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1.  Problems of Medical Libraries in Japan 
Reference service in medical libraries should be considered more seriously by the members of the Japan Medical Library Association, as their interest so far has been focused mainly on interlibrary loan service, compilation of union lists and union catalogs, and the business side of library administration. The Association does not have enough funds to be very active, and its membership is limited to the libraries of medical and of some large dental schools. It should open its membership to other medical libraries, such as those of hospitals and medical laboratories, and eventually to individuals.
Many of the member libraries do not have complete control of their own budget, as each department of the school earmarks part of its budget for the library while it still holds the right of deciding which books and journals are to be bought and keeps a large part of them in its departmental library.
Lack of proper library school education among the library staff is one of the major problems. There are some training courses for medical librarians in the library schools and also some workshops held by the Association, but they are limited in their usefulness by the fact that there are not enough library school graduates who can take advantage of them.
PMCID: PMC198228  PMID: 14223739
2.  The National Health Service and medical libraries in England. 
This paper provides an overview of the National Health Service in England, including its history, its present structure, and factors that make it different from the U.S. health care system. The NHS libraries and librarians are discussed. The NHS is divided into fourteen regions in England. Three specific NHS libraries in the Wessex region are described--a hospital library, an administrative library, and a patient education library. The problems and accomplishments of NHS librarians are discussed, as well as some similarities between NHS libraries and U.S. medical libraries. Medical librarians are urged to try to understand the medical library scene in England, so that they can Learn from the unique strengths of their counterparts there.
PMCID: PMC227758  PMID: 3947777
3.  Comparison of Iranian National Medical Library with digital libraries of selected countries 
Introduction:
The important role of information and communication technologies and their influence on methods of storing, retrieving information in digital libraries, has not only changed the meanings behind classic library activates but has also created great changes in their services. However, it seems that not all digital libraries provide their users with similar services and only some of them are successful in fulfilling their role in digital environment. The Iranian National Medical library is among those that appear to come short compared to other digital libraries around the world. By knowing the different services provided by digital libraries worldwide, one can evaluate the services provided by Iranian National Medical library. The goal of this study is a comparison between Iranian National Medical library and digital libraries of selected countries.
Materials and Methods:
This is an applied study and uses descriptive – survey method. The statistical population is the digital libraries around the world which were actively providing library services between October and December 2011 and were selected by using the key word “Digital Library” in Google search engine. The data-gathering tool was direct access to the websites of these digital libraries. The statistical study is descriptive and Excel software was used for data analysis and plotting of the charts.
Results:
The findings showed that among the 33 digital libraries investigated worldwide, most of them provided Browse (87.87%), Search (84.84%), and Electronic information retrieval (57.57%) services. The “Help” in public services (48/48%) and “Interlibrary Loan” in traditional services (27/27%) had the highest frequency. The Iranian National Medical library provides more digital services compared to other libraries but has less classic and public services and has less than half of possible public services. Other than Iranian National Medical library, among the 33 libraries investigated, the leaders in providing different services are Library of University of California in classic services, Count Way Library of Medicine in digital services, and Library of Finland in public services.
Results and Discussion:
The results of this study show that among the digital libraries investigated, most provided similar public, digital, and classic services and The Iranian National Medical library has been somewhat successful in providing these services compared to other digital libraries. One can also conclude that the difference in services is at least in part due to difference in environments, information needs, and users.
Conclusion:
Iranian National Medical Library has been somewhat successful in providing library services in digital environment and needs to identify the services which are valuable to its users by identifying the users’ needs and special characteristics of its environment
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.145897
PMCID: PMC4275611  PMID: 25540782
Digital library; Iranian National Medical Library; services
4.  Publication Bias in Antipsychotic Trials: An Analysis of Efficacy Comparing the Published Literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(3):e1001189.
A comparison of data held by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) against data from journal reports of clinical trials enables estimation of the extent of publication bias for antipsychotics.
Background
Publication bias compromises the validity of evidence-based medicine, yet a growing body of research shows that this problem is widespread. Efficacy data from drug regulatory agencies, e.g., the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), can serve as a benchmark or control against which data in journal articles can be checked. Thus one may determine whether publication bias is present and quantify the extent to which it inflates apparent drug efficacy.
Methods and Findings
FDA Drug Approval Packages for eight second-generation antipsychotics—aripiprazole, iloperidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, risperidone long-acting injection (risperidone LAI), and ziprasidone—were used to identify a cohort of 24 FDA-registered premarketing trials. The results of these trials according to the FDA were compared with the results conveyed in corresponding journal articles. The relationship between study outcome and publication status was examined, and effect sizes derived from the two data sources were compared. Among the 24 FDA-registered trials, four (17%) were unpublished. Of these, three failed to show that the study drug had a statistical advantage over placebo, and one showed the study drug was statistically inferior to the active comparator. Among the 20 published trials, the five that were not positive, according to the FDA, showed some evidence of outcome reporting bias. However, the association between trial outcome and publication status did not reach statistical significance. Further, the apparent increase in the effect size point estimate due to publication bias was modest (8%) and not statistically significant. On the other hand, the effect size for unpublished trials (0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.39) was less than half that for the published trials (0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.54), a difference that was significant.
Conclusions
The magnitude of publication bias found for antipsychotics was less than that found previously for antidepressants, possibly because antipsychotics demonstrate superiority to placebo more consistently. Without increased access to regulatory agency data, publication bias will continue to blur distinctions between effective and ineffective drugs.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
People assume that, when they are ill, health-care professionals will ensure that they get the best available treatment. But how do clinicians know which treatment is likely to be most effective? In the past, clinicians used their own experience to make such decisions. Nowadays, they rely on evidence-based medicine—the systematic review and appraisal of trials, studies that investigate the efficacy and safety of medical interventions in patients. Evidence-based medicine can guide clinicians, however, only if all the results from clinical trials are published in an unbiased manner. Unfortunately, “publication bias” is common. For example, the results of trials in which a new drug did not perform better than existing drugs or in which it had unwanted side effects often remain unpublished. Moreover, published trials can be subject to outcome reporting bias—the publication may only include those trial outcomes that support the use of the new treatment rather than presenting all the available data.
Why Was This Study Done?
If only strongly positive results are published and negative results and side-effects remain unpublished, a drug will seem safer and more effective than it is in reality, which could affect clinical decision-making and patient outcomes. But how big a problem is publication bias? Here, researchers use US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews as a benchmark to quantify the extent to which publication bias may be altering the apparent efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other mental illnesses that are characterized by a loss of contact with reality). In the US, all new drugs have to be approved by the FDA before they can be marketed. During this approval process, the FDA collects and keeps complete information about premarketing trials, including descriptions of their design and prespecified outcome measures and all the data collected during the trials. Thus, a comparison of the results included in the FDA reviews for a group of trials and the results that appear in the literature for the same trials can provide direct evidence about publication bias.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 24 FDA-registered premarketing trials that investigated the use of eight second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. They searched the published literature for reports of these trials, and, by comparing the results of these trials according to the FDA with the results in the published articles, they examined the relationship between the study outcome (did the FDA consider it positive or negative?) and publication and looked for outcome reporting bias. Four of the 24 FDA-registered trials were unpublished. Three of these unpublished trials failed to show that the study drug was more effective than a placebo (a “dummy” pill); the fourth showed that the study drug was inferior to another drug already in use in the US. Among the 20 published trials, the five that the FDA judged not positive showed some evidence of publication bias. However, the association between trial outcome and publication status did not reach statistical significance (it might have happened by chance), and the mean effect size (a measure of drug effectiveness) derived from the published literature was only slightly higher than that derived from the FDA records. By contrast, within the FDA dataset, the mean effect size of the published trials was approximately double that of the unpublished trials.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The accuracy of these findings is limited by the small number of trials analyzed. Moreover, this study considers only the efficacy and not the safety of these drugs, it assumes that the FDA database is complete and unbiased, and its findings are not generalizable to other conditions that antipsychotics are used to treat. Nevertheless, these findings show that publication bias in the reporting of trials of second-generation antipsychotic drugs enhances the apparent efficacy of these drugs. Although the magnitude of the publication bias seen here is less than that seen in a similar study of antidepressant drugs, these findings show how selective reporting of clinical trial data undermines the integrity of the evidence base and can deprive clinicians of accurate data on which to base their prescribing decisions. Increased access to FDA reviews, suggest the researchers, is therefore essential to prevent publication bias continuing to blur distinctions between effective and ineffective drugs.
