovascular risk factors; Insulin resistance; Body mass index; Waist circumference; Waist to height ratio; Skinfold thickness; Fat mass index
4.  Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(4):511-518.
Purpose
We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population.
Materials and Methods
A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied.
Results
The cutoff value of waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance from the ROC analysis was 84.4 cm for men and 80.6 cm for women. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.0% and 54.2% in men and 71.1% and 59.3% in women, respectively. After being controlled for other covariates, the odds ratio for the risk of insulin resistance using < 70 cm of waist circumference as a reference increased significantly in the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women. In addition, statistically significant associations were consistently observed over the category of 85.0-89.9 cm for men and 80.0-84.9 cm for women.
Conclusion
The optimal cutoff value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women, suggesting that the Asian criterion of abdominal obesity (90 cm for men and 80 cm for women) as a component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) might not be applicable for middle-aged to older men in Korea.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.4.511
PMCID: PMC2880262  PMID: 20499415
Metabolic syndrome; waist circumference; insulin resistance
5.  Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study  
Background
Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women.
Materials and Methods
Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu), insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C) were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC).
Results
Waist circumference (WC), insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19) as a marker of IR in infertile PCOS women.
Conclusion
Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR) in infertile PCOS patients.
PMCID: PMC4845526  PMID: 27123197
Lipoprotein; Infertility; PCOS; Insulin Resistance
6.  Association of insulin resistance with bronchial hyperreactivity 
Asia Pacific Allergy  2014;4(2):99-105.
Background
Several epidemiologic studies showed the significant association of insulin resistance with asthma.
Objective
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of insulin resistance with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in adult population.
Methods
1,058 subjects who visited to the Seoul National University Hospital Gangnam Center from October 2007 to January 2009 for a routine health check-up were enrolled. All subjects completed a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, blood tests, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT). Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Results
Thirty-three subjects (3.1%) had AHR based on MBPT. The subjects with AHR had higher BMI, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR than those without AHR (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). In case of men, fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR had significant correlation with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) (r = -0.1440, p = 0.011, and r = -0.1156, p = 0.042, respectively). Fasting insulin level and HOMA-IR were higher in men with AHR than in those without (p = 0.046 and p = 0.040, respectively). In binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, HOMA-IR was the significant risk factor for AHR in men (HOMA-IR: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-10.30). In case of women, fasting insulin, glucose level, or insulin resistance had no significant correlation with lung function. BMI, waist circumference, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in women with AHR than in those without (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.010, respectively). In binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, BMI and HOMA-IR were the significant risk factors for AHR in women (BMI: OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.23-3.82; insulin resistance: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09).
Conclusion
Insulin resistance was significantly associated with bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the most characteristic feature of asthma.
doi:10.5415/apallergy.2014.4.2.99
PMCID: PMC4005343  PMID: 24809015
Asthma; Obesity; Bronchial hyperreactivity; Insulin resistance
7.  Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers 
Objective
The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk.
Methods
3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS.
Results
With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively.
Conclusions
Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and assessment of MS risk, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points in this cohort were developed with variation regarding puberty. HOMA-IR may be useful for early evaluating insulin resistance in children and teenagers and could have a long-term benefit of preventive and diagnostic therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-71
PMCID: PMC3833654  PMID: 24228769
Homeostasis model assessment; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Children; Teenagers
8.  Association of chronic viral hepatitis B with insulin resistance 
AIM: To investigate the relationship between chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB) and insulin resistance (IR) in Korean adults.
METHODS: A total of 7880 adults (3851 men, 4029 women) who underwent a comprehensive medical examination were enrolled in this study. Subjects diagnosed with either diabetes mellitus, or any other disorder that could influence their insulin sensitivity, were rejected. Anthropometry, metabolic risk factors, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, hepatitis B core antibody, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured for all subjects. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), quantitative insulin check index (QUICKI), and Mffm index were used for determining insulin sensitivity. Each participant was categorized into a negative, recovery, or CVHB group. To compare variables between groups, a t-test and/or one-way analysis of variance were used. Partial correlation coefficients were computed to present the association between insulin resistance and other variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between CVHB and IR.
