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1.  Minimally invasive ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde locking nail after failed fusion 
Abstract
A retrograde nail with posterior-to-anterior (PA) locking into os calcis, talus and tibia was used to correct deformity and achieve fusion after failed fusion. A variety of methods have been published to achieve union of the ankle and subtalar joint in a failed fusion situation. We have studied a retrograde locking nail technique through a 2.5-cm incision in the non-weightbearing part of the sole of the foot. Remaining cartilage in the ankle joint, where necessary, was percutaneously removed through an anterior approach and the locking nail was inserted after reaming of os calcis, talus and tibia. Locking screw insertion was in the sagittal plane (p.a. direction), in talus os calcis and tibial diaphysis using a nail mounted jig. Ten patients were entered in the study (age 27-60 years). The initial aetiology for attempted fusion was post-traumatic in nine cases and rheumatic in one case. There were 25 previous operations in the cohort not leading to fusion. An additional temporary external fixator was used in four cases to reach and maintain the optimum position for the procedure. The intervention time was 30-75 min. Dynamisation of the nail was performed after four months under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (3-5.5 years). Radiologically and clinically, fusion was achieved in 16 weeks (range, 12-20 weeks). There was no loosening of the implant or implant failure. A leg length discrepancy was avoided using this technique. There was one complication with varus malunion in a heavy smoker which united after corrective osteotomy, revision nailing and bone grafting. Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale (not visual analogue) of 0 (not satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied); overall satisfaction averaged 9.5 points (range, 6-10 points). The postoperative ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society averaged 73.5 points (range, 61-81 points). Retrograde locked nailing with locking in the sagittal plane is a reliable minimally invasive procedure to achieve fusion of the ankle and the subtalar joint after failed fusion.
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0018-4
PMCID: PMC2321722  PMID: 18427914
Ankle arthrodesis; Failed fusion; Retrograde nail; Calcaneotalotibial arthrodesis
2.  Reconstruction after wide resection of the entire distal fibula in malignant bone tumours 
International Orthopaedics  2009;35(1):87-92.
In this study we present a series of patients (n = 11) with resection of the entire distal fibula in the case of sarcoma or metastasis. Moreover, we describe a new method to restore ankle stability with a tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a retrograde hindfoot nail (n = 4) in contrast to tibiotalar arthrodesis with screws (n = 5). The screw fixation failed in two patients due to osteopoenic bone. The crucial benefits of an arthrodesis with a retrograde nail are a stable arthrodesis, intramedullary stabilisation of the tibia and avoidance of extrinsic material in the wound area. An arthrodesis with a retrograde nail is a good alternative for reconstruction after a wide distal fibula resection. The additional arthrodesis of the subtalar joint was not associated with worse functional results in the MSTS and TESS scores.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0931-x
PMCID: PMC3014490  PMID: 20039038
3.  Surgical Technique: Static Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur and Tibia Without Intraoperative Fluoroscopy 
Background
On a recent mission directed at definitive care for victims of the Haitian earthquake, the orthopaedic team developed a technique for freehand distal locking of femoral and tibial nails without intraoperative fluoroscopy or proximally mounted targeting jigs.
Description of Technique
After performing open antegrade or retrograde nailing by standard techniques, the freehand lock must be obtained before doing standard outrigger locking. This allows the surgeon to control the nail and deliver the locking hole in the nail to a unicortical drill hole in the femur. Before nail insertion, the distance of the desired locking hole is measured from the outrigger in a standard way such that it can be reproduced after the nail is inserted. Through a unicortical drill hole, the nail is palpated with the tip of a Kirschner wire and systematic maneuvers allow the Kirschner wire to palpate and fall into the locking hole. The Kirschner wire is tapped across the second cortex before drilling. The screw is inserted, and the ball-tipped insertion guidewire is placed back into the nail to palpate the crossing screw confirming position.
Patients and Methods
We treated 16 patients with 18 long bone fractures using the described technique. We assessed patients clinically and radiographically immediately postoperatively.
Results
A total of 19 blind freehand interlocks were attempted, and 17 were successful as assessed by direct intraoperative observations and by postoperative radiographs.
