Elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E are associated with bronchial asthma, a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. Activation of antigen-specific T helper (Th) 2 cells in the lung with the subsequent release of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-5 is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we have used a non-anaphylactogenic anti-mouse-IgE antibody to investigate the relationship between IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration, and the production of Th2 cytokines. Immunization of mice with house dust mite antigen increased serum levels of IgE and IgG. Antigen challenge of immunized but not control mice induced an infiltration of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage associated with the production of IL-4 and IL-5 from lung purified Thy1.2+ cells activated through the CD3-T cell receptor complex. Administration of the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (mAb) 6h before antigen challenge neutralized serum IgE but not IgG and inhibited the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs and the production of IL-4 and IL-5 but not interferon gamma. Studies performed using an anti-CD23 mAb, CD23 deficient and mast cell deficient mice suggest that anti-IgE mAb suppresses eosinophil infiltration and Th2 cytokine production by inhibiting IgE-CD23-facilitated antigen presentation to T cells. Our results demonstrate that IgE-dependent mechanisms are important in the induction of a Th2 immune response and the subsequent infiltration of eosinophils into the airways. Neutralization of IgE, for example, non- anaphylactogenic anti-IgE mAbs may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of allergic airway disease.
T cell costimulation by molecules on the antigen presenting cell (APC) is required for optimal T cell proliferation. The B7 molecule on APC binds the T lymphocyte receptor CD28, triggering increased interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and subsequent T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 is a predicted T cell membrane receptor homologous to CD28, which also binds the B7 counter receptor, but whose distribution and function are unknown. Here we have developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for CTLA-4 and have investigated these questions. mAbs were produced that bound CTLA-4 but not CD28, and that blocked binding of CTLA-4 to B7. CTLA-4 expression as measured by these mAbs was virtually undetectable on resting T cells, but was increased several hundred-fold during T cell activation. On activated lymphocytes, CTLA-4 was expressed equally on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and was coexpressed with CD25, CD28, and CD45RO. CTLA-4 expression was lower than that of CD28, reaching a maximum of approximately 1/30-50 the level of CD28. Despite its lower expression, CTLA-4 was responsible for much of the B7 binding by large activated T cells. Anti-CTLA-4 mAb 11D4 and anti-CD28 mAb 9.3 acted cooperatively to inhibit T cell adhesion to B7, and to block T cell proliferation in primary mixed lymphocyte culture. When coimmobilized with anti T cell receptor (TCR) mAb, anti-CTLA-4 mAbs were less effective than anti-CD28 mAb 9.3 at costimulating proliferation of resting or activated T cells. However, coimmobilized combinations of anti-CD28 and anti-CTLA-4 were synergistic in their ability to augment anti-TCR-induced proliferation of preactivated CD4+ T cells. These results indicate that CTLA-4 is coexpressed with CD28 on activated T lymphocytes and cooperatively regulates T cell adhesion and activation by B7.
Fas receptor-mediated eosinophil apoptosis is currently forwarded as a mechanism resolving asthma-like inflammation. This view is based on observations in vitro and in airway lumen with unknown translatability to airway tissues in vivo. In fact, apoptotic eosinophils have not been detected in human diseased airway tissues whereas cytolytic eosinophils abound and constitute a major mode of degranulation of these cells. Also, Fas receptor stimulation may bypass the apoptotic pathway and directly evoke cytolysis of non-apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesized that effects of anti-Fas mAb in vivo may include both apoptosis and cytolysis of eosinophils and, hence, that established eosinophilic inflammation may not resolve by this treatment.
Weeklong daily allergen challenges of sensitized mice were followed by airway administration of anti-Fas mAb. BAL was performed and airway-pulmonary tissues were examined using light and electron microscopy. Lung tissue analysis for CC-chemokines, apoptosis, mucus production and plasma exudation (fibrinogen) were performed.
Anti-Fas mAb evoked apoptosis of 28% and cytolysis of 4% of eosinophils present in allergen-challenged airway tissues. Furthermore, a majority of the apoptotic eosinophils remained unengulfed and eventually exhibited secondary necrosis. A striking histopathology far beyond the allergic inflammation developed and included degranulated eosinophils, neutrophilia, epithelial derangement, plasma exudation, mucus-plasma plugs, and inducement of 6 CC-chemokines. In animals without eosinophilia anti-Fas evoked no inflammatory response.