RESULTS: The mean age of men and women were 48.9 and 48.6 years, respectively. Subjects in the CVHB group had significantly higher waist circumference [(86.0 ± 7.7 cm vs 87.3 ± 7.8 cm, P = 0.004 in men), (78.3 ± 8.6 cm vs 80.5 ± 8.5 cm, P < 0.001 in women)], cystatin C [(0.96 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 1.02 ± 0.22 mg/dL, P < 0.001 in men), (0.84 ± 0.15 mg/dL vs 0.90 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P < 0.001 in women)], fasting insulin [(5.47 ± 3.38 μU/mL vs 6.12 ± 4.62 μU/mL, P < 0.001 in men), (4.57 ± 2.82 μU/mL vs 5.06 ± 3.10 μU/mL, P < 0.001 in women)] and HOMA index [(1.24 ± 0.86 vs 1.43 ± 1.24, P < 0.001 in men), (1.02 ± 0.76 vs 1.13 ± 0.87, P = 0.033 in women)] compared to control group. The HOMA index revealed a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.378, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r =0.356, P < 0.001), percent body fat (r = 0.296, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.202, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.134, P < 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.292, P < 0.001), cystatin C (r = 0.069, P < 0.001) and uric acid (r = 0.142, P < 0.001). The QUICKI index revealed a negative correlation with BMI (r = -0.254, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0-0.243, P < 0.001), percent body fat (r = -0.217, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.132, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = -0.106, P < 0.001), triglycerides (r = -0.205, P < 0.001), cystatin C (r = -0.044, P < 0.001) and uric acid (r = -0.096, P < 0.001). For subjects identified with IR, the odds ratio of an accompanying diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was 1.534 (95% CI: 1.158-2.031, HOMA index criteria) or 1.566 (95% CI: 1.124-2.182, QUICKI criteria) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and amount of alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that CVHB is associated with IR. CVHB may need to be monitored for occurrence of IR and diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i42.6120
PMCID: PMC3496889  PMID: 23155341
Hepatitis B; Insulin resistance; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Metabolic syndrome
9.  Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0125365.
Background
Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR.
Methods
A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index.
Results
After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio.
Conclusions
SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125365
PMCID: PMC4423830  PMID: 25951458
10.  Cutoff Values of Surrogate Measures of Insulin Resistance for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Non-diabetic Adults 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):695-700.
We investigated the cutoff values of surrogate of insulin resistance for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The data from 976 non-diabetic individuals (484 men and 492 women) aged 30-79 yr were analyzed. We determined the odds ratios for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the quartiles of fasting insulin, homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as independent variables, while adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. The cutoff values of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI were estimated by the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The cutoff points for defining insulin resistance are a fasting insulin level of 12.94 µU/mL, HOMA-IR=3.04 as the 75th percentile value, and QUICKI=0.32 as the 25th percentile value. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the highest quartiles of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI were 1.95 (1.26-3.01), 2.27 (1.45-3.56), and 2.27 (1.45-3.56), respectively. The respective cutoff values for fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI by ROC analysis were 10.57 µU/mL (sensitivity 58.5%, specificity 66.8%), 2.34 (sensitivity 62.8%, specificity 65.7%), and 0.33 (sensitivity 61.2%, specificity 66.8%). Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI can be used as surrogate measures of insulin resistance in Korean non-diabetic adults.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.4.695
PMCID: PMC2729893  PMID: 16891815
Insulin Resistance; Metabolic Syndrome X
11.  Correlation of Insulin Resistance with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in Adolescents 
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  2016;106(4):319-326.
Background
Blood pressure is directly related to body mass index, and individuals with increased waist circumference have higher risk of developing hypertension, insulin resistance, and other metabolic changes, since adolescence.
Objective
to evaluate the correlation of blood pressure with insulin resistance, waist circumference and body mass index in adolescents.
Methods
Cross-section study on a representative sample of adolescent students. One group of adolescents with altered blood pressure detected by casual blood pressure and/or home blood pressure monitoring (blood pressure > 90th percentile) and one group of normotensive adolescents were studied. Body mass index, waist circumference were measured, and fasting glucose and plasma insulin levels were determined, using the HOMA-IR index to identify insulin resistance.
Results
A total of 162 adolescents (35 with normal blood pressure and 127 with altered blood pressure) were studied; 61% (n = 99) of them were boys and the mean age was 14.9 ± 1.62 years. Thirty-eight (23.5%) adolescents had altered HOMA-IR. The group with altered blood pressure had higher values of waist circumference, body mass index and HOMA-IR (p<0.05). Waist circumference was higher among boys in both groups (p<0.05) and girls with altered blood pressure had higher HOMA-IR than boys (p<0.05). There was a significant moderate correlation between body mass index and HOMA-IR in the group with altered blood pressure (ρ = 0.394; p < 0.001), and such correlation was stronger than in the normotensive group. There was also a significant moderate correlation between waist circumference and HOMA-IR in both groups (ρ = 0.345; p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that HOMA-IR was as predictor of altered blood pressure (odds ratio - OR = 2.0; p = 0.001).
