The primary activation of T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells following mucosal immunization with recombinant Streptococcus gordonii was studied in vivo by adoptive transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific transgenic CD8+ (OT-I) and CD4+ (OT-II) T cells. A recombinant strain, expressing on the surface the vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis fused to OVA T-helper and T-cytotoxic epitopes (peptides 323 to 339 and 257 to 264), was constructed and used to immunize C57BL/6 mice by the intranasal route. Recombinant, but not wild-type, bacteria induced OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clonal expansion in cervical lymph nodes, lung, and spleen. OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation appeared first in cervical lymph nodes and later in the spleen, suggesting a possible migration of activated cells from the inductive site to the systemic district. A significant correlation between the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ proliferating T cells was observed for each animal. The expression of CD69, CD44, and CD45RB on proliferating T lymphocytes changed as a function of the cell division number, confirming T-cell activation following the antigen encounter. These data indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant S. gordonii is capable of inducing primary activation of naive antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, both locally and systemically.
Adoptive transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells from the DO.11 TCR transgenic mouse on a Rag−/− background into mice expressing OVA in pancreatic islet cells induces acute insulitis and diabetes only if endogenous lymphocytes, including regulatory T cells, are removed. When wild-type OVA-specific/Rag−/− T cells, which are all CD25−, are transferred into islet antigen–expressing mice, peripheral immunization with OVA in adjuvant is needed to induce diabetes. In contrast, naive CTLA-4−/−/Rag−/− OVA-specific T cells (also CD25−) develop into Th1 effectors and induce disease upon recognition of the self-antigen alone. These results suggest that CTLA-4 functions to increase the activation threshold of autoreactive T cells, because in its absence self-antigen is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity without peripheral immunization. Further, CTLA-4 and regulatory T cells act cooperatively to maintain tolerance, indicating that the function of CTLA-4 is independent of regulatory cells, and deficiency of both is required to induce pathologic immune responses against the islet self-antigen.
autoimmunity; tolerance; diabetes; T cell activation; interferon gamma
The mechanisms that maintain memory in T cells are not completely understood. We have investigated the role of antigen and interleukin (IL)-2 in the growth and maintenance of CD8+ T cells using a cytolytic T cell line specific for ovalbumin (OVA)257-264 presented by H-2Kb. This line does not secrete IL-4 or IL-2; hence, stimulation with the OVA-transfected EL4 line (E.G7-OVA) does not induce proliferation without addition of exogenous growth factors. Furthermore, this line can be maintained continuously by weekly addition of irradiated, splenic filler cells and IL-2, with or without E.G7-OVA. Although IL-2 induced proliferation of these cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), production of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α required stimulation of the CTL with E.G7-OVA. The kinetics of lymphokine secretion after stimulation by E.G7-OVA were the same whether the CTL had been maintained with or without antigen (Ag). In addition, both CTL lines killed E.G7-OVA target cells within 4 h. Thus, the effector functions of these CTLs were rapidly induced by T cell receptor (TCR) occupancy. CTLs cultured with or without Ag also served as memory T cells when parked for 100 d in unirradiated, syngeneic recipients without OVA. In the absence of OVA, the precursor frequency was identical in spleens of normal and β2-microglobulin knockout recipients, but significantly less in IL-2 knockout mice. The decline of memory in the absence of IL-2 supports data from other investigators, suggesting that cell cycling is important to the maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory. These data also suggest that stimulation of OVA-specific CTLs by lymphokines seems to be more important to maintaining memory than stimulation of TCRs by cross-reactive peptides complexed to class I molecules.