Conclusions
We describe a simple technique for performing static locked intramedullary nailing of the femur and tibia without fluoroscopy. This technique was successful in most cases and is intended for use with any nailing system only when fluoroscopy or specialized systems for nailing without fluoroscopy are not available.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1829-7
PMCID: PMC3210293  PMID: 21369767
4.  Use of a trabecular metal implant in ankle arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(6):745-747.
Background and purpose
Arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement is complicated and delayed union, nonunion, and shortening of the leg often occur—especially with large bone defects. We investigated the use of a trabecular metal implant and a retrograde intramedullary nail to obtain fusion.
Patients and methods
13 patients with a migrated or loose total ankle implant underwent arthrodesis with the use of a retrograde intramedullary nail through a trabecular metal Tibial Cone. The mean follow-up time was 1.4 (0.6–3.4) years.
Results
At the last examination, 7 patients were pain-free, while 5 had some residual pain but were satisfied with the procedure. 1 patient was dissatisfied and experienced pain and swelling when walking. The implant-bone interfaces showed no radiographic zones or gaps in any patient, indicating union.
Interpretation
The method is a new way of simplifying and overcoming some of the problems of performing arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.533936
PMCID: PMC3216087  PMID: 21067435
5.  The use of a retrograde fixed-angle intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis after severe loss of the talus 
Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis may be the only means of obtaining a painless and stable limb when there is loss of the talus. We present the early results of a prospective study on tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using a latest-generation retrograde intramedullary nail. In the period 2006–2007, nine patients underwent tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing. Five of these patients had infection-related loss of the talus. SF-36, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot, and Mazur Ankle Arthrodesis scores were obtained pre-fusion, and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year post-fusion. The patients were also followed up clinically and radiologically. Previous surgical procedures, chronic musculoskeletal problems and other comorbidities, and complications were recorded and analyzed. All patients were available for initial follow-up and were subjectively satisfied with their outcomes. Solid fusion was achieved and fully confirmed in nine cases. One subject died 8 weeks postoperatively of a pulmonary embolism. One patient had recurrent infection. At 1 year, only one patient still needed NSAIDs regularly for pain relief. The AOFAS score improved significantly (P = 0.012) from 32.1 pre-fusion to 71.5 points at 1 year as did the Mazur score, which rose by 31.2 to 72.5 points at 1 year (P = 0.012). The SF-36 score improved significantly in the domains physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health, as did the Physical Component Summary Score. Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis can produce a good outcome. However, in the presence of infection, patient selection for intramedullary procedures must be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0067-y
PMCID: PMC2746277  PMID: 19756949
Talectomy; Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis; Retrograde; Intramedullary nail; Ankle arthrodisis; Hindfoot
6.  The use of a retrograde fixed-angle intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis after severe loss of the talus 
Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis may be the only means of obtaining a painless and stable limb when there is loss of the talus. We present the early results of a prospective study on tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using a latest-generation retrograde intramedullary nail. In the period 2006–2007, nine patients underwent tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing. Five of these patients had infection-related loss of the talus. SF-36, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot, and Mazur Ankle Arthrodesis scores were obtained pre-fusion, and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year post-fusion. The patients were also followed up clinically and radiologically. Previous surgical procedures, chronic musculoskeletal problems and other comorbidities, and complications were recorded and analyzed. All patients were available for initial follow-up and were subjectively satisfied with their outcomes. Solid fusion was achieved and fully confirmed in nine cases. One subject died 8 weeks postoperatively of a pulmonary embolism. One patient had recurrent infection. At 1 year, only one patient still needed NSAIDs regularly for pain relief. The AOFAS score improved significantly (P = 0.012) from 32.1 pre-fusion to 71.5 points at 1 year as did the Mazur score, which rose by 31.2 to 72.5 points at 1 year (P = 0.012). The SF-36 score improved significantly in the domains physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health, as did the Physical Component Summary Score. Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis can produce a good outcome. However, in the presence of infection, patient selection for intramedullary procedures must be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0067-y
PMCID: PMC2746277  PMID: 19756949
Talectomy; Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis; Retrograde; Intramedullary nail; Ankle arthrodisis; Hindfoot
7.  Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result? 
The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0065-0
PMCID: PMC2746276  PMID: 19705253
Tibia; Fracture; Open fracture; Intramedullary nail; Nonunion; Dynamization; Exchange nailing
8.  Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result? 