Conclusion
There was a significant association of insulin resistance with blood pressure and the impact of insulin resistance on blood pressure since childhood. The correlation and association between markers of cardiovascular diseases was more pronounced in adolescents with altered blood pressure, suggesting that primary prevention strategies for cardiovascular risk factors should be early implemented in childhood and adolescence.
doi:10.5935/abc.20160041
PMCID: PMC4845705  PMID: 27007222
Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; Insulin Resistance; Anthropometry; Adolescent
12.  Predicting insulin resistance using the triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in Taiwanese adults 
Background
The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) has been advocated as a simple clinical indicator of insulin resistance. Thresholds of TG/HDL-C appeared to depend on ethnicity. However, no studies have specifically compared the accuracy of TG/HDL-C with and without other clinical and demographic factors in predicting insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. The aim of the present investigation was to use TG/HDL-C and other clinical available factors to predict insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults.
Methods
A total of 812 subjects were recruited from at the time of their general health examination at the Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taiwan. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained. Insulin resistance was defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to obtain probabilities of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 2) using TG/HDL-C with (Model 2) and without (Model 1) other clinical variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the two models to correctly discriminate between subjects of low and elevated HOMA-IR.
Results
Female sex, greater waist circumferences, and higher ALT levels were significantly associated with the risk of elevated HOMA-IR in addition to TG/HDL-C in the multiple logistic regression (Model 2). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Model 2 was 0.71 [95% CI = 0.67-0.75] and was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than the AUC 0.66 [95% CI = 0.62-0.71] of Model 1.
Conclusions
The diagnostic accuracy of insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR, using TG/HDL-C can be significantly enhanced by including three additional clinically available factors - sex, waist circumferences, and ALT levels.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-93
PMCID: PMC3224454  PMID: 22004541
prediction; insulin resistance; Chinese; ethnic groups
13.  The Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia but Not Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Men with Sleep Apnea 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71000.
Background
Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients.
Methods
The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference.
Results
Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = −0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance.
Conclusion
Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071000
PMCID: PMC3741390  PMID: 23951064
14.  Obesity – should we revise indications for treatment with metformin? 
Introduction
Treatment of obesity with life style modifications often fails; therefore pharmacological treatment has become a very popular approach. Metformin is one of the examined possibilities. The aim of this study was to verify indications for metformin use in obese women based on metabolic and anthropometric parameters assessed by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to establish the degree of insulin resistance and its correlations.
Material and methods
Anthropometry, fat measurement by bioimpedance and metabolic profile, including lipids, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with insulin (0 and 120 min) were performed in 50 female patients diagnosed with simple obesity, aged 18-40 years. Homeostatic model assessment HOMA-R was calculated for insulin resistance, and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin response. Total, android and gynoid fat distribution, and their ratio (A/G), were measured by DXA.
Results
From 50 women who entered the study, 33 were classified as insulin resistant (IR subgroup) and 17 as non-insulin resistant (non-IR subgroup), according to their HOMA-R indices. IR women presented higher waist circumference and DXA A/G ratio. The IR subgroup demonstrated elevated fasting triglycerides and glucose (but in the normal range) and a higher insulin response in OGTT (4.1-fold vs 2.5-fold). From different insulin measurements HOMA index turned out to have the strongest correlations with the metabolic parameters triglycerides and glucose. We found significant positive correlations between android fat and insulin: waist circumference and HOMA-R, WHR and HOMA-R, android fat and HOMA-R, A/G ratio and insulin after OGTT, and A/G ratio and HOMA-R. We found a strong correlation between WHR and A/R ratio.
Conclusions
67% of premenopausal obese women were insulin resistant. Measures of DXA visceral fat determined by android fat percentage and android/gynoid ratio were the strongest determinants of insulin resistance. Waist-to-hip ratio might be a simple method for determining the indications for metformin treatment.
doi:10.5114/pm.2014.42713
PMCID: PMC4520349  PMID: 26327840
visceral obesity; metformin; oral glucose tolerance test; insulin resistance; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
15.  The Waist Circumference of Risk in Black South African Men Is Lower Than in Men of European Ancestry 
Abstract
Background
Central obesity measured by waist circumference is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor; however, the waist circumference of risk in populations of African descent has not been identified. The International Diabetes Federation currently suggests that cutoffs established in men of European descent be applied to sub-Saharan men—a waist circumference ≥94 cm.
Subjects and Methods
Participants were 203 South African black men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They were divided into quartiles of waist circumference (>88 cm, 88–94 cm, 95–103 cm, >103 cm). Cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance (IR), measured by modified homeostasis model assessement of IR (HOMA-IR), and the triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-to-HDL-C) ratio, were compared across quartiles.