Additional Information
Please access these web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001189.
The US Food and Drug Administration provides information about drug approval in the US for consumers and health-care professionals
Detailed information about the process by which drugs are approved is on the web site of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; also, FDA Drug Approval Packages are available for many drugs; the FDA Transparency Initiative, which was launched in June 2009, is an agency-wide effort to improve the transparency of the FDA
FDA-approved product labeling on drugs marketed in the US can be found at the US National Library of Medicine's DailyMed web page
Wikipedia has a page on publication bias (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
MedlinePlus provides links to sources of information on schizophrenia and on psychotic disorders (in English and Spanish)
Patient experiences of psychosis, including the effects of medication, are provided by the charity HealthtalkOnline
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001189
PMCID: PMC3308934  PMID: 22448149
5.  NERMLS: The First Year * 
The Countway Library, Boston, was the nation's first Regional Medical Library under the Regional Medical Library Program of the NLM. New England Regional Medical Library Service (NERMLS) began in October 1967 and is the outgrowth of traditional extramural services of the Harvard and Boston Medical Libraries (constituents of the Countway). During the first year over 27,000 requests were received of which 84 percent were filled. Some problems of document delivery (and their solution) are recounted. Other activities were: a limited amount of reference work; distribution of a Serials List; and planning for a region-wide medical library service. Proposals call for consultation and education, regional reference service, and improved document delivery service. Emphasis is placed on the role of the Community Hospital as a center for continuing education and the need to strengthen and assist hospital medical libraries. With the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Boston, NERMLS assisted in the compilation of a small physician-selected medical Core Collection which would serve as a minimum standard collection for community hospital libraries.
PMCID: PMC200860  PMID: 5823504
6.  Trial Publication after Registration in ClinicalTrials.Gov: A Cross-Sectional Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(9):e1000144.
Joseph Ross and colleagues examine publication rates of clinical trials and find low rates of publication even following registration in Clinicaltrials.gov.
Background
ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication.
Methods and Findings
We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515), nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46%) of trials were published, among which 96 (31%) provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357) were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001), but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22). Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61%) completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52%) completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42%) completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006).
Conclusions
Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low. Without greater attention to reporting of all data elements, the potential for ClinicalTrials.gov to address selective publication of clinical trials will be limited.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
People assume that whenever they are ill, health care professionals will make sure they get the best available treatment. But how do clinicians know which treatment is most appropriate? In the past, clinicians used their own experience to make treatment decisions. Nowadays, they rely on evidence-based medicine—the systematic review and appraisal of the results of clinical trials, studies that investigate the efficacy and safety of medical interventions in people. However, evidence-based medicine can only be effective if all the results from clinical trials are published promptly in medical journals. Unfortunately, the results of trials in which a new drug did not perform better than existing drugs or in which it had unwanted side effects often remain unpublished or only appear in the public domain many years after the drug has been approved for clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other governmental bodies.
Why Was This Study Done?
The extent of this “selective” publication, which can impair evidence-based clinical practice, remains unclear but is thought to be substantial. In this study, the researchers investigate the problem of selective publication by systematically examining the extent of publication of the results of trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, a Web-based registry of US and international clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov was established in 2000 by the US National Library of Medicine in response to the 1997 FDA Modernization Act. This act required preregistration of all trials of new drugs to provide the public with information about trials in which they might be able to participate. Mandatory data elements for registration in ClinicalTrials.gov initially included the trial's title, the condition studied in the trial, the trial design, and the intervention studied. In September 2007, the FDA Amendments Act expanded the mandatory requirements for registration in ClinicalTrials.gov by making it necessary, for example, to report the trial start date and to report primary and secondary outcomes (the effect of the intervention on predefined clinical measurements) in the registry within 2 years of trial completion.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 7,515 trials that were registered within ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 (excluding phase I, safety trials), and whose record indicated trial completion by June 8, 2007. Most of these trials reported all the mandatory data elements that were required by ClinicalTrials.gov before the FDA Amendments Act but reporting of optional data elements was less complete. For example, only two-thirds of the trials reported their primary outcome. Next, the researchers randomly selected 10% of the trials and, after excluding trials whose completion date was after December 31, 2005 (to allow at least two years for publication), determined the publication status of this subsample by systematically searching MEDLINE (an online database of articles published in selected medical and scientific journals). Fewer than half of the trials in the subsample had been published, and the citation for only a third of these publications had been entered into ClinicalTrials.gov. Only 40% of industry-sponsored trials had been published compared to 56% of nonindustry/nongovernment-sponsored trials, a difference that is unlikely to have occurred by chance. Finally, 61% of trials with a completion date before 2004 had been published, but only 42% of trials completed during 2005 had been published.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, over the period studied, critical trial information was not included in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry. The FDA Amendments Act should remedy some of these shortcomings but only if the accuracy and completeness of the information in ClinicalTrials.gov is carefully monitored. These findings also reveal that registration in ClinicalTrials.gov does not guarantee that trial results will appear in a timely manner in the scientific literature. However, they do not address the reasons for selective publication (which may be, in part, because it is harder to publish negative results than positive results), and they are potentially limited by the methods used to discover whether trial results had been published. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that the FDA, trial sponsors, and the scientific community all need to make a firm commitment to minimize the selective publication of trial results to ensure that patients and clinicians have access to the information they need to make fully informed treatment decisions.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000144.
PLoS Medicine recently published two related articles on selected publication by Ida Sim and colleagues and by Lisa Bero and colleagues and an editorial discussing the FDA Amendments Act
ClinicalTrials.gov provides information about the US National Institutes of Health clinical trial registry, including background information about clinical trials, and a fact sheet detailing the requirements of the FDA Amendments Act 2007 for trial registration
The US Food and Drug Administration provides further information about drug approval in the US for consumers and health care professionals
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000144
PMCID: PMC2728480  PMID: 19901971
7.  Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar 
Oman Medical Journal  2013;28(6):382-387.
The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.
doi:10.5001/omj.2013.113
PMCID: PMC3815856  PMID: 24223240
Medical Humanities; Medical Libraries–Qatar; Medical Education-Humanities
8.  Schizophrenia 
Clinical Evidence  2012;2012:1007.
Introduction
The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.7% and incidence rates vary between 7.7 and 43.0 per 100,000; about 75% of people have relapses and continued disability, and one third fail to respond to standard treatment. Positive symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder. Negative symptoms (demotivation, self-neglect, and reduced emotion) have not been consistently improved by any treatment.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for positive, negative, or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia? What are the effects of drug treatments in people with schizophrenia who are resistant to standard antipsychotic drugs? What are the effects of interventions to improve adherence to antipsychotic medication in people with schizophrenia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 51 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amisulpride, chlorpromazine, clozapine, depot haloperidol decanoate, haloperidol, olanzapine, pimozide, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride, ziprasidone, zotepine, aripiprazole, sertindole, paliperidone, flupentixol, depot flupentixol decanoate, zuclopenthixol, depot zuclopenthixol decanoate, behavioural therapy, clozapine, compliance therapy, first-generation antipsychotic drugs in treatment-resistant people, multiple-session family interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and second-generation antipsychotic drugs in treatment-resistant people.
