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1.  Comparison of Iranian National Medical Library with digital libraries of selected countries 
Introduction:
The important role of information and communication technologies and their influence on methods of storing, retrieving information in digital libraries, has not only changed the meanings behind classic library activates but has also created great changes in their services. However, it seems that not all digital libraries provide their users with similar services and only some of them are successful in fulfilling their role in digital environment. The Iranian National Medical library is among those that appear to come short compared to other digital libraries around the world. By knowing the different services provided by digital libraries worldwide, one can evaluate the services provided by Iranian National Medical library. The goal of this study is a comparison between Iranian National Medical library and digital libraries of selected countries.
Materials and Methods:
This is an applied study and uses descriptive – survey method. The statistical population is the digital libraries around the world which were actively providing library services between October and December 2011 and were selected by using the key word “Digital Library” in Google search engine. The data-gathering tool was direct access to the websites of these digital libraries. The statistical study is descriptive and Excel software was used for data analysis and plotting of the charts.
Results:
The findings showed that among the 33 digital libraries investigated worldwide, most of them provided Browse (87.87%), Search (84.84%), and Electronic information retrieval (57.57%) services. The “Help” in public services (48/48%) and “Interlibrary Loan” in traditional services (27/27%) had the highest frequency. The Iranian National Medical library provides more digital services compared to other libraries but has less classic and public services and has less than half of possible public services. Other than Iranian National Medical library, among the 33 libraries investigated, the leaders in providing different services are Library of University of California in classic services, Count Way Library of Medicine in digital services, and Library of Finland in public services.
Results and Discussion:
The results of this study show that among the digital libraries investigated, most provided similar public, digital, and classic services and The Iranian National Medical library has been somewhat successful in providing these services compared to other digital libraries. One can also conclude that the difference in services is at least in part due to difference in environments, information needs, and users.
Conclusion:
Iranian National Medical Library has been somewhat successful in providing library services in digital environment and needs to identify the services which are valuable to its users by identifying the users’ needs and special characteristics of its environment
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.145897
PMCID: PMC4275611  PMID: 25540782
Digital library; Iranian National Medical Library; services
2.  Total quality management (TQM) in a hospital library: identifying service benchmarks. 
Hospitals are turning to total quality management (TQM) to lower costs of providing care. A hospital library in a TQM environment needs to embrace corporate goals while maintaining its accountability as a contributor to quality patient care. Alliant Health System (AHS) Library at Norton Hospital and Kosair Children's Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, conducted a study to establish TQM benchmarks and to examine the significance of its role in clinical care. Using a methodology designed to allow both library user and nonuser to respond, 2,091 surveys were distributed to physicians and nursing and allied health personnel. Areas surveyed included frequency of library use, impact of information received on clinical judgments, cognitive value of the information, and satisfaction with library products and services. Results confirm that the library has a substantial clinical role. Eighty-eight percent of reporting physicians agreed that information from the library contributed to higher quality care. Nursing and allied health were less convinced of the importance of the library's clinical role. Sixty-nine percent of nursing personnel and 58% of allied health personnel agreed that the library contributed to higher quality care. Nursing and allied health personnel also used the library less frequently than physicians. With these results as benchmarks, improving the clinical role of the library will take commitment to the TQM process and a willingness to change.
PMCID: PMC225698  PMID: 1422505
3.  Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006 
Objective:
The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities.
Methods:
The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis.
Results:
The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years.
Conclusions:
Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.97.4.011
PMCID: PMC2759173  PMID: 19851491
4.  Library as place: results of a delphi study 
Objective: An expert consensus on the future of the library as place was developed to assist health sciences librarians in designing new library spaces.
Method: An expert panel of health sciences librarians, building consultants, architects, and information technologists was asked to reflect on the likelihood, desirability, timing, and impact on building design of more than seventy possible changes in the use of library space.
Results: An expert consensus predicted that the roles librarians play and the way libraries are used will substantially change. These changes come in response to changes in technology, scholarly communication, learning environments, and the health care economy.
Conclusions: How health sciences library space is used will be far less consistent by 2015, as space becomes more tailored to institutional needs. However, the manner in which health sciences libraries develop and deliver services and collections will drastically change in the next decade. Libraries will continue to exist and will provide support for knowledge management and clinical trials, provide access to digital materials, and play a host of other roles that will enable libraries to emerge as institutional change agents.
