A survey of the current surgical practice for patients with a pharyngeal pouch was conducted among general surgeons, otolaryngologists and cardiothoracic surgeons in England and Wales. Our results show that while pouch excision remains the most common method used, endoscopic stapling diverticulotomy is rapidly being adopted. The reasons why this recently introduced technique is likely to become the definitive treatment of pharyngeal pouch are discussed.
Pharyngeal pouches occur most commonly in elderly patients (over 70 years) and typical symptoms include dysphagia, regurgitation, chronic cough, aspiration, and weight loss. The aetiology remains unknown but theories centre upon a structural or physiological abnormality of the cricopharyngeus. A diagnosis is easily established on barium studies. Treatment is surgical via an endoscopic or external cervical approach and should include a cricopharyngeal myotomy. Unfortunately pharyngeal pouch surgery has long been associated with significant morbidity, partly due to the surgery itself and also to the fact that the majority of patients are elderly and often have general medical problems. External approaches are associated with higher complication rates than endoscopic procedures. Recently, treatment by endoscopic stapling diverticulotomy has becoming increasingly popular as it has distinct advantages, although long term results are not yet available. The small risk of developing carcinoma within a pouch that is not excised remains a contentious issue and is an argument for long term follow up or treating the condition by external excision, particularly in younger patients.
Keywords: Zenker's diverticulum; surgical procedures: endoscopic; surgical stapling
Endoscopic diverticulotomy (Dohlman's procedure) is a well-established and effective alternative to external diverticulectomy in the treatment of pharyngeal pouch. The division of the common septum between the pouch and the oesophagus is usually performed either with electrocautery or with a laser. We describe a new technique of endoscopic diverticulotomy using a linear cutter stapling gun. This technique has the advantages of being quick and bloodless, avoiding the need for a nasogastric tube, permitting oral intake as early as the first postoperative day and allowing early discharge from hospital. It also has the theoretical advantage over the electrocautery or the laser technique of reducing the risk of fistula formation, mediastinitis and thermal injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the current involvement of ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons in lacrimal surgery.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
A postal survey was distributed to 796 practicing UK consultant otorhinolaryngologists listed at the drfoster website.
Overall, 531 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. Of these, 108 (20.6%) respondents indicated they were involved in lacrimal surgery. The majority of otolaryngologists seem to work in collaboration with ophthalmologists. In our survey, 98% (106) perform endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Most respondents believed lacrimal intubation and dilation to have limited success, endoscopic DCR to have moderate success and external DCR to have high success.
Lacrimal surgery is carried out in a spirit of collaboration with ophthalmologists rather than competition. Endoscopic DCR is the favoured surgical procedure of otolaryngologists. The perceived success rate for endoscopic DCR reported in this survey coincides with that reported in the literature.
Lacrimal surgery; Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy; External dacryocystorhinostomy
We retrospectively reviewed 56 consecutive patients treated surgically for a pharyngeal pouch at our institution between 1989-1999 (10 years). Various surgical procedures were performed including endoscopic stapling (20), external excision (23), Dohlman's procedure (9), pouch inversion (3), cricopharyngeal myotomy only (3), and pouch suspension (1). There were 12 patients (18%) with complications and one mortality (2%). Four patients (7%) had a recurrence with 2 requiring further surgery. Over the latter 3 years, endoscopic stapling has emerged as the primary procedure for pharyngeal pouch surgery in our unit; with the advantages of an earlier commencement of diet and earlier hospital discharge. However, results were not as good as for external excisions. Furthermore, there were difficulties with 3 cases that commenced as endoscopic stapling procedures but had to he converted to external excisions due to inaccessibility in one case and iatrogenic perforations in two cases. As with any new technique, problems may occur and a learning curve has been appreciated in our unit. Surgeons must he prepared, with informed consent, to convert to an external approach should difficulties arise during endoscopic stapling. Elderly and frail patients who are at risk from a general anaesthetic may benefit from endoscopic stapling. External excision of pharyngeal pouches may be more appropriate in the young, the medically fit, and when malignancy is a concern.