Key Points
The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.7% and incidence rates vary between 7.7 and 43.0 per 100,000; about 75% of people have relapses and continued disability, and one third fail to respond to standard treatment. Positive symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder. Negative symptoms (anhedonia, asociality, flattening of affect, and demotivation) and cognitive dysfunction have not been consistently improved by any treatment.
Standard treatment of schizophrenia has been antipsychotic drugs, the first of which included chlorpromazine and haloperidol, but these so-called first-generation antipsychotics can all cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal adverse effects, hyperprolactinaemia, and sedation. Attempts to address these adverse effects led to the development of second-generation antipsychotics.
The second-generation antipsychotics amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone may be more effective at reducing positive symptoms compared with first-generation antipsychotic drugs, but may cause similar adverse effects, plus additional metabolic effects such as weight gain.
CAUTION: Clozapine has been associated with potentially fatal blood dyscrasias. Blood monitoring is essential, and it is recommended that its use be limited to people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
Pimozide, quetiapine, aripiprazole, sulpiride, ziprasidone, and zotepine seem to be as effective as standard antipsychotic drugs at improving positive symptoms. Again, these drugs cause similar adverse effects to first-generation antipsychotics and other second-generation antipsychotics.
CAUTION: Pimozide has been associated with sudden cardiac death at doses above 20 mg daily.
We found very little evidence regarding depot injections of haloperidol decanoate, flupentixol decanoate, or zuclopenthixol decanoate; thus, we don’t know if they are more effective than oral treatments at improving symptoms.
In people who are resistant to standard antipsychotic drugs, clozapine may improve symptoms compared with first-generation antipsychotic agents, but this benefit must be balanced against the likelihood of adverse effects. We found limited evidence on other individual first- or second-generation antipsychotic drugs other than clozapine in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.In people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, we don't know how second-generation agents other than clozapine compare with each other or first-generation antipsychotic agents, or how clozapine compares with other second-generation antipsychotic agents, because of a lack of evidence.
We don't know whether behavioural interventions, compliance therapy, psychoeducational interventions, or family interventions improve adherence to antipsychotic medication compared with usual care because of a paucity of good-quality evidence.
It is clear that some included studies in this review have serious failings and that the evidence base for the efficacy of antipsychotic medication and other interventions is surprisingly weak. For example, although in many trials haloperidol has been used as the standard comparator, the clinical trial evidence for haloperidol is less impressive may be expected.
By their very nature, systematic reviews and RCTs provide average indices of probable efficacy in groups of selected individuals. Although some RCTs limit inclusion criteria to a single category of diagnosis, many studies include individuals with different diagnoses such as schizoaffective disorder. In all RCTs, even in those recruiting people with a single DSM or ICD-10 diagnosis, there is considerable clinical heterogeneity.
Genome-wide association studies of large samples with schizophrenia demonstrate that this clinical heterogeneity reflects, in turn, complex biological heterogeneity. For example, genome-wide association studies suggest that around 1000 genetic variants of low penetrance and other individually rare genetic variants of higher penetrance, along with epistasis and epigenetic mechanisms, are thought to be responsible, probably with the biological and psychological effects of environmental factors, for the resultant complex clinical phenotype. A more stratified approach to clinical trials would help to identify those subgroups that seem to be the best responders to a particular intervention.
To date, however, there is little to suggest that stratification on the basis of clinical characteristics successfully helps to predict which drugs work best for which people. There is a pressing need for the development of biomarkers with clinical utility for mental health problems. Such measures could help to stratify clinical populations or provide better markers of efficacy in clinical trials, and would complement the current use of clinical outcome scales. Clinicians are also well aware that many people treated with antipsychotic medication develop significant adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms or weight gain. Again, our ability to identify which people will develop which adverse effects is poorly developed, and might be assisted by using biomarkers to stratify populations.
The results of this review tend to indicate that as far as antipsychotic medication goes, current drugs are of limited efficacy in some people, and that most drugs cause adverse effects in most people. Although this is a rather downbeat conclusion, it should not be too surprising, given clinical experience and our knowledge of the pharmacology of the available antipsychotic medication. All currently available antipsychotic medications have the same putative mechanism of action — namely, dopaminergic antagonism with varying degrees of antagonism at other receptor sites. More efficacious antipsychotic medication awaits a better understanding of the biological pathogenesis of these conditions so that rational treatments can be developed.
PMCID: PMC3385413  PMID: 23870705
9.  The impact of the hospital library on clinical decision making: the Rochester study. 
In these times of economic constraint, libraries of all types are under increasing pressure to evaluate their services. Hospital libraries face a particular challenge because the goals of the health care system demand that the relevance of library services to patient care be determined. The hospital librarians in Rochester, New York, responded to this challenge by developing a research project that explored the impact of library services on clinical decision making. A systematically sampled group of 448 physicians in the Rochester area agreed to participate in the study between September 1990 and March 1991. The physicians were asked to request some information related to a current clinical case and then to evaluate its impact on the care of their patients. Senior medical staff or administrators acted as study facilitators in each of the fifteen participating hospitals. As a result of the information provided by the library, 80% of the 208 physicians who returned their questionnaires said that they probably or definitely handled some aspect of patient care differently than they would have handled it otherwise. Changes in the following specific aspects of care were reported by the physicians: diagnosis (29%), choice of tests (51%), choice of drugs (45%), reduced length of hospital stay (19%), and advice given to the patient (72%). Physicians also said that the information provided by the library contributed to their ability to avoid the following: hospital admission (12%), patient mortality (19%), hospital-acquired infection (8%), surgery (21%), and additional tests or procedures (49%). The physicians rated the information provided by the library more highly than that provided by other information sources such as diagnostic imaging, lab tests, and discussions with colleagues. In addition to confirming earlier research findings that information provided by hospital libraries is perceived by physicians as having a significant impact on clinical decision making, the results increase our store of scientific knowledge about the specific nature and extent of the impact of information provided by the hospital library.
PMCID: PMC225641  PMID: 1600426
10.  Detailed Analysis of Prehospital Interventions in Medical Priority Dispatch System Determinants 
Background:
Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) is a type of Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system used to prioritize 9-1-1 calls and optimize resource allocation. Dispatchers use a series of scripted questions to assign determinants to calls based on chief complaint and acuity.
Objective:
We analyzed the prehospital interventions performed on patients with MPDS determinants for breathing problems, chest pain, unknown problem (man down), seizures, fainting (unconscious) and falls for transport status and interventions.
Methods:
We matched all prehospital patients in complaint-based categories for breathing problems, chest pain, unknown problem (man down), seizures, fainting (unconscious) and falls from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006, with their prehospital record. Calls were queried for the following prehospital interventions: Basic Life Support care only, intravenous line placement only, medication given, procedures or non-transport. We defined Advanced Life Support (ALS) interventions as the administration of a medication or a procedure.
Results:
Of the 77,394 MPDS calls during this period, 31,318 (40%) patients met inclusion criteria. Breathing problems made up 12.2%, chest pain 6%, unknown problem 1.4%, seizures 3%, falls 9% and unconscious/fainting 9% of the total number of MPDS calls. Patients with breathing problem had a low rate of procedures (0.7%) and cardiac arrest medications (1.6%) with 38% receiving some medication. Chest pain patients had a similar distribution; procedures (0.5%), cardiac arrest medication (1.5%) and any medication (64%). Unknown problem: procedures (1%), cardiac arrest medication (1.3%), any medication (18%). Patients with Seizures had a low rate of procedures (1.1%) and cardiac arrest medications (0.6%) with 20% receiving some medication. Fall patients had a lower rate of severe illness with more medication, mostly morphine: procedures (0.2%), cardiac arrest medication (0.2%), all medications (28%). Unconscious/fainting patients received the following interventions: procedures (0.3%), cardiac arrest medication (1.9%), all medications (32%). Few stepwise increases in the rate of procedures or medications were seen as determinants increased in acuity.