PMCID: PMC1175798  PMID: 16059421
5.  Library instruction within the medical record administration curriculum. 
A course for medical record administration (MRA) students has been developed at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences Library. The course's objectives are: (1) to train students in the use of the resources and services of health sciences libraries and (2) to provide basic instruction in the organization, operation, and management of a small hospital library. These objectives are met by integrating library use instruction within the MRA curriculum and by presenting a five-week hospital library management workshop. Library use instruction includes a library orientation and sessions on the use of major reference sources, writing for publication, and the use and evaluation of the medical record literature. The workshop covers the role of the medical record administrator as manager of the hospital library. Sessions cover basic principles of hospital library administration, technical and public services, and sources of outside assistance. Results are reported of a survey of graduates conducted to determine whether a need for the course still existed and if the changes made as a result of the evaluation process were appropriate. The teaching methods and evaluation techniques used in this course are applicable to library instruction in other disciplines.
PMCID: PMC226796  PMID: 7225659
6.  Interlibrary loan in primary access libraries: challenging the traditional view 
Introduction: Primary access libraries serve as the foundation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) interlibrary loan (ILL) hierarchy, yet few published reports directly address the important role these libraries play in the ILL system. This may reflect the traditional view that small, primary access libraries are largely users of ILL, rather than important contributors to the effectiveness and efficiency of the national ILL system.
Objective: This study was undertaken to test several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries.
Hypotheses: Three hypotheses were developed. H1: Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries comply with the recommended ILL guideline of adhering to a hierarchical structure, emphasizing local borrowing. H2: The closures of two Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) primary access libraries in 1996 resulted in twenty-three Colorado primary access libraries' borrowing more from their state resource library in 1997. H3: The number of subscriptions held by Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries is positively correlated with the number of items they loan and negatively correlated with the number of items they borrow.
Methods: The hypotheses were tested using the 1992 and 1997 DOCLINE and OCLC data of fifty-four health sciences libraries, including fifty primary access libraries, two state resource libraries, and two general academic libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. The ILL data were obtained electronically and analyzed using Microsoft Word 98, Microsoft Excel 98, and JMP 3.2.2.
Results: CCML primary access libraries comply with the recommended guideline to emphasize local borrowing by supplying each other with the majority of their ILLs, instead of overburdening libraries located at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy (H1). The closures of two CCML primary access libraries appear to have affected the entire ILL system, resulting in a greater volume of ILL activity for the state resource library and other DOCLINE libraries higher up in the ILL hierarchy and highlighting the contribution made by CCML primary access libraries (H2). CCML primary access libraries borrow and lend in amounts that are proportional to their collection size, rather than overtaxing libraries at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy with large numbers of requests (H3).
Limitations: The main limitations of this study were the small sample size and the use of data collected for another purpose, the CCML ILL survey.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is little evidence to support several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. In addition to validating the important contributions made by primary access libraries to the national ILL system, baseline data that can be used to benchmark current practice performance are provided.
PMCID: PMC35251  PMID: 11055297
7.  Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions 
Objective:
The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs.
Methods:
An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country.
Results:
Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved.
Conclusions:
Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs.
Implications:
Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.103.1.003
PMCID: PMC4279927  PMID: 25552939
8.  The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history 
The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.
PMCID: PMC153159  PMID: 12883579
9.  Heat-shock responsive genes identified and validated in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) liver, head kidney and skeletal muscle using genomic techniques 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:72.
Background
Daily and seasonal changes in temperature are challenges that fish within aquaculture settings cannot completely avoid, and are known to elicit complex organismal and cellular stress responses. We conducted a large-scale gene discovery and transcript expression study in order to better understand the genes that are potentially involved in the physiological and cellular aspects of stress caused by heat-shock. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library construction and characterization to identify transcripts that were dysregulated by heat-shock in liver, skeletal muscle and head kidney of Atlantic cod. These tissues were selected due to their roles in metabolic regulation, locomotion and growth, and immune function, respectively. Fish were exposed for 3 hours to an 8°C elevation in temperature, and then allowed to recover for 24 hours at the original temperature (i.e. 10°C). Tissue samples obtained before heat-shock (BHS), at the cessation of heat-shock (CS), and 3, 12, and 24 hours after the cessation of heat-shock (ACS), were used for reciprocal SSH library construction and quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis of gene expression using samples from a group that was transferred but not heat-shocked (CT) as controls.