An efficient inducer of eosinophil apoptosis in airway tissues in vivo, anti-Fas mAb evoked unprecedented asthma-like inflammation in mouse allergic airways. This outcome may partly reflect the ability of anti-Fas to evoke direct cytolysis of non-apoptotic eosinophils in airway tissues. Additionally, since most apoptotic tissue eosinophils progressed into the pro-inflammatory cellular fate of secondary necrosis this may also explain the aggravated inflammation. Our data indicate that Fas receptor mediated eosinophil apoptosis in airway tissues in vivo may cause severe disease exacerbation due to direct cytolysis and secondary necrosis of eosinophils.
asthma; allergy; eosinophils; apoptosis; chemokines
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potential treatment for allergic diseases. We constructed an allergen–cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-encoding DNA vaccine, administered it directly to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and investigated its ability and mechanisms to ameliorate allergic airway inflammation in an asthmatic mouse model. An allergen-CTLA-4 DNA plasmid (OVA-CTLA-4-pcDNA3.1) encoding an ovalbumin (OVA) and the mouse CTLA-4 extracellular domain was constructed and transfected into COS-7 cells to obtain the fusion protein OVA-CTLA-4, which was able to bind the B7 ligand on dendritic cells (DCs), and induced CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells by the coculture of naive CD4+ T cells with DCs in vitro. In an animal study, BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish the asthmatic model. Vaccination with a high dose of OVA-CTLA-4-pcDNA3.1 significantly decreased interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 levels and eosinophil counts and prevented OVA-induced reduction of the gamma interferon level in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, these mice suffered less severe airway inflammation and had lower levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers in serum. Also, high-dose OVA-CTLA-4-pcDNA3.1 vaccination inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity and prevented OVA-induced reduction of the percentages of Foxp3+ Treg cells in the spleen. Our results indicate that a high dose of allergen-CTLA-4-encoding DNA vaccine was more effective in preventing an allergen-induced Th2-skewed immune response through the induction of Treg cells and may be a new alternative therapy for asthma.
The costimulatory signal provided to T cells through CTLA-4-ligand interactions is required for T cell activation resulting in increased interleukin 2 (IL-2) production in vitro, but its role in the production of IL-4 and other cytokines is unclear and few in vivo studies have been performed to confirm results of in vitro experiments. We have examined the in vivo effects of blocking CTLA-4 ligands on the T helper cell 2 (Th2)-associated mucosal immune response that follows oral infection of mice with the nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus. CTLA-4Ig administration inhibited H. polygyrus-induced increases in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) B cell major histocompatibility complex class II expression and size and T cell- derived IL-4 gene expression. In addition, CTLA-4 immunoglobulin (Ig) partially blocked increased IL-3, IL-5, and IL-9 cytokine gene expression in Peyer's patch (PP) and MLN 8 d after primary inoculation of mice with the parasite. Increases in the number of IL-4- but not IL- 5-secreting cells were also inhibited by CTLA-4Ig. H. polygyrus-induced elevations in serum IgE levels but not blood eosinophils, were markedly inhibited by CTLA-4Ig. These results suggest that stimulation of CD28 and/or CTLA-4 is required for T cell priming leading to IL-4 cytokine production, B cell activation, and IgE secretion during a Th2-like, mucosal immune response to a nematode parasite.
The OX40/OX40L interaction contributes to an optimal T cell response following allergic stimuli and plays an important role in the maintenance and reactivation of memory T effector cells.
We tested whether treatment with an anti-OX40L monoclonal antibody (MAb) would inhibit allergen-induced responses in subjects with asthma.
Twenty-eight mild, atopic asthmatic subjects were recruited for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00983658) to compare blockade of OX40L using a humanized anti-OX40L MAb to placebo-administered intravenously in 4 doses over 3 months. Allergen inhalation challenges were carried out 56 and 113 days after the first dose of study drug. The primary outcome variable was the late-phase asthmatic response. Other outcomes included the early-phase asthmatic response, airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE levels, blood and sputum eosinophils, safety and tolerability.