Conclusion:
Among these common MPDS complaint-based categories, the rates of advanced procedures and cardiac arrest medications were low. ALS medications were common in all categories and most determinants. Multiple determinants were rarely used and did not show higher rates of interventions with increasing acuity. Many MPDS determinants are of modest use to predict ALS intervention.
PMCID: PMC3088370  PMID: 21691468
11.  Library faculty role in problem-based learning: facilitating small groups. 
Since 1986, the library faculty of the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) has participated in small group activities during the week-long orientation for first-year medical students. This involvement paved the way for library faculty members to act as facilitators for small groups of medical students within the new problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum introduced in 1992 by the College of Medicine. The UNMC curriculum consists of traditional PBL groups as well as Integrated Clinical Experience (ICE) small groups. The ICE groups provide opportunities for discussion of the social and behavioral issues that arise in medicine, with the majority of the sessions designed to give students interviewing practice with simulated patients. The ICE small groups meet once a week with either one or two facilitators. Several library faculty members act as facilitators for ICE groups. As a result of this involvement, librarian contacts with College of Medicine faculty have grown in number and depth, there has been a corresponding increase in related activities with the first- and second-year medical students. Participation in ICE groups has caused some difficulties with respect to library work schedules, but it has been immensely rewarding and enriching in terms of professional growth. This paper describes the UNMC curriculum, the evolution and extent of the librarians' involvement, and the future involvement, ramifications, and challenges envisioned for McGoogan faculty and their medical library colleagues.
PMCID: PMC226066  PMID: 8547907
12.  Obesity in adults 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:0604.
Introduction
About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years. Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments in adults with obesity? What are the effects of bariatric surgery in adults with morbid obesity? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 34 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bariatric surgery versus medical interventions; biliopancreatic diversion; diethylpropion; gastric bypass; gastric banding; mazindol; orlistat (alone and in combination with sibutramine); phentermine; rimonabant; sibutramine (alone and in combination with orlistat); sleeve gastrectomy; and vertical banded gastroplasty.
Key Points
About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, CVD, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years.Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.
Orlistat, phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine may promote modest weight loss (an additional 1-7 kg lost) compared with placebo in obese adults having lifestyle interventions, but they can all cause adverse effects. Sibutramine may be more effective at promoting weight loss compared with orlistat, although not in obese people with type 2 diabetes or hypertension.We don't know whether combining orlistat and sibutramine treatment leads to greater weight loss than with either treatment alone.We don't know whether diethylpropion and mazindol are effective at promoting weight loss in people with obesity.Orlistat has been associated with GI adverse effects.Phentermine has been associated with heart and lung problems.Sibutramine has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In January 2010, the European Medicines Agency suspended marketing authorisation of sibutramine in the European Union because of the increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarctions and strokes.Rimonabant has been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders.
Bariatric surgery (gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion, or gastric banding) may increase weight loss compared with no surgery in people with morbid obesity.
Compared with each other, we don't know whether gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion, or gastric banding is the most effective surgery or the least harmful. We don't know whether sleeve gastrectomy is effective. Bariatric surgery may result in loss of over 20% of body weight, which may be largely maintained for 10 years.Operative and postoperative complications are common, and on average 0.28% of people die within 30 days of surgery. Mortality may be as high as 2% in some high-risk populations. However, surgery may reduce long-term mortality compared with no surgery.
PMCID: PMC2907622
13.  Obesity in adults 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0604.
Introduction
About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years. Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments in adults with obesity? What are the effects of bariatric surgery in adults with morbid obesity? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 39 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bariatric surgery versus medical interventions, biliopancreatic diversion, diethylpropion, gastric bypass, gastric banding, mazindol, orlistat (alone and in combination with sibutramine), phentermine, sibutramine (alone and in combination with orlistat), sleeve gastrectomy, and vertical banded gastroplasty.
Key Points
About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, CVD, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years.Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.
Orlistat, phentermine, and sibutramine may promote modest weight loss (an additional 1–7 kg lost) compared with placebo in obese adults having lifestyle interventions, but they can all cause adverse effects. Sibutramine may be more effective at promoting weight loss compared with orlistat, although not in obese people with type 2 diabetes or hypertension.We don't know whether combining orlistat and sibutramine treatment leads to greater weight loss than with either treatment alone.We don't know whether diethylpropion and mazindol are effective at promoting weight loss in people with obesity.Orlistat has been associated with GI adverse effects.Phentermine has been associated with heart and lung problems.Sibutramine has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In January 2010, the European Medicines Agency suspended marketing authorisation of sibutramine in the European Union because of the increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarctions and strokes.In October 2010, the FDA requested the withdrawal of sibutramine from the US market because of the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.Rimonabant has been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders.
Bariatric surgery (gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion, or gastric banding) may increase weight loss compared with no surgery in people with morbid obesity.
Compared with each other, we don't know whether gastric bypass, vertical banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion, or gastric banding is the most effective surgery or the least harmful. We don't know whether sleeve gastrectomy is effective. Bariatric surgery may result in loss of >20% of body weight, which may be largely maintained for 10 years.Operative and postoperative complications are common, and on average 0.28% of people die within 30 days of surgery. Mortality may be as high as 2% in some high-risk populations. However, surgery may reduce long-term mortality compared with no surgery.
PMCID: PMC3217730  PMID: 21411021
14.  The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition. 
The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation, they have somehow managed to provide a sound basic level of information services for health care professionals.
PMCID: PMC225670  PMID: 1525617
15.  Proposed standards for professional health sciences library services in hospitals of New York State. 
Hospital libraries are considered to be the basic unit of the medical information system. A major statewide effort was begun in 1978 to introduce and support legislation in the New York State Legislature which would encourage hospitals to establish and maintain libraries that meet minimum services standards. Included in this legislation is the concept that the Commissioner of Education in consultation with the Commissioner of Health shall have the power to establish standards for hospital libraries. The Ad Hoc Committee for the Promotion of Hospital Library Services, Western New York Library Resources Council, proposes The Standards for Professional Health Sciences Library Services in Hospitals of New York State to clarify and to strengthen existing hospital library standards. These standards differ specifically from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals standards in that they place equal and specific emphasis on eleven points: administration, qualifications of library staff, continuing education of library staff, requirement for a library advisory committee, required library services, required library resources, library space requirements, library budget, library network and consortium membership, documentation of library policy, and continued evaluation of the needs of the hospital for library service. Detailed interpretations are provided. An appendix describes the qualifications of a hospital library consultant.
PMCID: PMC226820  PMID: 7248591
16.  Biomedical periodicals in Nigerian Medical Libraries: the medical librarian's dilemma. 
The Nigerian medical librarian has an uphill task in his effort to satisfy the journal needs of users of his library. His problems stem from difficulties in the selection and acquisition of journals, delay in postal services, budgetary and other administrative controls, and the changing nature of medical education and health-care services in Nigeria. The librarian's attempts to solve these problems include increased subscriptions to journals and use of interlibrary loans, but the absence of union lists of holdings of other libraries, the heavy cost of photocopying services, and poor postal facilities present another dimension to his problems. Eventually his best solution seems to lie in the establishment of a national center for "least used" journals to serve as a source stock for the country's medical libraries.
PMCID: PMC199220  PMID: 938777
17.  Acute respiratory distress syndrome 
Clinical Evidence  2010;2010:1511.