The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0065-0
PMCID: PMC2746276  PMID: 19705253
Tibia; Fracture; Open fracture; Intramedullary nail; Nonunion; Dynamization; Exchange nailing
9.  Recommendations for avoiding knee pain after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures 
Background
The objective of this study is to analyze the proximal tibiofibular joint in patients with knee pain after treatment of tibial shaft fractures with locked intramedullary nail.
Findings
The proximal tibiofibular joint was analyzed in 30 patients, who reported knee pain after tibial nailing, and standard radiograph and computed tomography were performed to examine the proximal third of the tibia. Twenty patients (68.9%) presented the proximal screw crossing the proximal tibiofibular joint and 13 (44.8%) had already removed the nail and/or screw. Four patients (13.7%) reported complaint of knee pain. However, the screw did not reach the proximal tibiofibular joint. Five patients (17.2%) complained of knee pain although the screw toward the joint did not affect the proximal tibiofibular joint.
Conclusion
When using nails with oblique proximal lock, surgeons should be careful not to cause injury in the proximal tibiofibular joint, what may be one of the causes of knee pain. Thus, the authors suggest postoperative evaluation performing computed tomography when there is complaint of pain.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-5-31
PMCID: PMC3247032  PMID: 22133204
10.  Intramedullary nailing in open tibia fractures: a comparison of two techniques 
International Orthopaedics  2004;28(4):235-238.
We analyzed 51 patients with open tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. In 29 patients the nailing was performed without reaming and in 22 after the “reamed-to-fit” technique. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of union. The nonreamed group required a greater number of secondary procedures to achieve union and had a higher but not statistically significant incidence of infection. Analysis of the operative and anesthesia cost associated with the additional procedures revealed that on average, patients receiving nonreamed nailing incurred a cost of $4,900 more per fracture than patients of the reamed-to-fit technique. The healing rates of open tibia fractures using either minimally reamed or nonreamed techniques of intramedullary nailing are comparable. No increase in the rate of infection with the reamed-to-fit technique was found. A significant increase in the number of secondary procedures required to achieve union was found with the nonreamed nailing technique.
doi:10.1007/s00264-004-0567-9
PMCID: PMC3456927  PMID: 15160254
11.  Failure of intertrochanteric nailing due to distal nail jamming 
Nail impingement against the anterior femoral cortex during nail insertion, or anterior cortex penetration, has been described in the literature as a worrying complication. We describe a previously unreported surgical failure due to a compromised dynamic distal locking caused by distal jamming of the nail. An 80-year-old male suffered a closed right intertrochanteric femoral fracture. Due to the presence of a long medial fragment, a 240 mm long titanium trochanteric nail was chosen to stabilize the fracture. Dynamic distal locking was performed by placing the distal screw at the inferior rim of the elliptical locking hole to allow compression of the fracture site during weight-bearing. Six-month X-ray follow-up revealed a broken nail and nonunion of the fracture due to failed dynamization of the distal locking screw. The nail was removed and replaced by a total arthroplasty. Due to the femoral anterior bow of the shaft, anterior cortical impingement of the distal tip of a nail may result in the failure of the nail to slide within the diaphyseal canal when using a medium-length nail preventing compression of the fracture. Dynamic distal locking can be ineffective if the ability of the distal nail to slide within the diaphyseal canal is hindered. This type of scenario can represent an opportunity for anterior nail impingement. Distal jamming of the nail can thus compromise dynamic compression at the fracture site during loading, thus inducing nonunion of the fracture, and leading to breakage of the osteosynthesis device. For these reasons, caution is recommended when using medium-length trochanteric nails for unstable trochanteric fractures.
doi:10.1007/s10195-012-0183-1
PMCID: PMC3585948  PMID: 22362512
Intramedullary nail; Complication; Femur; Fracture
12.  Comparative analysis of uniplanar external fixator and retrograde intramedullary nailing for ankle arthrodesis in diabetic Charcot's neuroarthropathy 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(4):359-364.