Treatment with anti-OX40L MAb did not attenuate the early- or late-phase asthmatic responses at days 56 or 113 compared with placebo. In the anti-OX40L MAb treatment group, total IgE was reduced 17% from pre-dosing levels, and sputum eosinophils decreased 75% by day 113 (both P = 0.04). There was no effect of anti-OX40L MAb on airway hyperresponsiveness or blood eosinophils. The frequency of AEs was similar in both groups.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance
Pharmacological activity of anti-OX40L MAb was observed by decreases in serum total IgE and airway eosinophils at 16 weeks post-dosing, but there was no effect on allergen-induced airway responses. It is possible that the treatment duration or dose of antibody was insufficient to impact the airway responses.
allergen inhalation challenge; anti-OX40L; mild atopic asthma; proof-of-activity
Evidence indicates that cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) may negatively regulate T cell activation, but the basis for the inhibitory effect remains unknown. We report here that cross-linking of CTLA-4 induces transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) production by murine CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th0 clones all secrete TGF-β after antibody cross-linking of CTLA-4, indicating that induction of TGF-β by CTLA-4 signaling represents a ubiquitous feature of murine CD4+ T cells. Stimulation of the CD3–T cell antigen receptor complex does not independently induce TGF-β, but is required for optimal CTLA-4–mediated TGF-β production. The consequences of cross-linking of CTLA-4, together with CD3 and CD28, include inhibition of T cell proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion, as well as suppression of both interferon γ (Th1) and IL-4 (Th2). Moreover, addition of anti–TGF-β partially reverses this T cell suppression. When CTLA-4 was cross-linked in T cell populations from TGF-β1 gene–deleted (TGF-β1−/−) mice, the T cell responses were only suppressed 38% compared with 95% in wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that engagement of CTLA-4 leads to CD4+ T cell production of TGF-β, which, in part, contributes to the downregulation of T cell activation. CTLA-4, through TGF-β, may serve as a counterbalance for CD28 costimulation of IL-2 and CD4+ T cell activation.
CD4+ T cells; cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4; transforming growth factor β
In this investigation we have used a mouse model containing certain phenotypic characteristics consistent with asthma and IL-4- and CD40-deficient mice to establish the role of this cytokine and allergen-specific immunoglobulins in the initiation of airways hyperreactivity and morphological changes to the airways in responses to aeroallergen challenge. Sensitization and aerosol challenge of mice with ovalbumin resulted in a severe airways inflammatory response which directly correlated with the induction of extensive airways damage and airways hyperreactivity to beta-methacholine. Inflammatory infiltrates were primarily characterized by the presence of CD4+ T cells and eosinophils. In IL-4-deficient mice, the recruitment of airways eosinophils was impaired, but not abolished in response to aeroallergen. Moreover, the characteristic airways damage and hyperreactivity normally resulting from allergen inhalation were not attenuated. Induction of these structural and functional changes to the airways occurred in the absence of ovalbumin-specific IgE and IgG1, but IgG2a and IgG3 were detected in the sera of IL-4-deficient mice. CD4+ T cells isolated from both wild-type and IL-4-deficient mice given ovalbumin produced significant levels of IL-5 after in vitro stimulation. Treatment of IL-4-deficient mice with anti-IL-5 mAb before aeroallergen challenge abolished blood and airways eosinophilia, lung damage, and airways hyperreactivity. These results indicate that IL-4 is not essential for the development of IL-5-producing CD4+ T cells or for the induction of eosinophilic inflammation and airways damage and hyperreactivity. In response to sensitization and aerosol challenge, CD40-deficient mice did not produce ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgG isotypes, or IgA, and airways inflammation and hyperreactivity were not attenuated. Our results suggest that allergic airways disease can occur via pathways which operate independently of IL-4 and allergen-specific immunoglobulins. Activation of these pathways is intimately associated with IL-5 and eosinophilic inflammation. Such pathways may play a substantive role in the etiology of asthma.