Introduction
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by a profound deterioration in systemic oxygenation or ventilation, or both, despite supportive respiratory therapy. ARDS is an acute and progressive respiratory disease of a non-cardiac cause that is associated with progressively diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, reduced pulmonary compliance, and hypoxaemia. The main causes of ARDS include direct lung injury (e.g., pneumonia, gastric acid aspiration) or indirect lung injury (e.g., sepsis, pancreatitis, massive blood transfusion, non-thoracic trauma). Sepsis and pneumonia account for about 60% of cases. Between one third and one half of people with ARDS die from the disease, but mortality depends on the underlying cause. Some survivors have long-term respiratory or cognitive problems.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, low tidal-volume mechanical ventilation, nitric oxide, prone position, and protective ventilation.
Key Points
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome of inflammation and increased permeability that is associated with clinical, radiological, and physiological abnormalities, which usually develops over 4 to 48 hours and persists for days or weeks. Pathologically, ARDS is associated with complex changes in the lungs, manifested by an early exudative phase and followed by proliferative and fibrotic phases. The main causes of ARDS are infections, aspiration of gastric contents, and trauma.Between one third and one half of people with ARDS die, but mortality depends on the underlying cause. Some survivors have long-term respiratory or cognitive problems.The treatment of ARDS is supportive care, including optimised mechanical ventilation, nutritional support, manipulation of fluid balance, source control and treatment of sepsis, and prevention of intervening medical complications.
Low tidal-volume ventilation, at 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight, reduces mortality compared with high tidal-volume ventilation, but can lead to respiratory acidosis. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) that maintains PaO2 above 60 mmHg is considered effective in people with ARDS, but no difference in mortality has been found for high PEEP compared with lower PEEP strategies.
People with ARDS may remain hypoxic despite mechanical ventilation. Nursing in the prone position may improve oxygenation but it has not been shown to reduce mortality, and it can increase adverse effects such as pressure ulcers. The prone position is contraindicated in people with spinal instability and should be used with caution in people with haemodynamic and cardiac instability, or in people who have had recent thoracic or abdominal surgery.
We found insufficient evidence to draw reliable conclusions on the effects of corticosteroids on mortality or reversal of ARDS.
Nitric oxide has not been shown to improve survival or duration of ventilation, or hospital stay, compared with placebo. It may modestly improve oxygenation in the short term but the improvement is not sustained.
PMCID: PMC3217743  PMID: 21406126
18.  Raising the bar: the importance of hospital library standards in the continuing medical education accreditation process* 
The Connecticut State Medical Society (CSMS) reviews and accredits the continuing medical education (CME) programs offered by Connecticut's hospitals. As part of the survey process, the CSMS assesses the quality of the hospitals' libraries. In 1987, the CSMS adopted the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) “Minimum Standards for Health Sciences Libraries in Hospitals.” In 1990, professional librarians were added to the survey team and, later, to the CSMS CME Committee. Librarians participating in this effort are recruited from the membership of the Connecticut Association of Health Sciences Librarians (CAHSL). The positive results of having a qualified librarian on the survey team and the invaluable impact of adherence to the MLA standards are outlined. As a direct result of this process, hospitals throughout the state have added staffing, increased space, and added funding for resources during an era of cutbacks. Some hospital libraries have been able to maintain a healthy status quo, while others have had proposed cuts reconsidered by administrators for fear of losing valuable CME accreditation status. Creating a relationship with an accrediting agency is one method by which hospital librarians elsewhere may strengthen their efforts to ensure adequate library resources in an era of downsizing. In addition, this collaboration has provided a new and important role for librarians to play on an accreditation team.
PMCID: PMC34560  PMID: 11465686
19.  Integrating with users is one thing, but living with them? a case study on loss of space from the Medical Center Library, University of California, San Diego 
The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Medical Center is the primary hospital for the UCSD School of Medicine. The UCSD Medical Center Library (MCL), a branch of the campus's biomedical library, is located on the medical center campus. In 2007, the medical center administration made a request to MCL for space in its facility to relocate pharmacy administration from the hospital tower. The university librarian brought together a team of library managers to deliberate and develop a proposal, which ultimately accommodated the medical center's request and enhanced some of MCL's public services.
doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.1.012
PMCID: PMC2801983  PMID: 20098651
20.  The medical librarian's views. 
A library should review carefully the complex implications before undertaking to be a Regional Medical Library. Eight important considerations are examined: Possible conflict of interest between local, defined clientele and larger regional clientele; Indirect costs, especially as they relate to administrative and management time; Possible abuse of unlimited cost-free copy service; Region-wide participation in planning efforts; The hazard of depressing the quality of the rank and file of local libraries; Balance between private and public support--the risk of diminished dues support for library extension services; Complexities of territory definition; and Defining the proper recipient (the "qualified individual") of regional library service. Recognition of the problems should not be interpreted as a lack of appreciation of the great opportunity which the regional program affords.
PMCID: PMC232681  PMID: 5212370
21.  Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions.
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD.
Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities.
Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs.
Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however, increases the risk of SCD five-fold, regardless of aetiology. Patients with HF who remain highly symptomatic despite optimal drug therapy are sometimes also treated with CRT devices.
With an increasing prevalence of age-related conditions such as chronic HF and the expanding indications for ICD therapy, the rate of ICD placement has been dramatically increasing. The appropriate indications for ICD placement, as well as the rate of ICD placement, are increasingly an issue. In the United States, after the introduction of expanded coverage of ICDs, a national ICD registry was created in 2005 to track these devices. A recent survey based on this national ICD registry reported that 22.5% (25,145) of patients had received a non-evidence based ICD and that these patients experienced significantly higher in-hospital mortality and post-procedural complications.
In addition to the increased ICD device placement and the upfront device costs, there is the need for lifelong follow-up or surveillance, placing a significant burden on patients and device clinics. In 2007, over 1.6 million CIEDs were implanted in Europe and the United States, which translates to over 5.5 million patient encounters per year if the recommended follow-up practices are considered. A safe and effective RMS could potentially improve the efficiency of long-term follow-up of patients and their CIEDs.
Technology
In addition to being therapeutic devices, CIEDs have extensive diagnostic abilities. All CIEDs can be interrogated and reprogrammed during an in-clinic visit using an inductive programming wand. Remote monitoring would allow patients to transmit information recorded in their devices from the comfort of their own homes. Currently most ICD devices also have the potential to be remotely monitored. Remote monitoring (RM) can be used to check system integrity, to alert on arrhythmic episodes, and to potentially replace in-clinic follow-ups and manage disease remotely. They do not currently have the capability of being reprogrammed remotely, although this feature is being tested in pilot settings.
Every RMS is specifically designed by a manufacturer for their cardiac implant devices. For Internet-based device-assisted RMSs, this customization includes details such as web application, multiplatform sensors, custom algorithms, programming information, and types and methods of alerting patients and/or physicians. The addition of peripherals for monitoring weight and pressure or communicating with patients through the onsite communicators also varies by manufacturer. Internet-based device-assisted RMSs for CIEDs are intended to function as a surveillance system rather than an emergency system.
Health care providers therefore need to learn each application, and as more than one application may be used at one site, multiple applications may need to be reviewed for alarms. All RMSs deliver system integrity alerting; however, some systems seem to be better geared to fast arrhythmic alerting, whereas other systems appear to be more intended for remote follow-up or supplemental remote disease management. The different RMSs may therefore have different impacts on workflow organization because of their varying frequency of interrogation and methods of alerts. The integration of these proprietary RM web-based registry systems with hospital-based electronic health record systems has so far not been commonly implemented.
Currently there are 2 general types of RMSs: those that transmit device diagnostic information automatically and without patient assistance to secure Internet-based registry systems, and those that require patient assistance to transmit information. Both systems employ the use of preprogrammed alerts that are either transmitted automatically or at regular scheduled intervals to patients and/or physicians.