Results
Age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, and smoking were similar across waist circumference quartiles. Overall, for both lipids and measures of IR, there was variation across waist circumference quartiles, but no significant differences between quartiles 2 and 3. Therefore, data from these two quartiles were pooled. Between the first and second+third (88–103 cm) quartiles, there were significant differences in HDL-C (1.30±0.43, 1.10±0.43 mmol/L, P=0.003), TG (medians 1.10, 1.60 mmol/L P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 2.40±0.93, 2.85±1.03 mmol/L, P=0.01), non-HDL-C (3.05±1.18, 3.70±1.16 mmol/L, P=0.002), HOMA-IR (medians 0.90, 2.10, P<0.001), and TG-to-HDL-C ratio (medians 0.89, 1.17, P<0.001). Additional comparisons were made between men with waist circumference <90 cm and 90–93 cm. Values for each lipid and for IR parameters were more favorable in the <90-cm group (all P<0.05).
Conclusions
For black South African diabetic men, CVD risk substantially increased with waist circumference >90 cm. The waist circumference cut point of >94 cm has the potential to misclassify many black South African diabetic men at risk for CVD.
doi:10.1089/met.2011.0063
PMCID: PMC3225062  PMID: 21875336
16.  Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti 
Purpose
Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in groups of African (Benin) and African ancestry (Haiti) Black subjects.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin) and Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men); insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR); and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden’s index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs.
Results
High atherogenicity index (59.5%), high blood pressure (23.2%), and insulin resistance (25% by definition) were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly the reverse of the generic cut-offs. The standard 0.50 cut-off of WHtR appeared valid for men, but it had to be increased to 0.59 in women.
Conclusion
CMR was widespread in these population groups. The present study suggests that in order to identify Africans with high CMR, WC thresholds will have to be increased in women and lowered in men. Data on larger samples are needed.
doi:10.2147/DMSO.S88893
PMCID: PMC4629961  PMID: 26604808
abdominal obesity; ROC curves; Youden’s index; Africans
17.  Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort 
Background
While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults.
Methods
Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR). Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points.
Results
Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females) were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.71(0.64,0.79) for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79) for women. Using the Youden Index (J) the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38) while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12). In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39) and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35).
Conclusions
The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower than the IDF recommended WC cut point. Sex differences in WC cut points for identifying IR were less marked in this population than in other ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-68
PMCID: PMC3017019  PMID: 21134291
18.  Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents 
Revista Paulista de Pediatria  2014;32(1):55-62.
Objective:
To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity.
Results:
The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%.
Conclusions:
All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.
doi:10.1590/S0103-05822014000100010
PMCID: PMC4182990  PMID: 24676191
metabolic syndrome x; insulin resistance; obesity; adolescent; body composition; anthropometry
19.  Prevalence of insulin resistance and its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults over 35 years old 
Aims
To estimate the prevalence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and to study its relationship with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was comprised of 227 men and 990 women undergoing routine health check-up. The prevalence of insulin resistance was estimated using diagnostic criteria previously employed in Asian and other populations. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations of HOMA-IR with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate associations of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-Cholesterolemia, and hypertension with varying HOMA-IR values.
Results
Approximately 25.1% of men (HOMA-IR ≥ 1.56) and 21.5% of women (HOMA-IR ≥1.64) were classified as having insulin resistance. HOMA-IR values were statistically significantly and positively associated with body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and serum triglycerides. The values were inversely correlated with HDL-Cholesterol. When compared with those whose HOMA-IR values were within the lowest quartile (<0.45), men with HOMA-IR values in the highest quartile (≥1.58) had higher risks of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR=2.83), low HDL-Cholesterolemia (adjusted OR=2.79), and hypertension (adjusted OR=2.76). Similar associations were observed among women.
Conclusion
Insulin resistance, as determined using HOMA-IR, was positively associated with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults.
doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.04.013
PMCID: PMC2919620  PMID: 20466446
Insulin Resistance; HOMA-IR; Risk Factors; Epidemiology; Thailand
20.  Waist circumference and insulin resistance in elderly men: an analysis of Kahrizak elderly study 
Background
Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is crucial for health care practitioners to identify at risk people for early treatment. Visceral obesity may make unnecessary other laborious measures of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to see whether waist circumference (WC) can predict insulin resistance as well as MS in a group of Iranian elderly.
Methods
Out of 94 nondiabetic elderly, thirty three subjects were recognized with MS. MS diagnosis was based on NCEP ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) and IDF (International Diabetes Federation) definitions. HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index was used to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as top quartile of HOMA.