The current paradigm surrounding allergen-mediated T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in the lung suggests an almost hegemonic role for T cells. Our studies propose an alternative hypothesis implicating eosinophils in the regulation of pulmonary T cell responses. In particular, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice devoid of eosinophils (the transgenic line PHIL) have reduced airway levels of Th2 cytokines relative to the OVA-treated wild type that correlated with a reduced ability to recruit effector T cells to the lung. Adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OVA-specific transgenic T cells (OT-II) alone into OVA-challenged PHIL recipient mice failed to restore Th2 cytokines, airway histopathologies, and, most importantly, the recruitment of pulmonary effector T cells. In contrast, the combined transfer of OT-II cells and eosinophils into PHIL mice resulted in the accumulation of effector T cells and a concomitant increase in both airway Th2 immune responses and histopathologies. Moreover, we show that eosinophils elicit the expression of the Th2 chemokines thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 and macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in the lung after allergen challenge, and blockade of these chemokines inhibited the recruitment of effector T cells. In summary, the data suggest that pulmonary eosinophils are required for the localized recruitment of effector T cells.
We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r–/–). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r–/– mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r–/– mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r–/– mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r–/– OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r–/– OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r–/– OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.
Recombinant influenza viruses that bear the single immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope OVA257−264 or the CD4+ T cell epitope OVA323−339 of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) have been useful tools in immunology. Here, we generated a recombinant influenza virus, WSN-OVAI/II, that bears both OVA-specific CD8+ and CD4+ epitopes on its hemagglutinin molecule. Live and heat-inactivated WSN-OVAI/II viruses were efficiently presented by dendritic cells in vitro to OT-I TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells and OT-II TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells. In vivo, WSN-OVAI/II virus was attenuated in virulence, highly immunogenic, and protected mice from B16-OVA tumor challenge in a prophylactic model of vaccination. Thus, WSN-OVAI/II virus represents an additional tool, along with OVA TCR transgenic mice, for further studies on T cell responses and may be of value in vaccine design.
Baculoviruses (BV) are DNA viruses that are pathogenic for insects. Although BV infect a range of mammalian cell types, they do not replicate in these cells. Indeed, the potential effects of these insect viruses on the immune responses of mammals are only just beginning to be studied. We show in this paper that a recombinant Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus carrying a fragment of ovalbumin (OVA) on the VP39 capsid protein (BV-OVA) has the capacity to act as an adjuvant and vector of antigens in mice, thereby promoting specific CD4 and cytotoxic T cell responses against OVA. BV also induced in vivo maturation of dendritic cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines, thus promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. The OVA-specific response induced by BV-OVA was strong enough to reject a challenge with OVA-expressing melanoma cells (MO5 cells) and effectively prolonged survival of MO5 bearing mice. All these findings, together with the absence of pre-existing immunity to BV in humans and the lack of viral gene expression in mammalian cells, make BV a candidate for vaccination.
It is thought that both helper and effector functions of CD4+ T cells contribute to protective immunity to blood stage malaria infection. However, malaria infection does not induce long-term immunity and its mechanisms are not defined. In this study, we show that protective parasite-specific CD4+ T cells were depleted after infection with both lethal and nonlethal species of rodent Plasmodium. It is further shown that the depletion is confined to parasite-specific T cells because (a) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells are not depleted after either malaria infection or direct OVA antigen challenge, and (b) the depletion of parasite-specific T cells during infection does not kill bystander OVA-specific T cells. A significant consequence of the depletion of malaria parasite–specific CD4+ T cells is impaired immunity, demonstrated in mice that were less able to control parasitemia after depletion of transferred parasite-specific T cells. Using tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-RI knockout– and Fas-deficient mice, we demonstrate that the depletion of parasite-specific CD4+ T cells is not via TNF or Fas pathways. However, in vivo administration of anti–interferon (IFN)-γ antibody blocks depletion, suggesting that IFN-γ is involved in the process. Taken together, these data suggest that long-term immunity to malaria infection may be affected by an IFN-γ–mediated depletion of parasite-specific CD4+ T cells during infection. This study provides further insight into the nature of immunity to malaria and may have a significant impact on approaches taken to develop a malaria vaccine.