The current web applications, programming, and registry systems differ greatly between the manufacturers of transmitting cardiac devices. In Canada there are currently 4 manufacturers—Medtronic Inc., Biotronik, Boston Scientific Corp., and St Jude Medical Inc.—which have regulatory approval for remote transmitting CIEDs. Remote monitoring systems are proprietary to the manufacturer of the implant device. An RMS for one device will not work with another device, and the RMS may not work with all versions of the manufacturer’s devices.
All Internet-based device-assisted RMSs have common components. The implanted device is equipped with a micro-antenna that communicates with a small external device (at bedside or wearable) commonly known as the transmitter. Transmitters are able to interrogate programmed parameters and diagnostic data stored in the patients’ implant device. The information transfer to the communicator can occur at preset time intervals with the participation of the patient (waving a wand over the device) or it can be sent automatically (wirelessly) without their participation. The encrypted data are then uploaded to an Internet-based database on a secure central server. The data processing facilities at the central database, depending on the clinical urgency, can trigger an alert for the physician(s) that can be sent via email, fax, text message, or phone. The details are also posted on the secure website for viewing by the physician (or their delegate) at their convenience.
Research Questions
The research directions and specific research questions for this evidence review were as follows:
To identify the Internet-based device-assisted RMSs available for follow-up of patients with therapeutic CIEDs such as PMs, ICDs, and CRT devices.
To identify the potential risks, operational issues, or organizational issues related to Internet-based device-assisted RM for CIEDs.
To evaluate the safety, acceptability, and effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted RMSs for CIEDs such as PMs, ICDs, and CRT devices.
To evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted RMSs for CIEDs compared to usual outpatient in-office monitoring strategies.
To evaluate the resource implications or budget impact of RMSs for CIEDs in Ontario, Canada.
Research Methods
Literature Search
The review included a systematic review of published scientific literature and consultations with experts and manufacturers of all 4 approved RMSs for CIEDs in Canada. Information on CIED cardiac implant clinics was also obtained from Provincial Programs, a division within the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care with a mandate for cardiac implant specialty care. Various administrative databases and registries were used to outline the current clinical follow-up burden of CIEDs in Ontario. The provincial population-based ICD database developed and maintained by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was used to review the current follow-up practices with Ontario patients implanted with ICD devices.
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on September 21, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from 1950 to September 2010. Search alerts were generated and reviewed for additional relevant literature until December 31, 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Inclusion Criteria
published between 1950 and September 2010;
English language full-reports and human studies;
original reports including clinical evaluations of Internet-based device-assisted RMSs for CIEDs in clinical settings;
reports including standardized measurements on outcome events such as technical success, safety, effectiveness, cost, measures of health care utilization, morbidity, mortality, quality of life or patient satisfaction;
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses, cohort and controlled clinical studies.
Exclusion Criteria
non-systematic reviews, letters, comments and editorials;
reports not involving standardized outcome events;
clinical reports not involving Internet-based device assisted RM systems for CIEDs in clinical settings;
reports involving studies testing or validating algorithms without RM;
studies with small samples (<10 subjects).
Outcomes of Interest
The outcomes of interest included: technical outcomes, emergency department visits, complications, major adverse events, symptoms, hospital admissions, clinic visits (scheduled and/or unscheduled), survival, morbidity (disease progression, stroke, etc.), patient satisfaction, and quality of life.
Summary of Findings
The MAS evidence review was performed to review available evidence on Internet-based device-assisted RMSs for CIEDs published until September 2010. The search identified 6 systematic reviews, 7 randomized controlled trials, and 19 reports for 16 cohort studies—3 of these being registry-based and 4 being multi-centered. The evidence is summarized in the 3 sections that follow.
1. Effectiveness of Remote Monitoring Systems of CIEDs for Cardiac Arrhythmia and Device Functioning
In total, 15 reports on 13 cohort studies involving investigations with 4 different RMSs for CIEDs in cardiology implant clinic groups were identified in the review. The 4 RMSs were: Care Link Network® (Medtronic Inc,, Minneapolis, MN, USA); Home Monitoring® (Biotronic, Berlin, Germany); House Call 11® (St Jude Medical Inc., St Pauls, MN, USA); and a manufacturer-independent RMS. Eight of these reports were with the Home Monitoring® RMS (12,949 patients), 3 were with the Care Link® RMS (167 patients), 1 was with the House Call 11® RMS (124 patients), and 1 was with a manufacturer-independent RMS (44 patients). All of the studies, except for 2 in the United States, (1 with Home Monitoring® and 1 with House Call 11®), were performed in European countries.
The RMSs in the studies were evaluated with different cardiac implant device populations: ICDs only (6 studies), ICD and CRT devices (3 studies), PM and ICD and CRT devices (4 studies), and PMs only (2 studies). The patient populations were predominately male (range, 52%–87%) in all studies, with mean ages ranging from 58 to 76 years. One study population was unique in that RMSs were evaluated for ICDs implanted solely for primary prevention in young patients (mean age, 44 years) with Brugada syndrome, which carries an inherited increased genetic risk for sudden heart attack in young adults.
Most of the cohort studies reported on the feasibility of RMSs in clinical settings with limited follow-up. In the short follow-up periods of the studies, the majority of the events were related to detection of medical events rather than system configuration or device abnormalities. The results of the studies are summarized below:
The interrogation of devices on the web platform, both for continuous and scheduled transmissions, was significantly quicker with remote follow-up, both for nurses and physicians.
In a case-control study focusing on a Brugada population–based registry with patients followed-up remotely, there were significantly fewer outpatient visits and greater detection of inappropriate shocks. One death occurred in the control group not followed remotely and post-mortem analysis indicated early signs of lead failure prior to the event.
Two studies examined the role of RMSs in following ICD leads under regulatory advisory in a European clinical setting and noted:
– Fewer inappropriate shocks were administered in the RM group.
– Urgent in-office interrogations and surgical revisions were performed within 12 days of remote alerts.
– No signs of lead fracture were detected at in-office follow-up; all were detected at remote follow-up.
Only 1 study reported evaluating quality of life in patients followed up remotely at 3 and 6 months; no values were reported.
Patient satisfaction was evaluated in 5 cohort studies, all in short term follow-up: 1 for the Home Monitoring® RMS, 3 for the Care Link® RMS, and 1 for the House Call 11® RMS.
– Patients reported receiving a sense of security from the transmitter, a good relationship with nurses and physicians, positive implications for their health, and satisfaction with RM and organization of services.
– Although patients reported that the system was easy to implement and required less than 10 minutes to transmit information, a variable proportion of patients (range, 9% 39%) reported that they needed the assistance of a caregiver for their transmission.
– The majority of patients would recommend RM to other ICD patients.
– Patients with hearing or other physical or mental conditions hindering the use of the system were excluded from studies, but the frequency of this was not reported.
Physician satisfaction was evaluated in 3 studies, all with the Care Link® RMS:
– Physicians reported an ease of use and high satisfaction with a generally short-term use of the RMS.
– Physicians reported being able to address the problems in unscheduled patient transmissions or physician initiated transmissions remotely, and were able to handle the majority of the troubleshooting calls remotely.
– Both nurses and physicians reported a high level of satisfaction with the web registry system.
2. Effectiveness of Remote Monitoring Systems in Heart Failure Patients for Cardiac Arrhythmia and Heart Failure Episodes
Remote follow-up of HF patients implanted with ICD or CRT devices, generally managed in specialized HF clinics, was evaluated in 3 cohort studies: 1 involved the Home Monitoring® RMS and 2 involved the Care Link® RMS. In these RMSs, in addition to the standard diagnostic features, the cardiac devices continuously assess other variables such as patient activity, mean heart rate, and heart rate variability. Intra-thoracic impedance, a proxy measure for lung fluid overload, was also measured in the Care Link® studies. The overall diagnostic performance of these measures cannot be evaluated, as the information was not reported for patients who did not experience intra-thoracic impedance threshold crossings or did not undergo interventions. The trial results involved descriptive information on transmissions and alerts in patients experiencing high morbidity and hospitalization in the short study periods.
