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1.  Inguinal hernia 
Clinical Evidence  2008;2008:0412.
Introduction
The main risk factors for inguinal hernia are male sex and increasing age. Complications of inguinal hernia include strangulation, intestinal obstruction, and infarction. Recurrence can occur after surgery.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of elective treatments for primary unilateral, primary bilateral, and recurrent inguinal hernia in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 24 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: expectant management, open mesh repair, open suture repair, totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic repair, and transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic repair.
Key Points
The main risk factors for inguinal hernia are male sex and increasing age. Complications of inguinal hernia include strangulation, intestinal obstruction, and infarction. Recurrence can occur after surgery.
The consensus is that surgery is the treatment of choice for inguinal hernia, although few good-quality studies have compared surgery with expectant management.
Open suture repair is a well-established surgical treatment for people with unilateral inguinal hernia, but seems less effective at preventing recurrence, and prolongs recovery, compared with other techniques. Open mesh repair reduces the risk of recurrence compared with open suture repair, without increasing the rate of surgical complications. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic repair may lead to less pain, faster recovery, and similar recurrence rates compared with open mesh repair, but studies have given inconclusive results. Transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic repair reduces pain and speeds up recovery compared with open mesh repair, but both procedures have similar recurrence rates.
Open suture repair may be associated with longer recovery times compared with open mesh repair or TAPP laparoscopic repair in people with bilateral inguinal hernia. Open mesh repair seems as effective as TEP laparoscopic repair, but may prolong recovery and increase complication rates compared with TAPP laparoscopic repair.
Open suture repair may be associated with an increased recovery time compared with open mesh repair in people with recurrent inguinal hernia. We don't know how open suture repair compares with TEP or TAPP laparoscopic repair in people with recurrent inguinal hernia.TAPP and TEP laparoscopic repair may both reduce recovery time compared with open mesh repair, but complication rates seem to be similar.
PMCID: PMC2908002  PMID: 19445744
2.  Preperitoneal Surgery Using a Self-Adhesive Mesh for Inguinal Hernia Repair 
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repair with mesh has been reported to result in improved patient outcomes. However, there are few published data on the use of a totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach. The purpose of this study was to present our experience and evaluate early outcomes of TEP inguinal hernia repair with self-adhesive mesh.
Methods:
This cohort study was a retrospective review of patients who underwent laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernial repair from April 4, 2010, through July 22, 2014. Data assessed were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia repair indications, hernia type, pain, paresthesia, occurrence (bilateral or unilateral), recurrence, and patient satisfaction. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed.
Results:
Six hundred forty patients underwent laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia surgery with self-adhesive mesh. The average age was 56 years, nearly all were men (95.8%), and the mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m2. Cases involved primary hernia more frequently than recurrent hernia (94% vs 6%; P < .05). After surgery, 92% of the patients reported no more than minimal pain, <1% reported paresthesia, and 0.2% had early recurrence. There were 7 conversions to an open procedure. The patients had no adverse reactions to anesthesia and no bladder injury. Postoperative acute pain or recurrence was not explained by demographics, BMI, or preoperative pain. There were significant associations of hernia side, recurrence, occurrence, and sex with composite end points. Nearly all patients (98%) were satisfied with the outcome.
Conclusion:
The use of self-adhesive, Velcro-type mesh in laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair is associated with reduced pain; low rates of early recurrence, infection, and hematoma; and improved patient satisfaction.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00229
PMCID: PMC4283099  PMID: 25587212
Laparoscopic hernia surgery; Original research; Self-adhesive mesh; Totally extraperitoneal
3.  Early results of inguinal hernia repair by the 'mesh plug' technique--first 200 cases. 
INTRODUCTION: Inguinal hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed in the UK. Evidence from several earlier studies suggests that primary inguinal hernia repair has a high recurrence rate of 10-15%. The Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines suggested the use of layered suture (Shouldice) or prosthetic (Lichtenstein) repair. Per-fix plugs have been used in the US for more than a decade with excellent results. This study was a series of 200 consecutive cases. The aim was to evaluate the mesh plug technique in the repair of all types of inguinal hernias and its results in one consultant practice within a district general hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a 15-month period between 1997 and 1998, all patients with inguinal hernias presenting to the general surgical clinic of one consultant were recruited to the study. All had mesh plug repair under local (n = 40), regional (n = 50) or general (n = 110) anaesthesia either by the consultant, associate specialist or specialist registrar (following initial training), using the same standard technique. The majority 80% (n = 160) were done as day cases. The results were evaluated by questionnaire and personal outpatient review initially at 3 weeks, then at 1 year (9-13 months). RESULTS: 200 consecutive patients with inguinal hernias underwent mesh plug repair; mean age was 54 years (95% CI, 46-61). The majority of patients had primary (n = 180) and others had recurrent (n = 20) hernia. All types of hernia (Gilbert's I-VII) were included. Median follow-up was 1 year (9-15 months). Groin pain, which was the leading symptom at presentation, was relieved in 96% of the patients; 79% returned to previous jobs within 4 weeks (95% CI, 0.71-0.87). All retired patients resumed normal life activities within 2 days. Postoperative pain was minimal; 28 patients did not require any postoperative analgesia. There were very few minor (n = 6) and no major complications. During the follow-up, one recurrence occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Mesh plug repair is associated with minimal postoperative pain, quick recovery and return to work. It is an ideal technique for day-case surgery. Although longer follow-up will be required to assess true recurrence rate, so far the recurrence rate at 0.5% is acceptable, particularly in the light of other published series.