The formation of posterior pharyngeal pouches is generally attributed to dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter. The reason for this dysfunction and its exact nature have not been established. Observations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, suggested that an association exists between pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia. Barium studies performed in patients with a pharyngeal pouch using a described technique demonstrated the presence of a hiatus hernia in 32 out of 34 patients.
Illustrative case histories and a review of published work on cricopharyngeal function are provided to support our conclusions that gastro-oesophageal reflux is the primary factor leading to cricopharyngeal dysfunction, with the formation of a pharyngeal pouch in some cases. Several possible criticisms of this theory are discussed and the need for further investigation in patients with a pharyngeal pouch is emphasized. The management of patients with a pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia is briefly outlined.
We report a consecutive series of 31 patients who underwent endoscopic stapled diverticulotomy. The patients' notes were reviewed retrospectively to gather data on their original admission and a postal survey was conducted to establish patient satisfaction, their ability to swallow and re-operation data. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Nine of the remaining 28 died at a median of 18 months. The remaining 21 were followed up for a median of 59 months. The data showed that, at 5 years, 94.4% of patients had an improvement in their swallowing, and 50% had an entirely normal swallow. In order to achieve this result, 19% of patients required a second procedure, and one patient (3.2%) required a third (open) procedure. Endoscopic stapled diverticulotomy has well-established, short-term advantages. This series shows that it has a good long-term outcome that is similar to established open techniques and probably better than other techniques of endoscopic diverticulotomy, i.e. diathermy or laser.
It is generally agreed that the successful management of a vestibular schwannoma (VS) usually involves close collaboration between a neuro-otologist and neurosurgeon. In addition, it is accepted that the experience of the team managing such tumours is one of the key determinants of outcome after surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to identify current practice in the management of such tumours amongst otolaryngologists in the UK and to observe whether such collaborative working practices exist.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A cross sectional postal questionnaire survey of consultant members of the British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists – Head and Neck Surgeons (n = 542).
A total of 336 replies were received (62%). Of respondents, 299 consultants referred their patients to another surgeon for further management; 242 referred to another ENT surgeon (80.9%), 29 to a neurosurgeon (9.7%) and 28 to a combined team (9.4%). Twenty-eight of the responding otolaryngologists (8.6%) managed the tumours themselves, of whom 22 worked with a neurosurgeon. Of these 28 neuro-otologists, nearly two-thirds (64%) had been undertaking VS surgery for more than 10 years. The total number of patients with a VS referred to these 28 consultants during 2001 was 775, with a mean caseload of 29.8, median 23 and a range of 4 to 102 per surgeon. Seven of the 28 otolaryngologists chose their surgical approach entirely based on the size of the tumour. Eight consultants preferred the sub-occipital (SO) approach, 10 the trans-labyrinthine (TL) approach, three chose between SO and TL approaches. The majority of surgeons had a prospective, computer-based data collection and were willing to give further information about their outcomes and complications.
Amongst the otolaryngologists surveyed in the UK, we have identified 28 neuro-otologists who undertake VS surgery. The majority work with neurosurgical colleagues, confirming collaborative practice. The wide range in caseload raises the issue of training and maintaining standards and in the first instance we recommend a prospective national audit of VS management and outcomes with our neurosurgical colleagues. This would also be of value in manpower planning particularly if a minimum caseload could be identified below which results were seen to be less good.
Vestibular schwannoma; Acoustic neuroma; Audit; Management; Collaboration
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis requiring surgery. A J-pouch with a stapled anastomosis has been the preferred technique because it is quicker, safer, and associated with good functional outcomes. A diverting loop ileostomy is usually created at the time of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. In patients with severe fulminant colitis or toxic megacolon, restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is performed in multistages. The technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis are reviewed in this article.
Proctocolectomy; ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; ulcerative colitis; ileostomy; repeat pouch surgery
Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis; these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.