The specificity of T lymphocyte activation is determined by engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by peptide/major histocompatibility complexes expressed on the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Lacking costimulation by accessory molecules on the APC, T cell proliferation does not occur and unresponsiveness to subsequent antigenic stimulus is induced. The B7/BB1 receptor on APCs binds CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells, and provides a costimulus for T cell proliferation. Here, we show that prolonged, specific T cell hyporesponsiveness to antigenic restimulation is achieved by blocking the interaction between CD28 and B7/BB1 in human mixed leukocyte culture (MLC). Secondary T cell proliferative responses to specific alloantigen were inhibited by addition to the primary culture of monovalent Fab fragments of anti- CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9.3, which block interaction of CD28 with B7/BB1 without activating T cells. Hypo-responsiveness was also induced in MLC by CTLA4Ig, a chimeric immunoglobulin fusion protein incorporating the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 with high binding avidity for B7/BB1. Cells previously primed could also be made hyporesponsive, if exposed to alloantigen in the presence of CTLA4Ig. Maximal hyporesponsiveness was achieved in MLC after 2 d of incubation with CTLA4Ig, and was maintained for at least 27 d after removal of CTLA4Ig. Accumulation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma but not IL-4 mRNA was blocked by CTLA4Ig in T cells stimulated by alloantigen. Antigen-specific responses could be restored by addition of exogenous IL-2 at the time of the secondary stimulation. Addition to primary cultures of the intact bivalent anti-CD28 mAb 9.3, or B7/BB1+ transfected CHO cells or exogenous IL-2, abrogated induction of hyporesponsiveness by CTLA4Ig. These data indicate that interaction of CD28 with B7/BB1 during TCR engagement with antigen is required to maintain T cell competence and that blocking such interaction can result in a state of T cell hyporesponsiveness.
Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia, and may be mediated by T helper (Th) lymphocytes expressing a Th2 cytokine pattern. Interleukin (IL) 12 suppresses the expression of Th2 cytokines and their associated responses, including eosinophilia, serum immunoglobulin E, and mucosal mastocytosis. We have previously shown in a murine model that antigen- induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia are CD4+ T cell dependent. We used this model to determine the ability of IL-12 to prevent antigen-induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils, and lung Th2 cytokine expression. Sensitized A/J mice developed airway hyperresponsiveness and increased numbers of BAL eosinophils and other inflammatory cells after single or repeated intratracheal challenges with sheep red blood cell antigen. Pulmonary mRNA and protein levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were increased after antigen challenge. Administration of IL-12 (1 microgram/d x 5 d) at the time of a single antigen challenge abolished the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia and promoted an increase in interferon (IFN) gamma and decreases in IL-4 and IL-5 expression. The effects of IL-12 were partially dependent on IFN-gamma, because concurrent treatment with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody partially reversed the inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia by IL-12. Treatment of mice with IL-12 at the time of a second antigen challenge also prevented airway hyperresponsiveness and significantly reduced numbers of BAL inflammatory cells, reflecting the ability of IL-12 to inhibit responses associated with ongoing antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data show that antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation can be blocked by IL-12, which suppresses Th2 cytokine expression. Local administration of IL-12 may provide a novel immunotherapy for the treatment of pulmonary allergic disorders such as atopic asthma.
Background and aims
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) has been shown to act as a negative regulator of T cell function and has been implicated in the regulation of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 development and the function of regulatory T cells. Tests were carried out to determine whether anti-CTLA-4 treatment would alter the polarisation of naive T cells in vivo.
Mice were treated with anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (UC10-4F10) at the time of immunisation or colonic instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The cytokines produced by lymph node cells after in vitro antigenic stimulation and the role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were tested, and the survival of mice was monitored.
Injection of anti-CTLA-4 mAb in mice during priming induced the development of adaptive CD4+ regulatory T cells which expressed high levels of ICOS (inducible co-stimulator), secreted IL-4 and IL-10. This treatment inhibited Th1 memory responses in vivo and repressed experimental intestinal inflammation. The anti-CTLA-4-induced amelioration of disease correlated with IDO expression and infiltration of ICOShigh Foxp3+ T cells in the intestine, suggesting that anti-CTLA-4 acted indirectly through the development of regulatory T cells producing IL-10 and inducing IDO.
These observations emphasise the synergy between IL-10 and IDO as anti-inflammatory agents and highlight anti-CTLA-4 treatment as a potential novel immunotherapeutic approach for inducing adaptive regulatory T cells.