Plasmodium; apoptosis; cell-mediated immunity; immune evasion; IFN-γ
Acute rejection, a common complication of lung transplantation, may promote obliterative bronchiolitis leading to graft failure in lung transplant recipients. During acute rejection episodes, CD8+ T cells can contribute to lung epithelial injury but the mechanisms promoting and controlling CD8-mediated injury in the lung are not well understood. To study the mechanisms regulating CD8+ T cell–mediated lung rejection, we used a transgenic model in which adoptively transferred ovalbumin (OVA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induce lung injury in mice expressing an ovalbumin transgene in the small airway epithelium of the lungs (CC10-OVA mice). The lung pathology is similar to findings in humans with acute lung transplant. In the presence of an intact immune response the inflammation resolves by day 30. Using CC10-OVA.RAG-/- mice, we found that CD4+ T cells and ICOS+/+ T cells were required for protection against lethal lung injury, while neutrophil depletion was not protective. In addition, CD4+Foxp3 + ICOS+ T cells were enriched in the lungs of animals surviving lung injury and ICOS+/+ Tregs promoted survival in animals that received ICOS-/- T cells. Direct comparison of ICOS-/- Tregs to ICOS+/+ Tregs found defects in vitro but no differences in the ability of ICOS-/- Tregs to protect from lethal lung injury. These data suggest that ICOS affects Treg development but is not necessarily required for Treg effector function.
Immunization with defined tumor antigens is currently limited to a small number of cancers where candidates for tumor rejection antigens have been identified. In this study we investigated whether pulsing dendritic cells (DC) with tumor-derived RNA is an effective way to induce CTL and tumor immunity. DC pulsed with in vitro synthesized chicken ovalbumin (OVA) RNA were more effective than OVA peptide-pulsed DC in stimulating primary, OVA-specific CTL responses in vitro. DC pulsed with unfractionated RNA (total or polyA+) from OVA-expressing tumor cells were as effective as DC pulsed with OVA peptide at stimulating CTL responses. Induction of OVA-specific CTL was abrogated when polyA+ RNA from OVA-expressing cells was treated with an OVA- specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and RNase H, showing that sensitization of DC was indeed mediated by OVA RNA. Mice vaccinated with DC pulsed with RNA from OVA-expressing tumor cells were protected against a challenge with OVA-expressing tumor cells. In the poorly immunogenic, highly metastatic, B16/F10.9 tumor model a dramatic reduction in lung metastases was observed in mice vaccinated with DC pulsed with tumor-derived RNA (total or polyA+, but not polyA- RNA). The finding that RNA transcribed in vitro from cDNA cloned in a bacterial plasmid was highly effective in sensitizing DC shows that amplification of the antigenic content from a small number of tumor cells is feasible, thus expanding the potential use of RNA-pulsed DC- based vaccines for patients bearing very small, possibly microscopic, tumors.
Recently, we demonstrated that major histocompatibility complex class I–restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens can induce peripheral T cell tolerance by deletion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells. In these studies, naive ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+ T cells from the transgenic line OT-I were injected into transgenic mice expressing membrane-bound OVA (mOVA) under the control of the rat insulin promoter (RIP) in pancreatic islets, kidney proximal tubules, and the thymus. Cross-presentation of tissue-derived OVA in the renal and pancreatic lymph nodes resulted in activation, proliferation, and then the deletion of OT-I cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this form of T cell deletion. OT-I mice were crossed to tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) knockout mice and to CD95 (Fas, Apo-1) deficient mutant lpr mice. Wild-type and TNFR2-deficient OT-I cells were activated and then deleted when transferred into RIP-mOVA mice, whereas CD95-deficient OT-I cells were not susceptible to deletion by cross-presentation. Furthermore, cross-presentation led to upregulation of the CD95 molecule on the surface of wild-type OT-I cells in vivo, consistent with the idea that this is linked to rendering autoreactive T cells susceptible to CD95-mediated signaling. This study represents the first evidence that CD95 is involved in the deletion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in the whole animal.