Results
We sequenced and characterized 4394 ESTs (1524 from liver, 1451 from head kidney and 1419 from skeletal muscle) from three "forward subtracted" libraries (enriched for genes up-regulated by heat-shock) and 1586 from the liver "reverse subtracted" library (enriched for genes down-regulated by heat-shock), for a total of 5980 ESTs. Several cDNAs encoding putative chaperones belonging to the heat-shock protein (HSP) family were found in these libraries, and "protein folding" was among the gene ontology (GO) terms with the highest proportion in the libraries. QPCR analysis of HSP90α and HSP70-1 (synonym: HSPA1A) mRNA expression showed significant up-regulation in all three tissues studied. These transcripts were more than 100-fold up-regulated in liver following heat-shock. We also identified HSP47, GRP78 and GRP94-like transcripts, which were significantly up-regulated in all 3 tissues studied. Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) transcript, found in the liver reverse SSH library, was shown by QPCR to be significantly down-regulated in the head kidney after heat-shock.
Conclusion
Chaperones are an important part of the cellular response to stress, and genes identified in this work may play important roles in resistance to thermal-stress. Moreover, the transcript for one key immune response gene (TLR22) was down-regulated by heat-shock, and this down-regulation may be a component of heat-induced immunosuppression.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-72
PMCID: PMC2830189  PMID: 20109224
10.  An essay on reflection. 
From the vantage point of her personal experience, the author examines milestones since the 1960s which have changed the medical library profession and helped shape the Medical Library Association. The advent of automation, including cataloging with OCLC and online literature searching through the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network, was a dramatic event that transformed the work and priorities of librarians, fulfilling the dreams of earlier visionaries. The application of technology in libraries led to an increased demand for education and training for librarians. The Medical Library Association responded with continuing education programs, and a series of important reports influenced how the association filled its role in professional development. Legislation providing federal funding, such as the Medical Library Assistance Act, resulted in a period of expansion for libraries and their services. The Medical Library Association has developed a legislative agenda to influence action in areas such as copyright. In the future, health sciences librarians must take a leadership role.
PMCID: PMC226363  PMID: 9578947
11.  Reference librarians' perceptions of the issues they face as academic health information professionals 
Background: Leaders in the profession encourage academic health sciences librarians to assume new roles as part of the growth process for remaining vital professionals. Have librarians embraced these new roles?
Objectives: This research sought to examine from the reference librarians' viewpoints how their roles have changed over the past ten years and what the challenges these changes present as viewed by both the librarians and library directors.
Method: A series of eight focus groups was conducted with reference librarians from private and public academic health sciences libraries. Directors of these libraries were interviewed separately.
Results: Reference librarians' activities have largely confirmed the role changes anticipated by their leaders. They are teaching more, engaging in outreach through liaison initiatives, and designing Web pages, in addition to providing traditional reference duties. Librarians offer insights into unanticipated issues encountered in each of these areas and offer some creative solutions. Directors discuss the issues from their unique perspective.
Conclusion: Librarians have identified areas for focusing efforts in lifelong learning. Adult learning theory, specialized databases and resources needed by researchers, ever-evolving technology, and promotion and evaluation of the library are areas needing attention. Implications for library education and continuing professional development are presented.
PMCID: PMC385304  PMID: 15098052
12.  Tomorrow's library: will it all be infrastructure? 
The form in which knowledge is described and encapsulated has a major impact on the design of libraries and the functions performed within the library. Libraries as we known them have been primarily built to store and disseminate knowledge in book format. New technology and the changing needs of knowledge workers, which form important parts of the logocentric, practicentric, and democentric elements of our information infrastructure, have created profound changes in our culture, challenge our definition of knowledge, and necessitate flexible designs for our libraries. The invention of practical mediums for information access, such as the book in the seventeenth century, television in the twentieth century, and perhaps the Internet in the twenty-first century, open the door to self-education with little economic discrimination. New roles for libraries are emerging that require flexibility in building design for moving collections, services, functions, and equipment; restructuring staff organizations; introducing new services associated with new technology; eliminating unnecessary or nonaffordable services; and housing other institutional departments within the structure of the "new" library.
PMCID: PMC226093  PMID: 7581186
13.  Perspectives on academic health sciences libraries in the 1980s: indicators from a Delphi study. 
A Delphi study was undertaken to identify the changes in library roles and functions that the directors of academic health sciences libraries believe will occur over the next decade. The methodology is described and the results are summarized. Two scenarios resulted: one, highly desirable; the other, highly probable. They overlap by 64%. Library directors expect moderate evolutionary changes in the next ten years. Users are perceived to be the force maintaining the status quo, while technology is the force advancing change. The adoption of technology is seen as desirable and within the libraries' span of control. Education and service roles of librarians will expand. Library and institutional priorities are seen as obstacles to change.