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergens, airway oedema, increased mucus secretion, excess production of T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines, and eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. Corni fructus (CF) is a fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et. Zucc. (Cornaceae) and has been used in traditional Korean medicine as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic agent. To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of CF and their underlying mechanism, we examined the influence of CF on the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
In this study, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal (i.p.), intratracheal (i.t.) injections and intranasal (i.n.) inhalation of OVA. We investigated the effect of CF on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) production.
The CF-treated groups showed suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, and AHR via reduced production of interleuin (IL) -5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE.
Our data suggest that the therapeutic effects of CF in asthma are mediated by reduced production of Th2 cytokines (IL-5), eotaxin, and OVA-specific IgE and reduced eosinophil infiltration.
Corni fructus; Asthma; Eosinophil; IL-5; CCR3
Previous studies established that IL-5–producing CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in allergic respiratory inflammation. It was also reported that CD4+ T cells express higher levels of CD44 in the airway than in peripheral blood of patients with allergic respiratory diseases. We have used experimental pulmonary eosinophilia induced in mice by Ascaris suum (Asc) extract to investigate the role of CD44 in the development of allergic respiratory inflammation. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-CD44 mAb prevented both lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced elevation of Th2 cytokines as well as chemokines (CCL11, CCL17) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Treatment with anti-CD44 mAb inhibited the increased levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) and leukotriene concentrations in BALF that typically result from antigen challenge. Anti-CD44 mAb also blocked antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. An anti-CD44 mAb (IM7) inhibited the HA-binding ability of splenocytes associated with decreased levels of CD44. Soluble CD44 levels in serum were increased in Asc-challenged IM7–treated mice, but not in KM201-treated mice, compared with Asc-challenged rat IgG–treated mice. Ab’s that block CD44-HA binding reduced allergic respiratory inflammation by preventing lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the lung. Thus, CD44 may be critical for development of allergic respiratory inflammation.
Pim kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity can be induced by cytokines involved in allergy and asthma. These kinases play a role in cell survival and proliferation, but have not been examined, to the best of our knowledge, in the development of allergic disease. This study sought to determine the role of Pim1 kinase in the development of allergic airway responses. Mice were sensitized and challenged with antigen (primary challenge), or were sensitized, challenged, and rechallenged with allergen in a secondary model. To assess the role of Pim1 kinase, a small molecule inhibitor was administered orally after sensitization and during the challenge phase. Airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, airway and lung inflammation, cell composition, and cytokine concentrations were assessed. Lung Pim1 kinase concentrations were increased after ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. In the primary allergen challenge model, treatment with the Pim1 kinase inhibitor after sensitization and during airway challenges prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic airway inflammation, and goblet cell metaplasia, and increased Th2 cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar fluid in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were also demonstrated after a secondary allergen challenge, where lung allergic disease was established before treatment. After treatment with the inhibitor, a significant reduction was evident in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and concentrations of cytokines in the airways. The inhibition of Pim1 kinase was effective in preventing the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and cytokine production in allergen-sensitized and allergen-challenged mice. These data identify the important role of Pim1 kinase in the full development of allergen-induced airway responses.
airway hyperresponsiveness; inflammation; Pim1 kinase; T cells
T lymphocytes have been implicated in controlling the recruitment of eosinophils into the lung in murine models of allergic asthma. The mechanism by which T cells assist in the recruitment of eosinophils to the lung in these models is not completely understood. We hypothesized that eosinophil-active chemokines might be regulated by antigen (Ag)- induced T cell activation in vivo and thereby mediate T cell-dependent eosinophil recruitment. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of an anti-CD3 mAb on Ag-induced pulmonary eosinophilia and correlated this with the expression of three eosinophil-active chemokines: eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, and RANTES. We found that Ag-induced pulmonary eosinophilia was associated with the induction of eotaxin and MIP-1 alpha, but not RANTES mRNA. Prechallenge treatment with anti-CD3 mAb inhibited eotaxin, but not MIP-1 alpha and RANTES mRNA induction, and significantly reduced eosinophil accumulation in the lung. In addition, Ag-specific antibody responses and mast cell degranulation after Ag challenge in sensitized mice were not affected by T cell elimination, and were not sufficient to induce the expression of eotaxin and cause pulmonary eosinophilia. These findings suggest that eotaxin is one of the molecular links between Ag- specific T cell activation and the recruitment of eosinophils into the airways.