Background:
Charcot's neuroarthropathy of ankle leads to instability, destruction of the joint with significant morbidity that may require an amputation. Aim of surgical treatment is to achieve painless stable plantigrade foot through arthrodesis. Achieving surgical arthrodesis in Charcot's neuroarthropathy has a high failure rate. This is a retrospective nonrandomized comparative study assessing the outcomes of tibio-talar arthrodesis for Charcot's neuroarthropathy treated by uniplanar external fixation assisted by external immobilization or retrograde intramedullary interlocked nailing.
Materials and Methods:
Records of the authors′ institution were reviewed to identify those patients who had undergone ankle fusion for diabetic neuroarthropathy from January 1998 to December 2008. A total of11 patients (six males and five females) with a mean age of 56 year and diabetes of a mean duration of 15.4 years with ankle tibio-talar arthrodesis using retrograde nailing or external fixator for Charcot's neuroarthropathy were enrolled for the analysis. Neuropathy was clinically diagnosed, documented and substantiated using the monofilament test. All procedures were performed in Eichenholz stage II/III.Six patients were treated with uniplanar external fixator, while the remaining five underwent retrograde intramedullary interlocking nail. The outcomes were measured for union radiologically, development of complications and clinical follow-up, according to digital archiving systems and old case notes.
Results:
All five (100%) patients treated by intramedullary nailing achieved radiological union on an average follow-up of 16 weeks. The external fixation group had significantly higher rate of complications with one amputation, four non unions (66.7%) and a delayed union which went on to full osseous union.
Conclusion:
The retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibio-talar arthrodesis in Charcot's neuroarthropathy yielded significantly better outcomes as compared to the use of uniplanar external fixator.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.82343
PMCID: PMC3134023  PMID: 21772631
Charcot's diabetic neuropathy; retrograde intramedullary nailing; tibio-talar arthrodesis; uniplanar external fixator
13.  Complex Fractures of the Tibia and Femur Treated with Static Interlocking Intramedullary Nail 
Background
Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing is considered the gold standard treatment for complex fractures of the femoral and tibial shaft. There has been some controversies about dynamization of statically locked nails, and some authors recommended routine dynamization for promotion of healing. This study aims to evaluate treatment of complex fractures in tibia and femur with static interlocking intramedullary nail method.
Methods
In a retrospective study from January 2003 to April 2008, 173 patients with femoral and tibial shaft fracture that were treated with this method were enrolled. No rod was dynamized in our patients.
Results
All patients with tibial fractures achieved union without any need for dynamization during 12-18 weeks (mean; 13.4 weeks). Four patients developed delayed union but all achieved union without any intervention. In femoral fracture, all but one patient achieved complete union during 10-30 weeks (mean: 18.3 weeks). One patient developed non-union who was treated by an exchange nailing and iliac bone graft method. No significant complication was observed in our patients.
Conclusion
It is not necessary to routinely dynamize nails in tibial and femoral shaft fractures as all fractures united in acceptable alignment without any complication.
PMCID: PMC3371945  PMID: 22737459
Complex fractures; Dynamization; Intramedulary nailing
14.  Intramedullary knee arthrodesis as a salvage procedure after failed total knee replacement 
International Orthopaedics  2006;30(6):545-549.
Septic and aseptic loosening with or without extensive bone loss after total knee replacement are the most common indications for knee fusion. Both external fixation and intramedullary nailing can be used for the treatment, though the latter appears to be the method of choice for most patients. Nine patients were treated after a total knee replacement failure using intramedullary nailing. A long intramedullary nail with a proximal interlocking screw was used in five cases, and a customised nail was used in four cases. Successful fusion occurred in eight of nine patients (89%). Average time for the joint union was 6.5 months, and average operative blood loss was 860 ml. In two patients, iliac crest and patellar bone graft were also used. In conclusion, intramedullary nailing can give excellent results in achieving knee fusion after a failed knee replacement as it allows early weight bearing and at the same time offers stability, pain relief, and a high rate of union, even though the surgical technique is demanding.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0129-4
PMCID: PMC3172749  PMID: 16683110
15.  Intramedullary tibial nailing in distal third tibial fractures: distal locking screws and fracture non-union 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(4):547-549.