PMCID: PMC226663  PMID: 7037086
14.  The idea of the library in the twenty-first century* 
The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for secondhand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers.
PMCID: PMC3571664  PMID: 23509431
15.  The Georgetown University Library Information System (LIS): a minicomputer-based integrated library system. 
Georgetown University's Library Information System (LIS), an integrated library system designed and implemented at the Dahlgren Memorial Library, is broadly described from an administrative point of view. LIS' functional components consist of eight "user-friendly" modules: catalog, circulation, serials, bibliographic management (including Mini-MEDLINE), acquisitions, accounting, networking, and computer-assisted instruction. This article touches on emerging library services, user education, and computer information services, which are also changing the role of staff librarians. The computer's networking capability brings the library directly to users through personal or institutional computers at remote sites. The proposed Integrated Medical Center Information System at Georgetown University will include interface with LIS through a network mechanism. LIS is being replicated at other libraries, and a microcomputer version is being tested for use in a hospital setting.
PMCID: PMC227199  PMID: 6688749
16.  The idea of the library in the twenty-first century. 
The fundamental idea of the library must change. The nineteenth-century idea of the library as the embalming of dead genius and the twentieth-century idea of the library as the repository for second-hand knowledge must give way to the idea of the library as the owner and the librarian as the manager of first-hand knowledge. In the coming era of knowledge capitalism, those individuals and organizations will flourish who are able to apply knowledge to create knowledge and to organize it to produce knowledge. The roles of present-day librarians and libraries will begin to differentiate sharply over the next decade. Some must seize the opportunity to participate in the transformation of libraries into online knowledge servers.
Images
PMCID: PMC225988  PMID: 7703930
17.  Being there: the library as place* 
The value of the library as place is examined in this Janet Doe Lecture. The lecture, which is intended to focus on the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship, presents an overview of the library as a place in society from ancient times to the present. The impact of information technology and changes in the methods of scholarly publication from print to digital are addressed as well as the role of the library as the repository of the written historical record of cultures. Functions and services of libraries are discussed in light of the physical library facility of the future. Finally, librarians are asked to remember the enduring values of librarianship in planning libraries of the future.
PMCID: PMC314099  PMID: 14762459
18.  Increased Diversity of Libraries from Libraries: Chemoinformatic Analysis of Bis-Diazacyclic Libraries 
Chemical biology & drug design  2011;77(5):328-342.
Combinatorial libraries continue to play a key role in drug discovery. To increase structural diversity, several experimental methods have been developed. However, limited efforts have been performed so far to quantify the diversity of the broadly used diversity-oriented synthetic (DOS) libraries. Herein we report a comprehensive characterization of 15 bis-diazacyclic combinatorial libraries obtained through libraries from libraries, which is a DOS approach. Using MACCS keys, radial and different pharmacophoric fingerprints as well as six molecular properties, it was demonstrated the increased structural and property diversity of the libraries from libraries over the individual libraries. Comparison of the libraries to existing drugs, NCI Diversity and the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository revealed the structural uniqueness of the combinatorial libraries (mean similarity < 0.5 for any fingerprint representation). In particular, bis-cyclic thiourea libraries were the most structurally dissimilar to drugs retaining drug-like character in property space. This study represents the first comprehensive quantification of the diversity of libraries from libraries providing a solid quantitative approach to compare and contrast the diversity of DOS libraries with existing drugs or any other compound collection.
doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01100.x
PMCID: PMC3077462  PMID: 21294850
chemical space; combinatorial chemistry; drugs; diversity-oriented synthesis; molecular diversity; visualization
19.  Expanding roles in a library-based bioinformatics service program: a case study 
Question:
How can a library-based bioinformatics support program be implemented and expanded to continuously support the growing and changing needs of the research community?
Setting:
A program at a health sciences library serving a large academic medical center with a strong research focus is described.
Methods:
The bioinformatics service program was established at the Norris Medical Library in 2005. As part of program development, the library assessed users' bioinformatics needs, acquired additional funds, established and expanded service offerings, and explored additional roles in promoting on-campus collaboration.
Results:
Personnel and software have increased along with the number of registered software users and use of the provided services.