CD8+ T lymphocytes; T cell tolerance; apoptosis; CD95; tumor necrosis factor receptor 2
The αE integrin chain CD103 identifies a subset of migratory dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut, lung, and skin. To gain further understanding of the function of CD103+ DCs in regulating adaptive immunity in vivo, we coupled ovalbumin (OVA) to the CD103 antibody M290 (M290.OVA). Intraperitoneal injection of M290.OVA induced OVA-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell proliferation in lymph nodes (LNs) of wild-type but not CD103−/− mice, or in mice depleted of CD11c+ cells. In the absence of maturation stimuli, systemic antigen targeting to CD103+ DCs led to tolerance of CD8+ T cells, whereas coadministration of adjuvant induced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity and antibody production. Mucosal intratracheal application of M290.OVA also induced T-cell proliferation in mediastinal LNs, yet the functional outcome was tolerance that inhibited subsequent development of allergic airway inflammation and immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to inhaled OVA. These findings identify antigen targeting to CD103+ DCs as a potential strategy to regulate immune responses in nonlymphoid mucosal tissues.
The role of CD4+ T cells in bladder autoimmune inflammation has not been identified due to the lack of a proper animal model. We investigated CD4+ T cell responses to bladder urothelial ovalbumin (OVA), a model self-antigen (Ag), in transgenic URO-OVA mice. The expression of bladder urothelial OVA rendered mice unresponsive to OVA and resulted in quick clearance of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of naïve OVA-specific CD4+ T cells led to exogenous T cell proliferation, activation, and bladder infiltration but no inflammatory induction. In contrast, adoptive transfer of pre-activated OVA-specific CD4+ T cells induced bladder inflammation. Studies further demonstrated that CD4+ T cells induced bladder inflammation in URO-OVA mice depleted of CD8+ T cells or deficient in the recombinase activating gene-1 (Rag-1−/−). These results indicate that urothelial Ag-specific CD4+ T cells can function as direct effector cells to induce bladder autoimmune inflammation independent of CD8+ T cells.
Bladder; Inflammation; Autoimmunity; T cells; Urothelium
Previously, we showed that transcutaneous (TC) DNA immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a mouse skin area wherein the hair follicles were induced into growth stage by plucking the hair using warm waxing induced strong and functional antigen-specific antibody responses. In the present study, using plasmids that encode β-galactosidase gene or ovalbumin (OVA) gene, we showed that this mode of TC DNA immunization not only induced specific antibody responses, but also induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In fact, TC DNA immunization using a plasmid that encodes OVA gene prevented the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumor cells in the immunized mice. Moreover, we provided additional evidence supporting that hair follicles are essential for this mode of TC DNA immunization.
Hair follicles; antibody response; cytokine release; and in vivo CTL; tumor prevention
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D3) results from the immune-mediated destruction of the insulin producing β-islet cells in the pancreas. The genetic and environmental mechanisms promoting the development of this disease remain poorly understood. We have explored the cellular requirements for T1D development in DO11.10xRIP-OVA (DORmO) mice, which carry a T cell receptor transgene specific for an MHC class II-restricted epitope from ovalbumin (OVA) and express membrane-bound OVA in the pancreas under the control of the rat insulin promoter. We found that DORmO.RAG2−/− mice do not develop insulitis and are completely protected from diabetes, demonstrating that endogenous lymphocyte receptor rearrangement is required for disease development. Diabetes in DORmO mice is preceded by the development of OVA-specific autoantibodies, and is delayed in B cell-deficient DORmO.JHD−/− mice, demonstrating that B cells contribute to disease progression. In addition, transfer of CD8+ T cells from diabetic animals into DORmO.RAG2−/− mice promoted insulitis by OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. Finally, although diabetes develops in DORmO mice in the presence of a significant population of Foxp3+ OVA-specific regulatory T cells, boosting regulatory T cell numbers by injecting IL-2 immune complexes dampens autoantibody production and prevents development of insulitis and overt diabetes. These results help define the events leading to diabetes in DORmO mice, and provide new insights into the cellular interactions required for disease development in an antigen-specific model of T1D.