Distal third tibial fractures are prone to non-union following tibial nail insertion. The purpose of this study was to assess the union of distal third tibial fractures in patients who have undergone intra-medullary (IM) tibial nailing with one versus two distal locking screws. Sixty-five patients who had intramedullary tibial nail fixation were retrospectively analysed. Our results showed that 80% of non-unions in distal third fractures had only one distal locking screw compared to 20% who had two distal locking screws. This is statistically significant (p<0.01). We therefore conclude that two distal locking screws are essential for distal third fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0356-3
PMCID: PMC2532262  PMID: 17410364
16.  Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws 
Background
Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws.
Methods
Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography.
Results
The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of withstanding more than a week of weight bearing. If two small diameter screws are used, our tests showed that the probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing increases from zero to about 20 percent, which is similar to having a single 4.5 mm diameter screw providing fixation.
Conclusion
Our results show that selecting the system that uses the largest distal locking screws would offer the best fatigue resistance for an unstable fracture pattern subjected to full weight bearing. Furthermore, using multiple screws will substantially reduce the risk of premature hardware failure.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-4-11
PMCID: PMC2672078  PMID: 19371438
17.  Fatigue performance of angle-stable tibial nail interlocking screws 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(1):113-118.
Purpose
Tibial nail interlocking screw failure often occurs during delayed fracture consolidation or at early weight bearing of nailed unstable fractures, in general when high implant stress could not be reduced by other means. Is there a biomechanical improvement in long-term performance of angle stable locking screws compared to conventional locking screws for distal locking of intramedullary tibial nails?
Methods
Surrogate bones of human tibiae were cut in the distal third and distal locking of the 10 mm intramedullary tibial nail was performed with either two angle stable locking screws or two conventional locking screws in the mediolateral plane. Six specimens per group were mechanically tested under quasi-static and cyclic axial loading with constantly increasing force.
Results
Angle stable locking screw constructs exhibited significantly higher stiffness values (7,809 N/mm ± 647, mean ± SD) than conventional locking screw constructs (6,614 N/mm ± 859, p = 0.025). Angle stable locking screw constructs provided a longer fatigue life, expressed in a significantly higher number of cycles to failure (187,200 ± 18,100) compared to conventional locking screw constructs (128,700 ± 7,000, p = 0.004).
Conclusion
Fatigue performance of locking screws can be ameliorated by the use of angle stable locking screws, being especially important if the nail acts as load carrier and an improved stability during fracture healing is needed.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1633-3
PMCID: PMC3532652  PMID: 22875484
18.  Malrotation following reamed intramedullary nailing of closed tibial fractures 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(3):312-316.
Background:
Rotational malalignment after intramedullary tibial nailing is rarely addressed in clinical studies. Malrotation (especially >10°)of the lower extremity can lead to development and progression of degenerative changes in knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and severity of tibial malrotation after reamed intramedullary nailing for closed diaphyseal tibial fractures.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty patients (53 males and 7 females) with tibial diaphyseal fracture were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.4±13.3 years. All fractures were manually reduced and fixed using reamed intramedullary nailing. A standard method using bilateral limited computerized tomography was used to measure the tibial torsion. A difference greater than 10° between two tibiae was defined as malrotation.
Results:
Eighteen (30%) patients had malrotation of more than 10°. Malrotation was greater than 15° in seven cases. Good or excellent rotational reduction was achieved in 70% of the patients. There was no statistically significant relation between AO tibial fracture classification and fibular fixation and malrotation of greater than 10°.
Conclusions:
Considering the high incidence rate of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing, we need a precise method to evaluate the torsion intraoperatively to prevent the problem.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.96395
PMCID: PMC3377142  PMID: 22719118
Computerized tomography; intramedullary nailing; malrotation
19.  Low success rate of non-intervention after breakage of interlocking nails 
International Orthopaedics  2005;29(2):105-108.
We followed 12 patients with nailed femoral shaft fractures in which breakage of the static locked nail occurred during fracture treatment. Only two fractures united. The remaining ten fractures had to be treated with exchange nailing after a median of 10 (4–14) months. Nine fractures healed after a median of 5 (4–7) months and one was lost to follow-up. Although breakage of a proximal static reamed femoral locked nail may imitate the effect of dynamisation, the success rate is low. Early exchange nailing is a more successful option to achieve fracture union.
doi:10.1007/s00264-004-0628-0
PMCID: PMC3474503  PMID: 15685454
20.  Effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty 
Background
Ankle osteoarthritis commonly involves sagittal malalignment with anterior translation of the talus relative to the tibia. Total ankle arthroplasty has become an increasingly popular treatment for patients with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted on the outcomes of total ankle arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with preoperative sagittal malalignment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior translation of the talus on outcomes of three-component total ankle arthroplasty.