Conclusion:
With strategic efforts and persistent advocacy within the broader university environment, library-based bioinformatics service programs can become a key part of an institution's comprehensive solution to researchers' ever-increasing bioinformatics needs.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.101.4.012
PMCID: PMC3794686  PMID: 24163602
20.  Regulators of Trypanosoma brucei Cell Cycle Progression and Differentiation Identified Using a Kinome-Wide RNAi Screen 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(1):e1003886.
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, maintains an integral link between cell cycle regulation and differentiation during its intricate life cycle. Whilst extensive changes in phosphorylation have been documented between the mammalian bloodstream form and the insect procyclic form, relatively little is known about the parasite's protein kinases (PKs) involved in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. To address this, a T. brucei kinome-wide RNAi cell line library was generated, allowing independent inducible knockdown of each of the parasite's 190 predicted protein kinases. Screening of this library using a cell viability assay identified ≥42 PKs that are required for normal bloodstream form proliferation in culture. A secondary screen identified 24 PKs whose RNAi-mediated depletion resulted in a variety of cell cycle defects including in G1/S, kinetoplast replication/segregation, mitosis and cytokinesis, 15 of which are novel cell cycle regulators. A further screen identified for the first time two PKs, named repressor of differentiation kinase (RDK1 and RDK2), depletion of which promoted bloodstream to procyclic form differentiation. RDK1 is a membrane-associated STE11-like PK, whilst RDK2 is a NEK PK that is essential for parasite proliferation. RDK1 acts in conjunction with the PTP1/PIP39 phosphatase cascade to block uncontrolled bloodstream to procyclic form differentiation, whilst RDK2 is a PK whose depletion efficiently induces differentiation in the absence of known triggers. Thus, the RNAi kinome library provides a valuable asset for functional analysis of cell signalling pathways in African trypanosomes as well as drug target identification and validation.
Author Summary
The African trypanosome, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly, causes the usually fatal disease Sleeping Sickness in humans and a wasting disease, called Nagana, in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. There are no vaccines available against the diseases, and various problems are associated with current drug treatments (including toxicity to the patient and parasite drug resistance). Thus, it is important to identify essential parasite proteins that could be targeted by novel drugs. Protein kinases (PKs) are important cell signalling molecules, and are generally considered to have potential as drug targets. Here we report the construction of a library of trypanosome cell lines that allows us to specifically deplete each of the trypanosome's 190 PKs individually and analyse their function. Using this library, we show that ≥42 PKs are essential for proliferation of the mammalian-infective bloodstream form of the parasite (and thus have potential as drug targets), and demonstrate that 24 of these play important roles in coordinating cell division. We also shed light on how the parasite develops during its life cycle as it passes from the mammalian bloodstream form to the tsetse fly gut by identifying the first two PKs that regulate this life cycle developmental step.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003886
PMCID: PMC3894213  PMID: 24453978
21.  A functional gene discovery in the Fas-mediated pathway to apoptosis by analysis of transiently expressed randomized hybrid-ribozyme libraries 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(16):3609-3614.
The sequence of much of the human genome is now available and the next goal is to identify functional genes and to clarify their roles. We have recently developed a novel system for isolation of genes in the Fas- and TNF-α-mediated pathways to apoptosis using poly(A)-connected hammerhead ribozyme libraries with randomized substrate-binding arms at both the 5′ and 3′ ends of ribozymes. The transcripts of these hybrid ribozymes have a poly(A) motif that can recruit RNA helicases and, thus, they can effectively attack target sites. In the previous studies, hybrid ribozymes were stably expressed. In order to save selection times, in this study we adopted transiently expressed hybrid ribozymes. In the case of Fas-mediated apoptosis, when we transiently introduced these hybrid-ribozyme libraries into Fas-expressing HeLa cells, we were able to isolate surviving clones that were resistant to or exhibited a delay in Fas-mediated apoptosis. We identified many pro-apoptotic genes and novel genes using this strategy with these transiently expressed hybrid-ribozyme libraries. In contrast, we identified significantly smaller numbers of candidate genes using conventional ribozyme libraries that were expressed transiently. Thus, when changes of a particular phenotype occur within a short period of time, our gene discovery system based on transiently expressed hybrid-ribozyme libraries should also be useful for the rapid identification of functional genes in the post-genome era.