CD40 ligand (CD40L)-deficient C57BL/6 mice failed to control intracellular Leishmania donovani visceral infection, indicating that acquired resistance involves CD40-CD40L signaling and costimulation. Conversely, in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with established visceral infection, injection of agonist anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MAb) induced killing of ∼60% of parasites within liver macrophages, stimulated gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, and enhanced mononuclear cell recruitment and tissue granuloma formation. Comparable parasite killing was also induced by MAb blockade (inhibition) of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) which downregulates separate CD28-B7 T-cell costimulation. Optimal killing triggered by both anti-CD40 and anti-CTLA-4 required endogenous IFN-γ and involved interleukin 12. CD40L−/− mice also failed to respond to antileishmanial chemotherapy (antimony), while in normal animals, anti-CD40 and anti-CTLA-4 synergistically enhanced antimony-associated killing. CD40L-CD40 signaling regulates outcome and response to treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis, and MAb targeting of T-cell costimulatory pathways (CD40L-CD40 and CD28-B7) yields macrophage activation and immunotherapeutic and immunochemotherapeutic activity.
The airway mucosal response to allergen in asthma involves influx of activated T helper type 2 cells and eosinophils, transient airflow obstruction, and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The mechanism(s) underlying transient T cell activation during this inflammatory response is unclear. We present evidence that this response is regulated via bidirectional interactions between airway mucosal dendritic cells (AMDC) and T memory cells. After aerosol challenge, resident AMDC acquire antigen and rapidly mature into potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) after cognate interactions with T memory cells. This process is restricted to dendritic cells (DCs) in the mucosae of the conducting airways, and is not seen in peripheral lung. Within 24 h, antigen-bearing mature DCs disappear from the airway wall, leaving in their wake activated interleukin 2R+ T cells and AHR. Antigen-bearing activated DCs appear in regional lymph nodes at 24 h, suggesting onward migration from the airway. Transient up-regulation of CD86 on AMDC accompanies this process, which can be reproduced by coculture of resting AMDC with T memory cells plus antigen. The APC activity of AMDC can be partially inhibited by anti-CD86, suggesting that CD86 may play an active role in this process and/or is a surrogate for other relevant costimulators. These findings provide a plausible model for local T cell activation at the lesional site in asthma, and for the transient nature of this inflammatory response.
dendritic cells; asthma; respiratory mucosa; T cells; activation
CTLA-4 is a CD28 homologue believed to be a negative regulator of T cell function. However, the mechanism of this downregulatory activity is not well understood. The present study was designed to examine the effect of CTLA-4 ligation on cytokine production, cell survival, and cell cycle progression. The results demonstrate that the primary effect of CTLA-4 ligation is not the induction of apoptosis. Instead, CTLA-4 signaling blocks IL-2 production, IL-2 receptor expression, and cell cycle progression of activated T cells. Moreover, the effect of CTLA-4 signaling was manifested after initial T cell activation. Inhibition of IL-2 receptor expression and cell cycle progression was more pronounced at late (72 h) time points after initial activation. The effects of anti-CTLA-4 mAbs were most apparent in the presence of optimal CD28- mediated costimulation consistent with the finding that CTLA-4 upregulation was CD28-dependent. Finally, the addition of exogenous IL- 2 to the cultures restored IL-2 receptor expression and T cell proliferation. These results suggest that CTLA-4 signaling does not regulate cell survival or responsiveness to IL-2, but does inhibit CD28- dependent IL-2 production.