3. Comparative Effectiveness of Remote Monitoring Systems for CIEDs
Seven RCTs were identified evaluating RMSs for CIEDs: 2 were for PMs (1276 patients) and 5 were for ICD/CRT devices (3733 patients). Studies performed in the clinical setting in the United States involved both the Care Link® RMS and the Home Monitoring® RMS, whereas all studies performed in European countries involved only the Home Monitoring® RMS.
3A. Randomized Controlled Trials of Remote Monitoring Systems for Pacemakers
Two trials, both multicenter RCTs, were conducted in different countries with different RMSs and study objectives. The PREFER trial was a large trial (897 patients) performed in the United States examining the ability of Care Link®, an Internet-based remote PM interrogation system, to detect clinically actionable events (CAEs) sooner than the current in-office follow-up supplemented with transtelephonic monitoring transmissions, a limited form of remote device interrogation. The trial results are summarized below:
In the 375-day mean follow-up, 382 patients were identified with at least 1 CAE—111 patients in the control arm and 271 in the remote arm.
The event rate detected per patient for every type of CAE, except for loss of atrial capture, was higher in the remote arm than the control arm.
The median time to first detection of CAEs (4.9 vs. 6.3 months) was significantly shorter in the RMS group compared to the control group (P < 0.0001).
Additionally, only 2% (3/190) of the CAEs in the control arm were detected during a transtelephonic monitoring transmission (the rest were detected at in-office follow-ups), whereas 66% (446/676) of the CAEs were detected during remote interrogation.
The second study, the OEDIPE trial, was a smaller trial (379 patients) performed in France evaluating the ability of the Home Monitoring® RMS to shorten PM post-operative hospitalization while preserving the safety of conventional management of longer hospital stays.
Implementation and operationalization of the RMS was reported to be successful in 91% (346/379) of the patients and represented 8144 transmissions.
In the RM group 6.5% of patients failed to send messages (10 due to improper use of the transmitter, 2 with unmanageable stress). Of the 172 patients transmitting, 108 patients sent a total of 167 warnings during the trial, with a greater proportion of warnings being attributed to medical rather than technical causes.
Forty percent had no warning message transmission and among these, 6 patients experienced a major adverse event and 1 patient experienced a non-major adverse event. Of the 6 patients having a major adverse event, 5 contacted their physician.
The mean medical reaction time was faster in the RM group (6.5 ± 7.6 days vs. 11.4 ± 11.6 days).
The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) for the RM group than the control group (3.2 ± 3.2 days vs. 4.8 ± 3.7 days).
Quality of life estimates by the SF-36 questionnaire were similar for the 2 groups at 1-month follow-up.
3B. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Remote Monitoring Systems for ICD or CRT Devices
The 5 studies evaluating the impact of RMSs with ICD/CRT devices were conducted in the United States and in European countries and involved 2 RMSs—Care Link® and Home Monitoring ®. The objectives of the trials varied and 3 of the trials were smaller pilot investigations.
The first of the smaller studies (151 patients) evaluated patient satisfaction, achievement of patient outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness of the Care Link® RMS compared to quarterly in-office device interrogations with 1-year follow-up.
Individual outcomes such as hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and unscheduled clinic visits were not significantly different between the study groups.
Except for a significantly higher detection of atrial fibrillation in the RM group, data on ICD detection and therapy were similar in the study groups.
Health-related quality of life evaluated by the EuroQoL at 6-month or 12-month follow-up was not different between study groups.
Patients were more satisfied with their ICD care in the clinic follow-up group than in the remote follow-up group at 6-month follow-up, but were equally satisfied at 12- month follow-up.
The second small pilot trial (20 patients) examined the impact of RM follow-up with the House Call 11® system on work schedules and cost savings in patients randomized to 2 study arms varying in the degree of remote follow-up.
The total time including device interrogation, transmission time, data analysis, and physician time required was significantly shorter for the RM follow-up group.
The in-clinic waiting time was eliminated for patients in the RM follow-up group.
The physician talk time was significantly reduced in the RM follow-up group (P < 0.05).
The time for the actual device interrogation did not differ in the study groups.
The third small trial (115 patients) examined the impact of RM with the Home Monitoring® system compared to scheduled trimonthly in-clinic visits on the number of unplanned visits, total costs, health-related quality of life (SF-36), and overall mortality.
There was a 63.2% reduction in in-office visits in the RM group.
Hospitalizations or overall mortality (values not stated) were not significantly different between the study groups.
Patient-induced visits were higher in the RM group than the in-clinic follow-up group.
The TRUST Trial
The TRUST trial was a large multicenter RCT conducted at 102 centers in the United States involving the Home Monitoring® RMS for ICD devices for 1450 patients. The primary objectives of the trial were to determine if remote follow-up could be safely substituted for in-office clinic follow-up (3 in-office visits replaced) and still enable earlier physician detection of clinically actionable events.
Adherence to the protocol follow-up schedule was significantly higher in the RM group than the in-office follow-up group (93.5% vs. 88.7%, P < 0.001).
Actionability of trimonthly scheduled checks was low (6.6%) in both study groups. Overall, actionable causes were reprogramming (76.2%), medication changes (24.8%), and lead/system revisions (4%), and these were not different between the 2 study groups.
The overall mean number of in-clinic and hospital visits was significantly lower in the RM group than the in-office follow-up group (2.1 per patient-year vs. 3.8 per patient-year, P < 0.001), representing a 45% visit reduction at 12 months.
The median time from onset of first arrhythmia to physician evaluation was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) in the RM group than in the in-office follow-up group for all arrhythmias (1 day vs. 35.5 days).
The median time to detect clinically asymptomatic arrhythmia events—atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and supra-ventricular tachycardia (SVT)—was also significantly shorter (P < 0.001) in the RM group compared to the in-office follow-up group (1 day vs. 41.5 days) and was significantly quicker for each of the clinical arrhythmia events—AF (5.5 days vs. 40 days), VT (1 day vs. 28 days), VF (1 day vs. 36 days), and SVT (2 days vs. 39 days).
System-related problems occurred infrequently in both groups—in 1.5% of patients (14/908) in the RM group and in 0.7% of patients (3/432) in the in-office follow-up group.
The overall adverse event rate over 12 months was not significantly different between the 2 groups and individual adverse events were also not significantly different between the RM group and the in-office follow-up group: death (3.4% vs. 4.9%), stroke (0.3% vs. 1.2%), and surgical intervention (6.6% vs. 4.9%), respectively.
The 12-month cumulative survival was 96.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.5%–97.6%) in the RM group and 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8%–96.6%) in the in-office follow-up group, and was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.174).
The CONNECT Trial
The CONNECT trial, another major multicenter RCT, involved the Care Link® RMS for ICD/CRT devices in a15-month follow-up study of 1,997 patients at 133 sites in the United States. The primary objective of the trial was to determine whether automatically transmitted physician alerts decreased the time from the occurrence of clinically relevant events to medical decisions. The trial results are summarized below:
Of the 575 clinical alerts sent in the study, 246 did not trigger an automatic physician alert. Transmission failures were related to technical issues such as the alert not being programmed or not being reset, and/or a variety of patient factors such as not being at home and the monitor not being plugged in or set up.
The overall mean time from the clinically relevant event to the clinical decision was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) by 17.4 days in the remote follow-up group (4.6 days for 172 patients) than the in-office follow-up group (22 days for 145 patients).
– The median time to a clinical decision was shorter in the remote follow-up group than in the in-office follow-up group for an AT/AF burden greater than or equal to 12 hours (3 days vs. 24 days) and a fast VF rate greater than or equal to 120 beats per minute (4 days vs. 23 days).