Anal transition zone; Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Restorative proctocolectomy; Ulcerative colitis
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically manage ulcerative colitis may involve multiple separate surgical procedures, impacting treatment costs, length of stay in hospital, complication rates and patient outcomes, and there is currently no accepted standard of care regarding the number of stages that should be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the practice patterns of Canadian and American colorectal surgeons regarding the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.
A questionnaire was mailed to all practisng fellows of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) in Canada and the United States. Surgeons were asked to describe their typical practices for 3 clinical scenarios.
Questionnaires were mailed to 40 Canadian and 873 American ASCRS fellows with response rates of 86% and 62%, respectively. In the case of a patient who has had a prior colectomy, who is not taking steroids and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, 44% of Canadian surgeons would perform IPAA alone and 56% would perform IPAA with a loop ileostomy. In contrast, only 26% of American surgeons would perform IPAA alone and 74% would perform IPAA with a loop ileostomy (p = 0.002). In the case of a patient who has not had previous surgery, who is taking 10 mg/day of prednisone and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, the majority of both Canadian and American surgeons would perform an IPAA with a loop ileostomy (93% and 89%, respectively, p = 0.06). In the case of a patient who has not had previous surgery, who is taking 40 mg/day of prednisone and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, 45% of Canadian surgeons would perform a subtotal colectomy with an end ileostomy compared with 14% of American surgeons (p < 0.001).
There are significant differences in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis between Canadian and American colorectal surgeons.
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is one of the surgical treatments of choice for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the risk of cancer developing in an ileal pouch is not yet clear, a few cases of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal pouch have been reported. We report a case of adenocarcinoma in ileal pouch after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A 56-yr-old woman was diagnosed as having familial adenomatous polyposis. Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis was performed. Six years later, she underwent completion-proctectomy with ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis including anorectal mucosectomy for rectal cancer. After 7 yr, she presented with anal spotting. Endoscopic biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma at the ileal pouch. Resection of the ileal pouch and permanent ileostomy were performed. The risk of cancer in an ileal pouch and its prevention with regular surveillance must be emphasized.
Adenocarcinoma; Ileal Pouches; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a surgical procedure used worldwide for the treatment of grade III and IV hemorrhoids in all age groups. However, life-threatening complications occur occasionally. The following case report describes the development of pelvic sepsis after stapled hemorrhoidopexy. A literature review of techniques used to manage major septic complications after stapled hemorrhoidopexy was performed. There is no standardized treatment currently available. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a safe, effective and time-efficient procedure in the hands of experienced colorectal surgeons.
Hemorrhoids; Hemorrhoids/treatment; Sepsis; Stapled hemorrhoidopexy; Circular mucosectomy
The management of breast cancer is controversial. In order to obtain an overview of the way that surgeons manage breast cancer in England and Wales and to assess trends in management by comparisons with the results of previous surveys a postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant general surgeons in England and Wales (n=985).
The response rate was 61%. Fine-needle aspiration is now the preferred technique to obtain a tissue diagnosis by 85% of surgeons. The majority of surgeons now treat early breast cancer either by breast-conserving surgery or offer the patient the choice of conservation or mastectomy. Comparisons with previous surveys carried out in the last 10 years suggest that fewer surgeons now recommend mastectomy. In all, 83% of surgeons indicated that they would biopsy the ipsilateral axilla routinely. Opinion is divided with regard to treatment of breast cancer in the elderly and treatment of an incompletely excised tumour, although the majority perform a mastectomy for a local recurrence after conservative surgery.
Follow-up was regarded as worthwhile by 90%, but the majority do not routinely do follow-up investigations on asymptomatic patients apart from mammography.
This study has shown very little consensus regarding the management of breast cancer in England and Wales. We suggest that the management of breast cancer should be in the hands of those with a special interest in the subject, as these surgeons will be more aware of ongoing clinical trials and current literature, more patients will then be entered into clinical trials and further trials instigated.