Reversible airway hyperreactivity underlies the pathophysiology of asthma, yet the precise mediators of the response remain unclear. Human studies have correlated aberrant activation of T helper (Th) 2-like effector systems in the airways with disease. A murine model of airway hyperreactivity in response to acetylcholine was established using mice immunized with ovalbumin and challenged with aerosolized antigen. No airway hyperractivity occurred in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Identically immunized BALB/c mice developed an influx of cells, with a predominance of eosinophils and CD4+ T cells, into the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the time that substantial changes in airway pressure and resistance were quantitated. Challenged animals developed marked increases in Th2 cytokine production, eosinophil influx, and serum immunoglobulin E levels. Neutralization of interleukin (IL) 4 using monoclonal antibodies administered during the period of systemic immunization abrogated airway hyperractivity but had little effect on the influx of eosinophils. Administration of anti-IL-4 only during the period of the aerosol challenge did not affect the subsequent response to acetylcholine. Finally, administration of anti- IL-5 antibodies at levels that suppressed eosinophils to < 1% of recruited cells had no effect on the subsequent airway responses. BALB/c mice had significantly greater airway responses than C57BL/6 mice, consistent with enhanced IL-4 responses to antigen in BALB/c mice. Taken together, these data implicate IL-4 generated during the period of lymphocyte priming with antigen in establishing the cascade of responses required to generate airway hyperractivity to inhaled antigen. No role for IL-5 or eosinophils could be demonstrated.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by Type 2 helper T cells and eosinophils. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) has been implicated in recruiting eosinophils and lymphocytes to pathological sites in asthma as a regulatory receptor. Accordingly, monoclonal antibody (mAb) against VCAM-1 may attenuate allergic inflammation and pathophysiological features of asthma. We attempted to evaluate whether a recently developed human anti-VCAM-1 mAb can inhibit the pathophysiological features of asthma in a murine asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Leucocyte adhesion inhibition assay was performed to evaluate the in vitro blocking activity of human anti-VCAM-1 mAb. OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were treated with human anti-VCAM-1 mAb or isotype control Ab before intranasal OVA challenge. We evaluated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, measured inflammatory cytokines and examined histopathological features. The human anti-VCAM-1 mAb bound to human and mouse VCAM-1 molecules and inhibited adhesion of human leucocytes in vitro. AHR and inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were reduced in mice treated with human anti-VCAM-1 mAb as compared with a control Ab. The levels of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, as well as transforming growth factor-β, in lung tissue were decreased in treated mice. Human anti-VCAM-1 mAb reduced goblet cell hyperplasia and peribronchial fibrosis. In vivo VCAM-1 expression decreased in the treated group. In conclusion, human anti-VCAM-1 mAb attenuated allergic inflammation and the pathophysiological features of asthma in OVA-induced murine asthma model. The results suggested that human anti-VCAM-1 mAb could potentially be used as an additional anti-asthma therapeutic medicine.
VCAM-1; monoclonal antibody; allergic inflammation; asthma; cell adhesion molecule; anti-inflammatory effect
The current paradigm surrounding allergen-mediated T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in the lung suggests an almost hegemonic role for T cells. Our studies propose an alternative hypothesis implicating eosinophils in the regulation of pulmonary T cell responses. In particular, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice devoid of eosinophils (the transgenic line PHIL) have reduced airway levels of Th2 cytokines relative to the OVA-treated wild type that correlated with a reduced ability to recruit effector T cells to the lung. Adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OVA-specific transgenic T cells (OT-II) alone into OVA-challenged PHIL recipient mice failed to restore Th2 cytokines, airway histopathologies, and, most importantly, the recruitment of pulmonary effector T cells. In contrast, the combined transfer of OT-II cells and eosinophils into PHIL mice resulted in the accumulation of effector T cells and a concomitant increase in both airway Th2 immune responses and histopathologies. Moreover, we show that eosinophils elicit the expression of the Th2 chemokines thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 and macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 in the lung after allergen challenge, and blockade of these chemokines inhibited the recruitment of effector T cells. In summary, the data suggest that pulmonary eosinophils are required for the localized recruitment of effector T cells.
Rationale: Despite ongoing research, the molecular mechanisms controlling asthma are still elusive. CD48 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein involved in lymphocyte adhesion, activation, and costimulation. Although CD48 is widely expressed on hematopoietic cells and commonly studied in the context of natural killer and cytotoxic T cell functions, its role in helper T cell type 2 settings has not been examined.
Objectives: To evaluate the expression and function of CD48, CD2, and 2B4 in a murine model of allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation.