Although infrequent, similar low numbers of events involving low battery and VF detection/therapy turned off were noted in both groups. More alerts, however, were noted for out-of-range lead impedance in the RM group (18 vs. 6 patients), and the time to detect these critical events was significantly shorter in the RM group (same day vs. 17 days).
Total in-office clinic visits were reduced by 38% from 6.27 visits per patient-year in the in-office follow-up group to 3.29 visits per patient-year in the remote follow-up group.
Health care utilization visits (N = 6,227) that included cardiovascular-related hospitalization, emergency department visits, and unscheduled clinic visits were not significantly higher in the remote follow-up group.
The overall mean length of hospitalization was significantly shorter (P = 0.002) for those in the remote follow-up group (3.3 days vs. 4.0 days) and was shorter both for patients with ICD (3.0 days vs. 3.6 days) and CRT (3.8 days vs. 4.7 days) implants.
The mortality rate between the study arms was not significantly different between the follow-up groups for the ICDs (P = 0.31) or the CRT devices with defribillator (P = 0.46).
Conclusions
There is limited clinical trial information on the effectiveness of RMSs for PMs. However, for RMSs for ICD devices, multiple cohort studies and 2 large multicenter RCTs demonstrated feasibility and significant reductions in in-office clinic follow-ups with RMSs in the first year post implantation. The detection rates of clinically significant events (and asymptomatic events) were higher, and the time to a clinical decision for these events was significantly shorter, in the remote follow-up groups than in the in-office follow-up groups. The earlier detection of clinical events in the remote follow-up groups, however, was not associated with lower morbidity or mortality rates in the 1-year follow-up. The substitution of almost all the first year in-office clinic follow-ups with RM was also not associated with an increased health care utilization such as emergency department visits or hospitalizations.
The follow-up in the trials was generally short-term, up to 1 year, and was a more limited assessment of potential longer term device/lead integrity complications or issues. None of the studies compared the different RMSs, particularly the different RMSs involving patient-scheduled transmissions or automatic transmissions. Patients’ acceptance of and satisfaction with RM were reported to be high, but the impact of RM on patients’ health-related quality of life, particularly the psychological aspects, was not evaluated thoroughly. Patients who are not technologically competent, having hearing or other physical/mental impairments, were identified as potentially disadvantaged with remote surveillance. Cohort studies consistently identified subgroups of patients who preferred in-office follow-up. The evaluation of costs and workflow impact to the health care system were evaluated in European or American clinical settings, and only in a limited way.
Internet-based device-assisted RMSs involve a new approach to monitoring patients, their disease progression, and their CIEDs. Remote monitoring also has the potential to improve the current postmarket surveillance systems of evolving CIEDs and their ongoing hardware and software modifications. At this point, however, there is insufficient information to evaluate the overall impact to the health care system, although the time saving and convenience to patients and physicians associated with a substitution of in-office follow-up by RM is more certain. The broader issues surrounding infrastructure, impacts on existing clinical care systems, and regulatory concerns need to be considered for the implementation of Internet-based RMSs in jurisdictions involving different clinical practices.
PMCID: PMC3377571  PMID: 23074419
22.  Developing a Minimum Data Set of the Information Management System for Orthopedic Injuries in Iran 
Background:
Orthopedic injuries are the most common types of injuries. To identify the main causes of injuries, collecting data in a standard manner at the national level are needed, which justifies necessity of making a minimum data set (MDS).
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to develop an MDS of the information management system for orthopedic injuries in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in 2013. Data were collected from hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences that had orthopedic department, medical documents centers, legal medicine centers, emergency centers, internet access, and library. Investigated documents were orthopedic injury records in 2012, documents that retrieved from the internet, and printed materials. Records with Random sampling by S22-S99 categories from ICD-10 were selected and the related internet-sourced data were evaluated entirely. Data were collected using a checklist. In order to make a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied by a questionnaire. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by expert’s opinions and test-retest method, respectively.
Results:
An MDS of orthopedic injuries were assigned to two categories: administrative category with six classes including 142 data elements, and clinical category with 17 classes including 250 data elements.
Conclusions:
This study showed that some of the essential data elements included in other country’s MDS or required for organizations and healthcare providers were not included. Therefore, a complete list of an MDS elements was created. Existence of comprehensive data concerning the causes and mechanisms of injuries informs public health policy-makers about injuries occurrence and enables them to take rationale measures to deal with these problems.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.17020
PMCID: PMC4166095  PMID: 25237576
Orthopedic; Injuries; Hospitals; Forensic Medicine; Emergency
23.  Library instruction within the medical record administration curriculum. 
A course for medical record administration (MRA) students has been developed at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences Library. The course's objectives are: (1) to train students in the use of the resources and services of health sciences libraries and (2) to provide basic instruction in the organization, operation, and management of a small hospital library. These objectives are met by integrating library use instruction within the MRA curriculum and by presenting a five-week hospital library management workshop. Library use instruction includes a library orientation and sessions on the use of major reference sources, writing for publication, and the use and evaluation of the medical record literature. The workshop covers the role of the medical record administrator as manager of the hospital library. Sessions cover basic principles of hospital library administration, technical and public services, and sources of outside assistance. Results are reported of a survey of graduates conducted to determine whether a need for the course still existed and if the changes made as a result of the evaluation process were appropriate. The teaching methods and evaluation techniques used in this course are applicable to library instruction in other disciplines.
PMCID: PMC226796  PMID: 7225659
24.  Employee no-shows: managing library absenteeism. 
Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library administrators. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of a program to discourage absenteeism at the Moody Medical Library of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The important role of library administrators and supervisors in controlling absenteeism is emphasized.
PMCID: PMC227109  PMID: 3416094
25.  Current practices in library/informatics instruction in academic libraries serving medical schools in the western United States: a three-phase action research study 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:119.
Background
To conduct a systematic assessment of library and informatics training at accredited Western U.S. medical schools. To provide a structured description of core practices, detect trends through comparisons across institutions, and to identify innovative training approaches at the medical schools.
Methods
Action research study pursued through three phases. The first phase used inductive analysis on reported library and informatics skills training via publicly-facing websites at accredited medical schools and the academic health sciences libraries serving those medical schools. Phase Two consisted of a survey of the librarians who provide this training to undergraduate medical education students at the Western U.S. medical schools. The survey revealed gaps in forming a complete picture of current practices, thereby generating additional questions that were answered through the Phase Three in-depth interviews.
Results
Publicly-facing websites reviewed in Phase One offered uneven information about library and informatics training at Western U.S. medical schools. The Phase Two survey resulted in a 77% response rate. The survey produced a clearer picture of current practices of library and informatics training. The survey also determined the readiness of medical students to pass certain aspects of the United States Medical Licensure Exam. Most librarians interacted with medical school curricular leaders through either curricula committees or through individual contacts. Librarians averaged three (3) interventions for training within the four-year curricula with greatest emphasis upon the first and third years. Library/informatics training was integrated fully into the respective curricula in almost all cases. Most training involved active learning approaches, specifically within Problem-Based Learning or Evidence-Based Medicine contexts. The Phase Three interviews revealed that librarians are engaged with the medical schools' curricular leaders, they are respected for their knowledge and teaching skills, and that they need to continually adapt to changes in curricula.
Conclusions
This study offers a long overdue, systematic view of current practices of library/informatics training at Western U.S. medical schools. Medical educators, particularly curricular leaders, will find opportunities in this study's results for more productive collaborations with the librarians responsible for library and informatics training at their medical schools.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-119
PMCID: PMC3847693  PMID: 24007301
Medical libraries; Medical informatics; Teaching; Active learning; Curriculum; Library science; Information science; Information literacy; Information fluency; Information seeking behavior

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