Breast cancer; Surgical treatment; Audit
A total of 303 patients underwent attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a four-year period by two consultant surgeons or a senior trainee under their supervision. The procedure was completed in 291 with a conversion rate to open cholecystectomy of 3.9% and a median postoperative length of stay of two days, range zero to nine days. In eighteen patients the indication for LC was failure of symptoms to settle, two of whom required conversion (11.1%). Diathermy dissection was avoided in Calot's triangle and dissection started at the junction of Hartmann's pouch and cystic duct with full mobilisation of this area prior to clip application. Pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP was performed in patients suspected of having common bile duct stones without routine intra-operative cholangiography. There was one death in this series (0.3%) and an overall complication rate of 6.3 %. There was no incidence of either bile duct injury or leak. LC can be performed with a low complication rate with attention to careful dissection technique in the region of Calot's triangle.
Twenty eight patients with pharyngeal pouches were treated at the Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, between 1975 and 1985. Nineteen of these patients had the pouch excised and 9 patients had the pouch inverted. Preoperative and postoperative cine barium swallows were obtained on all patients. The results show pouch inversion to be an effective method of treatment with a low recurrence rate, and fewer complications compared with pouch excision. Inversion of a pharyngeal pouch with a cricopharyngeal myotomy is therefore recommended as a safe, satisfactory treatment.
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and long-term functional outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy.
METHODS: From January 2002 to March 2011, fourty-five patients underwent ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique and the clinical data obtained for these patients were reviewed.
RESULTS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 29) and familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 16) underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy. Twenty-eight patients underwent one-stage restorative proctocolectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, protective ileostomy and the ileostomy was closed 4-12 mo postoperatively. Two-stage procedures were performed in seventeen urgent patients, proctectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis were completed after previous colectomy with ileostomy. Morbidity within the first 30 d of surgery occurred in 10 (22.2%) patients, all of them could be treated conservatively. During the median follow-up of 65 mo, mild to moderate anastomotic narrowing was occurred in 4 patients, one patient developed persistent anastomotic stricture and need surgical intervention. Thirty-five percent of patients developed at least 1 episode of pouchitis. There was no incontinence in our patients, the median functional Oresland score was 6, 3 and 2 after 1 year, 2.5 years and 5 years respectively. Nearly half patients (44.4%) reported “moderate functioning”, 37.7% reported “good functioning”, whereas in 17.7% of patients “poor functioning” was observed after 1 year. Five years later, 79.2% of patients with good function, 16.7% with moderate function, only 4.2% of patients with poor function.
CONCLUSION: The results of ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique are promising, with a low complication rate and good long-term functional results.
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Stapled mucosectomy; Ulcerative colitis; Familial adenomatous polyposis; Surgical technique
The currently preferred operative management of duodenal ulcer haemorrhage and perforation was assessed by means of a questionnaire sent to 274 consultant general surgeons in England. A 70% response rate was achieved. Simple closure, with or without H2 antagonist treatment, was the most popular management of a perforated acute duodenal ulcer. For perforation of a chronic duodenal ulcer occurring during H2 antagonist therapy, truncal vagotomy and drainage was the definitive procedure of choice. There was no consensus about the operative management of perforation complicating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment in the elderly patient. Proximal gastric vagotomy appears to have few advocates in the definitive management of either duodenal ulcer perforation or haemorrhage. Of our sample 70% selected truncal vagotomy and drainage with underrunning of the ulcer as the operative treatment of choice for bleeding. Endoscopic coagulation appears to be used only rarely.