Methods: Allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA)–alum sensitization and intranasal inoculation of OVA or, alternatively, by repeated intranasal inoculation of Aspergillus fumigatus antigen in wild-type, STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription)-6–deficient, and IL-4/IL-13–deficient BALB/c mice. Gene profiling of whole lungs was performed, followed by Northern blot and flow cytometric analysis. Anti-CD48, -CD2, and -2B4 antibodies were administered before OVA challenge and cytokine expression and histology were assessed.
Measurements and Main Results: Microarray data analysis demonstrated upregulation of CD48 in the lungs of OVA-challenged mice. Allergen-induced CD48 expression was independent of STAT-6, IL-13, and IL-4. Neutralization of CD48 in allergen-challenged mice abrogated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung inflammation. Neutralization of CD2 inhibited the inflammatory response to a lesser extent and neutralization of 2B4 had no effect.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that CD48 is critically involved in allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. As such, CD48 may provide a new potential target for the suppression of asthma.
asthma; CD48; CD2; 2B4
This report examines the effect of an anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) HP1/2 on antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine, and on eosinophil and T lymphocyte infiltration in the airways of guinea pigs sensitized and challenged by aerosolized ovalbumin and used 24 h thereafter. The intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg of HP1/2, but not of its isotype-matched mAb 1E6, 1 h before and 4 h after antigen inhalation, markedly inhibited the increased bronchopulmonary responses to intravenous methacholine, as well as airway eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in bronchial tissue. HP1/2 also suppressed the antigen-induced infiltration of the bronchial wall by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, identified by immunohistochemical technique using specific mAbs that recognize antigenic epitopes of guinea pig T cells. Treatment with HP1/2 also resulted in a significant increase in the number of blood eosinophils, suggesting that inhibition by anti-VLA-4 mAb of eosinophil recruitment to the alveolar compartment may partially account for their accumulation in the circulation. These findings indicate that eosinophil and lymphocyte adhesion and subsequent infiltration into the guinea pig airways that follow antigen challenge are mediated by VLA-4. Furthermore, concomitant inhibition of antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity and of cellular infiltration by anti-VLA-4 mAb suggests a relationship between airway inflammation and modifications in the bronchopulmonary function.
Eosinophils and T lymphocytes are thought to be involved in allergic airway inflammation. Both cells express the alpha 4 beta 1-integrin, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29); alpha 4-integrins can promote cellular adhesion and activation. Therefore, we examined the in vivo effects of a blocking anti-alpha 4 monoclonal antibody, HP 1/2, on antigen-induced early and late bronchial responses, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory cell influx, and peripheral leukocyte counts in allergic sheep. Sheep blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils expressed alpha 4 and bound HP 1/2. In control sheep, Ascaris antigen challenge produced early and late increases in specific lung resistance of 380 +/- 42% and 175 +/- 16% over baseline immediately and 7 h after challenge, respectively, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness continuing for 14 d after antigen challenge. Treatment with HP 1/2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before antigen challenge did not affect the early increase in specific lung resistance but inhibited the late-phase increase at 5-8 h by 75% (P < 0.05) and inhibited the post-antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness at 1, 2, 7, and 14 d (P < 0.05, for each time). Intravenous HP 1/2 given 2 h after antigen challenge likewise blocked late-phase airway changes and postchallenge airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway administration of HP 1/2 (16-mg dose) was also effective in blocking these antigen-induced changes. Response to HP 1/2 was specific since an isotypic monoclonal antibody, 1E6, was ineffective by intravenous and aerosol administration. Inhibition of leukocyte recruitment did not totally account for the activity of anti-alpha 4 antibody since HP 1/2 neither diminished the eosinopenia or lymphopenia that followed antigen challenge nor consistently altered the composition of leukocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage. Because airway administration of HP 1/2 was also active, HP 1/2 may have inhibited cell activation. Reduction of platelet-activating factor-induced eosinophil peroxidase release from HP 1/2-treated eosinophils supports such a mechanism. These findings indicate a role for alpha 4-integrins in processes that lead to airway late phase responses and persisting airway hyperresponsiveness after antigen challenge.
Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL) whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.
Wild-type (WT) BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD) and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR).
Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.
This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.