Methods
One hundred and four osteoarthritic ankles in 104 patients who underwent three-component total ankle arthroplasty were included in this study. The 104 ankles were divided into 2 groups: ankles with anteriorly translated talus (50 ankles), and ankles with non-translated talus (54 ankles). Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed in both groups. The mean follow-up duration was 42.8 ± 17.9 months (range, 24 to 95 months).
Results
Forty-six (92%) of 50 ankles with anterior translation of the talus showed relocation of the talus within the mortise at 6 months, and 48 (96%) ankles were relocated at 12 months after total ankle arthroplasty. But, 2 (4%) ankles were not relocated until the final follow-up. The AOFAS scores, ankle range of motion, and radiographic outcomes showed no significant difference between the two groups at the final follow-up (p > 0.05 for each).
Conclusions
In majority of cases, the anteriorly translated talus in osteoarthritic ankles was restored to an anatomical position within 6 months after successful three-component total ankle arthroplasty. The clinical and radiographic outcomes in the osteoarthritic ankles with anteriorly translated talus group were comparable with those in non-translated talus group.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-260
PMCID: PMC3766657  PMID: 24007555
Osteoarthritis; Total ankle arthroplasty; Three-component prosthesis; Anterior translation of the talus
21.  Long-term stability of angle-stable versus conventional locked intramedullary nails in distal tibia fractures 
Background
In the last years intramedullary nailing has become the treatment of choice for most displaced diaphyseal tibia fractures. In contrast intramedullary nailing of distal tibia fractures is accompanied by problems like decreased biomechanical stability. Nevertheless the indications for intramedullary nailing have been extended to include even more distal fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term mechanical characteristics of angle-stable versus conventional locked intramedullary nails in the treatment of unstable distal tibia fractures. Therefore, the effect of time on the mechanical properties of biodegradable sleeves was assessed.
Methods
8 pairs of fresh, frozen porcine tibiae were used. The expert tibial nail (Synthes) was equipped with either three conventional locking screws (CL) or the angle-stable locking system (AS), consisting of a special ASLS screw and a biodegradable sleeve. Biomechanical testing included torsional and axial loading at different time-points over 12 weeks.
Results
The AS group showed a significantly higher torsional stiffness at all time-points (at least 60%) compared to the CL group (p < 0.001). The neutral zone was at least 5 times higher in the CL group (p < 0.001). The mean axial stiffness was maximum 10% higher (week 6) in the angle-stable locked group compared to the conventional group. There was no significant change of the torsional mechanical characteristics over the 12 weeks in both groups (p > 0.05). For axial stiffness and range of motion significant differences were found in the AS group.
Conclusions
The angle-stable locking system (ASLS) with the biodegradable sleeve provides significantly higher long-term stability. Especially the differences determined under torsional loading in this study may have clinical relevance. The ASLS permits the potential to decrease complications like secondary loss of reduction and mal-/non-union.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-66
PMCID: PMC3598499  PMID: 23425016
Distal tibia fractures; Angular stability; Intramedullary nailing; ASLS; Biomechanics; Long-term
22.  Functional Capacity Following Fractures of the Os Calcis 
The long-term results, after applying the various methods of treatment for the different types of facture of the os calcis, were studied over a period of five years. Fractures with minimal displacement showed a satisfactory functional and economic end result. Those patients with the more severe types of fractures who had undergone arthrodesis early were free from pain early and were able to return to work earlier than those who underwent it as a delayed procedure.
Images
PMCID: PMC1935694  PMID: 5921750
23.  Locked Intramedullary Total Wrist Arthrodesis 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2012;1(2):179-184.