Here, we report a case of corrosive injury-induced pharyngeal stricture in a 69-year-old female, which was successfully treated with endoscopic adhesiolysis using an electrosurgical knife. The patient had ingested sodium hydroxide in an attempted suicide, and immediate endoscopy revealed corrosive injuries of the pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. When a liquid diet was permitted, she complained of nasal regurgitation of food. Follow-up endoscopy revealed several adhesive bands and a web-like scar that did not allow passage of the endoscope into the hypopharyngeal area. For treatment of the hypopharyngeal stricture, the otolaryngologist attempted to perform an excision of the fibrous bands around the esophageal inlet using microscissors passed through an esophagoscope, but this procedure was not effective. We then dissected the mucosal adhesion and incised the adhesive bands using an electrosurgical knife. After this procedure, nasal regurgitation of food no longer occurred. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of endoscopic adhesiolysis with an electrosurgical knife in a patient with a corrosive injury-induced pharyngeal stricture.
Corrosive injury; Pharyngeal stricture; Adhesiolysis; Endoscopy; Electrosurgical knife
Revision surgery is increasingly performed as result of the increase in primary bariatric procedures. We describe a new technique of revision Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) acombining stapled gastroenterostomy with fixed band placement. We report two cases of unique complications and its successful endoscopic and surgical management.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Two out of twenty patients undergoing this revision RYGB procedure presented with gastric outlet obstruction due to band erosion within 10 weeks. Endoscopic band retrieval was successful in the first patient but the second patient required surgical removal.
We report the new complication of band erosion in 10% patients using a unique revision RYGB technique combining restriction of the gastric outlet and band placement. We advise using one or the other technique but not both in combination. Surgeons need to be aware of this as erosion which occurs early due to close proximity of band with fresh staple line. We report successful endoscopic and surgical management.
Revision surgery using this technique predisposes to bande erosion, presenting as gastric outlet obstruction. Endoscopic management should be attempted prior to surgical removal.
Revision bypass surgery; Morbid obesity; Banded bypass; Complications
OBJECTIVE--To assess current clinical practice in coronary artery bypass surgery and compare it with a previous survey conducted five years ago. SETTING--United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal questionnaires were sent in March 1993 to 120 consultant cardiac surgeons currently performing coronary artery bypass surgery. 104 (87%) were returned by May 1993. RESULTS--The 104 surgeons who returned the questionnaire performed an estimated total of 25,234 coronary artery bypass operations in 1992 with an average case load per surgeon similar to that in 1987 (243 v 214, NS). The internal mammary artery was regarded as the conduit of choice by 101 surgeons (97%) and was used in 93% of bypass grafts to the left anterior descending coronary artery compared with 73% in 1987 (p < 0.001) but only in 7% of grafts to the circumflex and right coronary systems. There was also a significant increase in the number of surgeons using both internal mammary arteries (88% v 59%, p < 0.01) but only a small increase in those using the internal mammary artery as a sequential graft (55% v 44%, NS). The age of the patient remains one of the main contraindications to the use of the internal mammary artery (40%), together with insufficient mammary flow (42%), endarterectomy (22%), and unstable angina (17%). The right gastroepiploic and inferior epigastric arteries were used only occasionally (3%) when the internal mammary artery or the saphenous vein were not available. Most surgeons (96%) still advocate the use of aspirin to enhance graft patency, with 87% of surgeons continuing treatment indefinitely, compared with 50% in the previous survey (p < 0.001). As for methods of myocardial protection, 72% of surgeons used cardioplegic arrest whereas 28% preferred intermittent aortic cross clamping and fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS--It is the consensus among British cardiac surgeons that the internal mammary artery is the graft conduit of choice. Its use has been significantly extended over the past five years (1987 to 1992) suggesting a quick response to advancing scientific knowledge. The use of alternative arterial conduits is still limited, perhaps as a reflection of the relative lack of information on their long-term performance. The recently advocated technique of retrograde cardioplegia and continuous warm cardioplegia is not yet popular.
Whilst the public now have access to mortality & morbidity data for cardiothoracic surgeons, such "quality" data for endoscopy are not generally available. We studied endoscopists' attitudes to and the practicality of this data being published.