Results
In both sexes, WC and HOMA index were significantly positively correlated. The optimal waist circumference (OWC) cutoff point was 94.5 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women. The high sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.84) of WC in males indicates the proportion of IR which is correctly identified and recognizes all non-IR males as such. In regression model only the TG level was associated with WC. But the WC is strongly associated with HOMA-IR.
Conclusions
While OWC is very likely a good measure to exclude non-IR subjects in our study, determination of optimal WC to identify elderly IR subjects warrants further study in a larger sample of the general population.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-13-28
PMCID: PMC3929157  PMID: 24495315
Waist circumference; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Elderly
21.  Fatty liver index vs waist circumference for predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(10):3023-3030.
AIM: To determine the discriminatory performance of fatty liver index (FLI) for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
METHODS: The data of 5052 subjects aged over 18 years were analyzed. FLI was calculated from body mass index, waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and gamma glutamyl transferase data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between FLI and NAFLD. The discriminatory performance of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Area under the curves (AUCs) and related confidence intervals were estimated. Optimal cutoff points of FLI in the diagnosis of NAFLD were determined based on the maximum values of Youden’s index.
RESULTS: The mean age of men and women in the study population were 44.8 ± 16.8 and 43.78 ± 15.43, respectively (P = 0.0216). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40.1% in men and 44.2% in women (P < 0.0017). FLI was strongly associated with NAFLD, so that even a one unit increase in FLI increased the chance of developing NAFLD by 5.8% (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.054-1.063, P < 0.0001). Although FLI showed good performance in the diagnosis of NAFLD (AUC = 0.8656 (95%CI: 0.8548-0.8764), there was no significant difference with regards to WC (AUC = 0.8533, 95%CI: 0.8419-0.8646). The performance of FLI was not significantly different between men (AUC = 0.8648, 95%CI: 0.8505-0.8791) and women (AUC = 0.8682, 95%CI: 0.8513-0.8851). The highest performance with regards to age was related to the 18-39 age group (AUC = 0.8930, 95%CI: 0.8766-0.9093). The optimal cutoff points of FLI were 46.9 in men (sensitivity = 0.8242, specificity = 0.7687, Youden’s index = 0.5929) and 53.8 in women (sensitivity = 0.8233, specificity = 0.7655, Youden’s index = 0.5888).
CONCLUSION: Although FLI had acceptable discriminatory power in the diagnosis of NAFLD, WC was a simpler and more accessible index with a similar performance.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i10.3023
PMCID: PMC4779925  PMID: 26973398
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Fatty liver index; Waist circumference; Body mass index; Optimal cutoff points; Discriminatory performance
22.  The Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Fails to Predict Insulin Resistance in African-American Women: An Analysis of Jackson Heart Study 
Abstract
Background
Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans.
Methods
In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35–80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m2, range 18.5–55 kg/m2] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region, insulin resistance was defined by the upper quartile (≥4.43) of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of >0.70 was required for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C. The optimal test cutoff was determined by the Youden index.
Results
HOMA-IR was similar in men and women (3.40 ± 2.03 vs. 3.80 ± 2.46, P = 0.60). Women had lower TG (94 ± 49 vs. 109 ± 65 mg/dL P < 0.001) and TG/HDL-C (1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 2.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001). For men, AUC-ROC for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was: 0.77 ± 0.01, mean ± standard error (SE), with an optimal cutoff of ≥2.5. For women, the AUC-ROC was 0.66 ± 0.01, rendering an optimal cutoff indefinable. When women were divided in two groups according to age, 35–50 years and 51–80 years, the results did not change.
Conclusions
In African-American men, the recommended TG/HDL-C threshold of 2.0 should be adjusted upward to 2.5. In African-American women, TG/HDL-C cannot identify insulin resistance. The Jackson Heart Study can help determine the efficacy of screening programs in African-Americans.
doi:10.1089/met.2010.0028
PMCID: PMC3125564  PMID: 20715971
23.  The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2013;28(1):33-40.
Background
We investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.
Methods
Nine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men) in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.
Results
One hundred forty-six subjects (15.4%) showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7%) had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women).
Conclusion
In our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2013.28.1.33
PMCID: PMC3811801  PMID: 24396648
Coronary artery calcium score; Waist-hip ratio; Obesity, abdominal
24.  Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults 
Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2016.31.1.61
PMCID: PMC4712581  PMID: 26770039
Obesity; Body Mass Index; Waist Circumference; Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve; Coronary Heart Disease
25.  Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2015;2015:783296.
Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR), determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM) was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria) using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk.
doi:10.1155/2015/783296
PMCID: PMC4530255  PMID: 26273675

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