Diabetes; Inflammation; Rodent; T cells; Tolerance
Listeria monocytogenes promotes the induction of the T-helper 1 (Th1) cell response, while ovalbumin (OVA) induces a Th2 cell response and allergic reactions, such as airway hyperreactivity and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. When mice were immunized with OVA on day 7 after L. monocytogenes infection, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage and the production of total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5 in the circulation were markedly suppressed. Cytokine responses, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and gamma interferon, to OVA were decreased in the spleen cell cultures obtained from OVA-immunized mice that had been infected with L. monocytogenes. Conversely, when OVA-immunized mice were infected with L. monocytogenes, conversion from the nonlethal infection to the lethal infection occurred. Host resistance to L. monocytogenes infection in OVA-immunized mice was enhanced by the administration of anti–IL-10 monoclonal antibody. The present study indicates that striking interference is observed between Th1-inducing L. monocytogenes infection and Th2-driven OVA-induced airway hyperreactivity.
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy has promise as an approach to eradicate established tumors. However, a significant hurdle in the success of cellular immunotherapy involves recently identified mechanisms of immune suppression on cytotoxic T-cells at the effector phase.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the most important of these immunosuppressive factors because it affects both T-cell and macrophage functions. We thus hypothesized that systemic blockade of TGF-β signaling combined with adoptive T-cell transfer would enhance the effectiveness of the therapy.
Flank tumors were generated in mice using the OVA-albumin (OA) expressing thymoma cell line, EG7. Splenocytes from transgenic OT-1 mice (whose CD8 T-cells recognize an immunodominant peptide in OA) were activated in vitro and adoptively transferred into mice bearing large tumors in the presence or absence of an orally available TGF-β receptor-I kinase blocker (SM16).
We observed markedly smaller tumors in the group receiving the combination of SM16 chow and adoptive transfer. Additional investigation revealed that TGF-β receptor blockade increased the persistence of adoptively transferred T-cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, increased numbers of adoptively transferred T-cells within tumors, increased activation of these infiltrating T-cells, and altered the tumor microenvironment with a significant increase in TNF-α and decrease in arginase mRNA expression
We found that systemic blockade of TGF-β receptor activity augmented the anti-tumor activity of adoptively transferred T-cells and may thus be a useful adjunct in future clinical trials.
tumor immunology; immunosuppression; TGFβ; Cytotoxic T-cells; cytokines; adoptive transfer
We have examined non-replicative human papillomavirus (HPV) pseudovirions as an approach in the delivery of naked DNA vaccines without safety concerns associated with live viral vectors. In the current study, we have generated HPV-16 pseudovirions encapsidating a DNA vaccine encoding the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) (HPV16-OVA pseudovirions). Vaccination with HPV16-OVA pseudovirions subcutaneously elicited significantly stronger OVA-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses compared to OVA DNA vaccination via gene gun in a dose-dependent manner. We showed that a single amino acid mutation in the L2 minor capsid protein that eliminates the infectivity of HPV16-OVA pseudovirion significantly decreased the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vaccinated mice. Furthermore, a subset of CD11c+ cells and B220+ cells in draining lymph nodes became labeled upon vaccination with FITC-labeled HPV16-OVA pseudovirions in injected mice. HPV pseudovirions were found to infect bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro. We also showed that pretreatment of HPV16-GFP pseudovirions with furin leads to enhanced HPV16-OVA pseudovirion infection of BMDCs and OVA antigen presentation. Our data suggest that DNA vaccines delivered using HPV pseudovirions represent an efficient delivery system that can potentially impact the field of DNA vaccine delivery.
human papillomavirus; pseudovirions; vaccine
NKT cells are key regulators of autoimmunity, tumor immune surveillance, and the immune response to pathogens. The role of NKT cells in regulating adaptive immunity to cutaneous Ags is largely unknown. This study explores the role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in cross-priming of CD8 effector T cells to OVA expressed in epithelial keratinocytes (K5mOVA transgenic mouse). In a skin grafting model, we show that NKT cells enhance the rejection of K5mOVA skin grafts by promoting generation of OVA-specific CD8 effector T cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes. This is associated with a decrease in the proportion of both Th17 cells and IL-17–producing NKT cells within the lymph node, thereby inducing a Th1-biased response by increasing the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 production. Administration of a strong agonist ligand (α-galactosylceramide) for NKT cells induced higher levels of local IFN-γ production, enhancing the rate of K5mOVA graft rejection. Thus, NKT cells can promote adaptive immunity to cell-associated Ag expressed in skin by local regulation of IFN-γ production in secondary lymphoid tissue during cross-priming of effector CD8 T cells.