Total wrist arthrodesis is commonly performed using fixation plates, which can produce soft tissue irritation, often require removal, and limit the ability to position the hand in space. The Skeletal Dynamics IMPLATE is an intramedullary total wrist fusion device designed to provide stable fixation while avoiding the problems associated with plates. Radial and metacarpal locked intramedullary nails are inserted and joined by a connector. Desired hand placement is achieved by selecting the proper connector length and angle, then orienting it appropriately. Fusion mass compression is obtained by virtue of longitudinal threads on the radial nail that allow for length adjustment. Seven wrists in three men and four women were treated with this device and followed for a minimum of 24 weeks. In all cases, local cancellous bone graft was used and the third carpometacarpal (CMC) joint incorporated into the fusion. The median age was 49 (range, 28–71) years. Indications for fusion were two posttraumatic arthritides, three rheumatoid arthritides, one spastic deformity, and one infection. Patients were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up using the Fernandez pain score and grip strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer. All patients improved their grip strength and decreased their pain scores. All fusions united, and none of the patients presented dorsal soft tissue problems or required implant removal. One rheumatoid patient required secondary surgery for removal of a retained palmar osteophyte. This device delivers stable fixation, facilitates hand placement, and does not require removal.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329630
PMCID: PMC3658686  PMID: 24179725
wrist; fusion; intramedullary; modular; arthrodesis
24.  CAM-Type Impingement in the Ankle 
Background
Anterior ankle impingement with and without ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition. Bony impingement between the distal tibia and talus aggravated by dorsiflexion has been well described. The etiology of these impingement lesions remains controversial. This study describes a cam-type impingement of the ankle, in which the sagittal contour of the talar dome is a non-circular arc, causing pathologic contact with the anterior aspect of the tibial plafond during dorsiflexion, leading to abnormal ankle joint mechanics by limiting dorsiflexion.
Methods
A group of 269 consecutive adult patients from the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics who were treated for anterior bony impingement syndrome were evaluated as the study population. As a control group, 41 patients without any evidence of impingement or arthrosis were evaluated. Standardized standing lateral ankle radiographs were evaluated to determine the contour of the head/neck relationship in the talus. Two investigators made all the radiographic measurements and intra- and inter-observer reliability were measured.
Results
34% of patients were found to have some anterior extension of the talar dome creating a loss of the normal concavity at the dorsal medial talar neck. A group of 36 patients (13%) were identified as having the most severe cam deformity in order to assess any correlation with coexisting radiographic abnormalities. In these patients, a cavo-varus foot type was more commonly observed. Comparison with a control group showed much lower rates of anterior-medial cam-type deformity of the talus.
Conclusions
Cam type impingement of the ankle is likely a distinct form of bony impingement of the ankle secondary to a morphological talar bony abnormality. Based on the findings of this study, this form of impingement may be related to a cavovarus foot type. In addition, there may be long term implications in the development of ankle OA.
Level of Evidence
Level III
PMCID: PMC3565388  PMID: 23576914
25.  Intramedullary Arthrodesis of the Knee in the Treatment of Sepsis After TKR 
HSS Journal  2007;3(1):83-88.
Infection is a devastating complication following total knee replacement (TKR). In the majority of cases, single- or two-stage revision has excellent results in eradicating infection and restoring function. Rarely, recurrent infection requires alternative treatments such as resection, amputation, or arthrodesis. A review of infections following TKR treated at two joint replacement centers identified 29 cases of resistant knee sepsis treated with a long intramedullary fusion nail. Clinical outcome and radiographs were reviewed at an average follow-up of 48 months (13–114). After the initial intramedullary arthrodesis union occurred in 24 of 29 patients (83%). The average time to fusion was 6 months (3–18 months). Failures included two cases of nail breakage, one of which subsequently achieved fusion following revision nailing, and three cases of recurrent infection requiring nail removal and permanent resection. At a minimum 2-year follow-up, 28% of the patients that achieved fusion complained of pain in the fused knee, 28% complained of ipsilateral hip pain, and two patients complained of contralateral knee pain. Four of the 25 fused patients (16%) remained nonambulatory after fusion, 17 required walking aids (68%) and only four ambulated unassisted. There was no association between age, number of previous procedures, the use of two-stage versus single stage technique, or infecting organism and failure of arthrodesis. Intramedullary arthrodesis is a viable treatment for refractory infection after TKR. Patients undergoing fusion should be informed of the potential for nonunion, recurrence of infection, pain in the ipsilateral extremity, and the long-term need for walking aids.
doi:10.1007/s11420-006-9034-z
PMCID: PMC2504091  PMID: 18751775

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