We sent a questionnaire to all consultant gastrointestinal (GI) surgeons, physicians and medical GI specialist registrars in the Northern region who currently perform GI endoscopic procedures (n = 132). We recorded endoscopist demographics, experience and current data collection practice. We also assessed the acceptability and utility of nine items describing endoscopic "quality" (e.g. mortality, complication & completion rates).
103 (78%) doctors responded of whom 79 were consultants (77%). 61 (59%) respondents were physicians. 77 (75%) collect any "quality" data. The most frequently collected item was colonoscopic completion rate. Data were most commonly collected for appraisal, audit or clinical governance. The majority of doctors (54%) kept these data only available to themselves, and just one allowed the public to access this. The most acceptable data item was annual number of endoscopies and the least was crude upper GI bleeding mortality. Surgeons rated information less acceptable and less useful than physicians. Acceptability and utility scores were not related to gender, length of experience or current activity levels. Only two respondents thought all items totally unacceptable and useless.
The majority of endoscopists currently collect "quality" data for their practice although these are not widely available. The endoscopists in this study consider the publication of their outcome data to be "fairly unacceptable/not very useful" to "neutral" (score 2–3). If these data were made available to patients, consideration must be given to both its value and its acceptability.
Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) has recently caused considerable interest among British surgeons. There are no data indicating which, if any, patients benefit from SEPS. A series of 47 British surgeons, identified as having taken up SEPS, were sent a questionnaire asking about their current practice; 26 were returned completed (55% response rate). Of those surgeons replying, 22 (85%) had performed their first SEPS procedure within the previous 21 months, 18 (69%) within the previous 9 months. Most surgeons had performed five procedures (range 1-52). The most common indication for SEPS was venous ulceration with proven incompetent perforators (eight surgeons), but there was a wide diversity of other indications used to select patients for SEPS. Only nine surgeons had changed their indications for surgery with the advent of SEPS, yet their predicted number of SEPS procedures was far greater than the number of open procedures they currently performed. Out of 26 surgeons, 25 intend to continue performing SEPS. Prospective studies are needed to identify which patients might benefit from this new procedure.
Pharyngeal pouches present far more commonly on the left side of the neck than the right. Sixty one patients with a history of pharyngeal pouch were questioned about their handedness and about whether they had had symptoms or signs predominantly on one side of the neck before receiving treatment. There was a highly significant association between handedness and pharyngeal pouches on the opposite side of the neck. It is suggested that this is the reason for the rarity of right sided pouches.
The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) to lesions of the sellar region is typically performed jointly by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Occasionally, the approach is significantly altered by sinonasal disease, anatomic variants, or previous surgery. However, there are no current guidelines that describe which physical or radiological findings should prompt a change in the plan of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal pathology or anatomic variants noted endoscopically or by imaging that altered preoperative or intraoperative management.
A retrospective review was performed of 355 consecutive patients who underwent combined neurosurgery–otolaryngology endoscopic sella approach from August 1, 2007 to April 1, 2011. Our practice in these patients involves preoperative otolaryngology clinical evaluation and MRI review. Intraoperative image guidance is not routinely used in uncomplicated eTSA.
The most common management alteration was the addition of image guidance based on anatomic variants on MRI, which occurred in 81 patients (35.0%). Eight patients (2.9%) were preoperatively treated with antibiotics and surgery was postponed secondary to acute or chronic purulent rhinosinusitis; two (0.7%) required functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory disease before eTSA. Five patients (1.8%) required anterior septoplasty intraoperatively for severe nasal septal deviation. Two patients (0.7%) had inverted papilloma and one patient had esthesioneuroblastoma identified preoperatively during rigid nasal endoscopy.
This is one of the larger reviews of patients undergoing eTSA for sellar lesions and the only study that describes how intraoperative management may be altered by preoperative sinonasal evaluation. We found a significant incidence of sinonasal pathology and anatomic variants that altered routine operative planning; therefore, a thorough sinonasal evaluation is warranted in these cases.
Endoscopic; image-guided surgery; incidental; preoperative; sella; sinonasal; transsphenoidal