Cholera toxin (CT) is a strong mucosal adjuvant for codelivered antigens, whereas its nontoxic B subunit (CTB) is an efficient mucosal carrier molecule for the generation of immune responses to linked antigens. We investigated the effects of CT and CTB on the immunogenicity of in vitro-treated antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) following intravenous injection into mice. Prior to infusion, DC were pulsed for 90 min with either free ovalbumin (OVA), OVA mixed with CT or CTB, or chemical conjugates of OVA with CT and CTB (OVA-CT and OVA-CTB). DC pulsed with OVA or with OVA and CTB gave rise to modest antibody and T-cell responses. Conjugation of OVA with CTB enhanced both the subsequent B-cell and T-cell responses to OVA and preferentially induced Th2 responses. CT was shown to be a strong adjuvant when it was coadministered to DC with OVA and was even stronger when it was coadministered with OVA-CTB and primed for a mixed Th1-Th2 response. The antibody and T-cell responses were further enhanced if OVA was coupled to CT, implying that CT can utilize a combined carrier and adjuvant function vis-a-vis linked antigens for DC vaccination. The immunopotentiating capacity of CT- and CTB-linked antigen was associated with both upregulated secretion of interleukin-1β by the pulsed DC and increased expression of CD80 and CD86 on the DC surface. These results imply that CT and CTB can be used to both markedly increase and partially direct the DC vaccine-induced immune response with respect to Th1 and Th2 responses, which has obvious implications for DC-based vaccine development.
Oral tolerance is a promising approach to induce unresponsiveness to various antigens. The development of tolerogenic vaccines could be exploited in modulating the immune response in autoimmune disease and allograft rejection. In this study, we investigated a nonviral gene transfer strategy for inducing oral tolerance via antigen-encoding chitosan-DNA nanoparticles (NP). Oral application of ovalbumin (OVA)-encoding chitosan-DNA NP (OVA-NP) suppressed the OVA-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and anti-OVA antibody formation, as well as spleen cell proliferation following OVA stimulation. Cytokine expression patterns following OVA stimulation in vitro showed a shift from a Th1 toward a Th2/Th3 response. The OVA-NP-induced tolerance was transferable from donor to naïve recipient mice via adoptive spleen cell transfer and was mediated by CD4+CD25+ T cells. These findings indicate that nonviral oral gene transfer can induce regulatory T cells for antigen-specific immune modulation.
Background & Aims
The follicle associated epithelium (FAE) plays key roles in antigen uptake and subsequent induction of mucosal immunity. In this study, we examined whether M cell targeting using a protein antigen (Ag) delivery system would induce oral tolerance instead of enhancement of Ag-specific mucosal antibody (Ab) responses.
Mice were fed different doses of a recombinant protein sigma one of reovirus genetically conjugated to ovalbumin (OVA-pσ1), pσ1 only or PBS prior to oral challenge with OVA plus cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant. OVA-specific Ab and CD4-positive (CD4+) T cell responses were determined.
A low dose of OVA-pσ1 reduced anti-OVA Ab and CD4+ T cell responses in both mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues. OVA / MHC I-Ad tetramer staining revealed that the numbers of OVA-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly reduced in lamina propria of mice fed OVA-pσ1 than of those fed pσ1 only or PBS only. In fact, Foxp3 expressing CD25+, CD4+ T cells were markedly increased in this tissue. Nonetheless, CD25+, CD4+ T cells from the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches of orally tolerized mice showed increased TGF-β1 and IL-10 production when compared with non-tolerized mice.