PMCID: PMC134243  PMID: 12177303
22.  Use of serial analysis of gene expression to reveal the specific regulation of gene expression profile in asthmatic rats treated by acupuncture 
Background
Asthma has become an important public health issue and approximately 300 million people have suffered from the disease worldwide. Nowadays, the use of acupuncture in asthma is increasing. This study intended to systematically analyze and compare the gene expression profiles between the asthmatic and acupuncture-treated asthmatic rat lung, and tried to gain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the early airway response (EAR) phase of asthma treated by acupuncture.
Methods
Four tag libraries of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) were established from lung tissues of control rats (CK), asthmatic rats (AS), asthmatic rats treated by acupuncture (ASAC), and control rats treated by acupuncture (CKAC). Bioinformatic analyses were carried out by using the methods including unsupervised hierarchical clustering, functional annotation tool of the database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery (DAVID), gene ontology (GO) tree machine, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis.
Results
There were totally 186 differentially expressed tags (P < 0.05, PCK/AS) between the libraries of CK and AS, 130 differentially expressed tags between libraries of AS/ASAC (P < 0.05, PAS/ASAC), and 144 differentially expressed tags between libraries of CK/CKAC (P < 0.05, PCK/CKAC). The gene expression profiles of AS and ASAC were more similar than other libraries via unsupervised SAGE clustering. By comparison of PCK/AS and PAS/ASAC, the DAVID genes functional classification was found to be changed from "immune response" to "response to steroid hormone stimulus", and the GO term "antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen" disappeared in PAS/ASAC. Totally 3 same KEGG pathways were found among the three groups. Moreover, 21 specific tags of the acupuncture in treating asthma were detected using Venn diagrams.
Conclusion
Our SAGE research indicates that the gene expression profile of the EAR phase of asthma could be effectively and specifically regulated by acupuncture, which suggests that the gene expression of immune response and steroid hormone may play an important role in the treatment.
doi:10.1186/1423-0127-16-46
PMCID: PMC2698896  PMID: 19419550
23.  How hyper are we? A look at hypermedia management in academic health sciences libraries. 
Advances in instruction-delivery technology have a direct impact on academic media centers. New technology challenges librarians philosophically, financially, and ethically to provide access to information and instructional systems. Each institution has a unique set of circumstances governing decisions to provide access to hypermedia. If patron needs are met satisfactorily through labs outside the library, it may not be necessary for the library to incorporate hypermedia into its collection. Other library media centers may serve as a main point of access, or a substantial alternative computing resource may exist in departments or professional schools. Regardless of which route is taken, hypermedia is a viable instructional delivery system and can coexist with traditional services. Future studies on various aspects of hypermedia and multimedia management should be encouraged. Academic health sciences librarians would benefit from the study of hypermedia and multimedia collection-development policies, equipment, and personnel management. As computer networking of multimedia and image databases becomes available, it will be interesting to see the role academic health sciences libraries assume in integrating these data-bases with traditional information-delivery systems. Changing technology and instructional methods will affect budgets as well as library relationships with academic departments and computing centers.
PMCID: PMC225732  PMID: 8428192
24.  Excellence, promise, vision, and values: reflections on the Janet Doe Lectures, 1967-1997. 
As the Medical Library Association prepares to enter its second century of service to society, it can look back with pride on the remarkable record of achievements of the association and its members, both personal and institutional, which are preserved for posterity in the Janet Doe Lectures. Established in 1966 by an anonymous donor, the Janet Doe Lectures on the history or philosophy of medical librarianship trace the development of health sciences libraries and librarianship and the evolution of the Medical Library Association. The major themes which emerge from this comprehensive review of the lectures published between 1967 and 1997 include the changing roles and values of health sciences libraries and librarianship; education and credentialing of health sciences librarians; MLA activities and concerns; and MLA/National Library of Medicine relations.
PMCID: PMC226364  PMID: 9578948
25.  Reorganization: premises, processes, and pitfalls. 
As the technological environment changes and libraries assume new and more active roles in their institutions, the traditional library hierarchy ceases to be an effective organizational structure. Guided by theories that emphasize teamwork, quality, and employee empowerment and participation, libraries are developing flatter, more networked organizations. The Health Sciences Library at Columbia University in New York, New York, recently underwent a reorganization in an effort to become a more resilient, more flexible organization. The process was beneficial overall. While some errors and confusion occurred, these are seen as opportunities for learning and evidence of the library's new atmosphere of creativity and experimentation.
PMCID: PMC225958  PMID: 7841904

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