These results show that a FAE M cell targeting protein Ag delivery system facilitates oral tolerance induction due to a reduction in Ag-specific CD4+ T cells and increased levels of TGF-β1 and IL-10 producing, CD25+, CD4+ regulatory T cells in both systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues.
We report a method of inducing antigen production in dendritic cells (DCs) by in vivo targeting with lentiviral vectors that specifically bind to the DC surface protein, DC-SIGN. To target the DCs, the lentivector was enveloped with a viral glycoprotein from Sindbis virus, engineered to be DC-SIGN-specific. In vitro, this lentivector specifically transduced DCs and induced DC maturation. A remarkable frequency (up to 12%) of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+ T cells and a significant antibody response were observed 2 weeks following injection of a targeted lentiviral vector encoding an OVA transgene into naïve mice. These mice were solidly protected against the growth of the OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor and this methodology could even induce regression of an established tumor. Thus, lentiviral vectors targeting DCs provide a simple method of producing effective immunity and may provide an alternative route for immunization with protein antigens.
Both CD4+ Th17-cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are involved in type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, their relationship in pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases is still elusive. We generated ovalbumin (OVA)- or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)- specific Th17 cells expressing RORγt and IL-17 by in vitro co-culturing OVA-pulsed and MOG35-55 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCOVA and DCMOG) with CD4+ T cells derived from transgenic OTII and MOG-T cell receptor mice, respectively. We found that these Th17 cells when transferred into C57BL/6 mice stimulated OVA- and MOG-specific CTL responses, respectively. To assess the above question, we adoptively transferred OVA-specific Th17 cells into transgenic rat insulin promoter (RIP)-mOVA mice or RIP-mOVA mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody to deplete Th17-stimulated CD8+ T cells. We demonstrated that OVA-specific Th17-stimulated CTLs, but not Th17 cells themselves, induced diabetes in RIP-mOVA. We also transferred MOG-specific Th17 cells into C57BL/6 mice and H-2Kb−/− mice lacking of the ability to generate Th17-stimulated CTLs. We further found that MOG-specific Th17 cells, but not Th17-activated CTLs induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our data indicate a distinct role of Th17 cells and Th17-stimulated CTLs in the pathogenesis of TID and EAE, which may have great impact on the overall understanding of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
Th17; pMHC I complex; CD8+ CTL; type 1 diabetes; experimental autoimmune encephalitis
The development of allergy is related to differences in the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, it is suggested that the immune responses induced by different genera of bacteria might be regulated through adaptive as well as innate immunity. In this study, we examined whether antigen-specific immune responses were affected by stimulation with the different genera of intestinal bacteria in vitro. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells isolated from germ-free ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic (OVA-Tg) mice were stimulated with OVA and intestinal bacteria. Cecal contents from conventional mice but not germ-free mice could induce OVA-specific cytokine production. Among the murine intestinal bacteria, Bacteroides acidofaciens (BA) enhanced OVA-specific IFN-γ and IL-10 production while Lactobacillusjohnsonii (LA) increased OVA-specific IL-10 production only. The expression of cell surface molecules and cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from germ-free Balb/c mice were analyzed. BA increased the expression of MHC II and co-stimulatory molecules on APCs compared with LA. BA increased IL-6 and IL-10 production but induced less IL-12p40 than LA. To examine the effects of prior stimulation of APCs by intestinal bacteria on the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, cytokine production was determined following co-culture with OVA, CD4+ T cells from OVA-Tg mice, and APCs which were pre-stimulated with the bacteria or not. APCs pre-stimulated with LA did not enhance OVA-specific cytokine production while BA stimulated OVA-specific IL-10 production. These results suggest that the prior stimulation of intestinal immunocytes by Lactobacillus might regulate excessive antigen-specific cytokine responses via APCs when compared with prior stimulation by Bacteroides.
Lactobacillus; Bacteroides; Germ-free mice; Antigen-specific immune response; Antigen-presenting cells