PMCID: PMC2503476  PMID: 11103156
4.  Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for anterior inguinal hernia repair: transrectus sheath preperitoneal mesh repair compared to transinguinal preperitoneal procedure 
Trials  2013;14:65.
Background
Anterior open treatment of the inguinal hernia with a tension-free mesh has reduced the incidence of hernia recurrence. The Lichtenstein procedure is the current reference technique for inguinal hernia treatment. Chronic pain has become the main postoperative complication after surgical inguinal hernia repair, especially following Lichtenstein. Preliminary experiences with a soft mesh positioned in the preperitoneal space (PPS) by transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) or total extraperitoneal (TEP) technique, showed promising results considering the reduction of postoperative chronic pain. Evolution of surgical innovations for inguinal hernia repair led to an open, direct approach with preperitoneal mesh position, such as TIPP. Based on the TIPP procedure, another preperitoneal repair has been recently developed, the transrectus sheath preperitoneal (TREPP) mesh repair.
Methods
The ENTREPPMENT trial is a multicentre randomized clinical trial. Patients will be randomly allocated to anterior inguinal hernia repair according to the TREPP mesh repair or TIPP procedure. All patients with a primary unilateral inguinal hernia, eligible for operation, will be invited to participate in the trial. The primary outcome measure will be the number of patients with postoperative chronic pain. Secondary outcome measures will be serious adverse events (SAEs), including recurrence, hemorrhage, return to daily activities (for example work), operative time and hospital stay. Alongside the trial health status, an economic evaluation will be performed. To demonstrate that inguinal hernia repair according to the TREPP technique reduces the percentage of patients with postoperative chronic pain from 12% to <6%, a sample size of 800 patients is required (two-sided test, α = 0.05, 80% power).The ENTREPPMENT trial aims to evaluate the TREPP and TIPP procedures from patients’ perspective. It is hypothesized that the TREPP technique may reduce the number of patients with any form of postoperative chronic pain by 50% compared to the TIPP procedure.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN18591339
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-65
PMCID: PMC3598762  PMID: 23452397
Chronic pain; Inguinal; Hernia; Preperitoneal; Mesh; TREPP; TIPP; Open repair; Trial; Randomized
5.  Chronic Pain after Laparoscopic Transabdominal Preperitoneal Hernia Repair: A Randomized Comparison of Light and Extralight Titanized Polypropylene Mesh 
World Journal of Surgery  2010;35(2):302-310.
Background
The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial was to compare the incidence of chronic pain after laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP) using a 35-g/m2 titanized polypropylene mesh and a 16-g/m2 titanized polypropylene mesh. The reported incidence of chronic pain in patients who underwent laparoscopic hernia repair is a serious problem. The techniques of dissection, mesh fixation, and the mesh material used have all been identified as being part of the problem. Excellent biocompatibility through a unique combination of a lightweight open porous polypropylene mesh covered with a covalent-bonded titanium layer has been claimed. The aim of this study was to find out whether the titanium surface alone or the difference in material load between the two available meshes influences clinical outcomes.
Methods
Three hundred eighty patients with 466 inguinal hernias were operated on between 2002 and 2006 with the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) technique. Mesh fixation with staples was carried out routinely. After the dissection was completed just prior to the implantation of the mesh, patients were randomized into two groups. In Group A, 250 (53.6%) inguinal hernias were repaired with a 35-g/m2 titanized polypropylene mesh, and in Group B, 216 (46.4%) inguinal hernias were repaired with a 16-g/m2 titanized polypropylene mesh. The primary outcome was chronic pain 3 years after surgery. The degree of pain was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) with a range from 0 to 10. The secondary outcome was the rate of recurrence.
Results
The postoperative period of observation was at least 3 years for every patient. In both groups, 90% of the patients could be questioned and examined clinically: in Group A (Light), 5.3% of the patients and in Group B (Extralight), 1.5% of the patients suffered from chronic pain. Chronic pain was significantly more common in Group A than in Group B (p = 0.037). There was no difference with respect to the rate of recurrence: for Group A it was 3.1% and for Group B it was 2.6% (p = 0.724).
Conclusions
Chronic pain is not very common in patients who have had their inguinal hernias repaired with titanium-covered polypropylene mesh. Reducing the material load from 35 to 16 g/m2 seems to further improve the biocompatibility of these meshes, thus improving the clinical outcome by reducing chronic pain to a rare event. The role of staples in causing chronic pain following inguinal hernia repair may be overestimated. There was no evidence supporting the notion that the use of the 16-g/m2 titanized meshes is associated with increased recurrence rates.
doi:10.1007/s00268-010-0850-4
PMCID: PMC3017304  PMID: 21103989
Hernia; Laparoscopy; TAPP; Pain; Titanized polypropylene mesh
6.  The Safety and Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Repair for Recurrent Inguinal Hernia After Open Hernioplasty 
Abstract
Background
Many studies have reported that laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair for recurrent inguinal hernia after an open hernioplasy was safe and effective. This study was conducted to evaluate TEP repair for recurrent inguinal hernia through a retrospective analysis of our data.
Materials and Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who were scheduled for laparoscopic TEP repair from December 2000 to December 2008. A total of 1065 cases of laparoscopic TEP repairs were performed for 944 patients by a single surgeon, and 100 cases of recurrent inguinal hernias were enrolled.
Results
The mean operation time was longer in the recurrent hernia group than that in the primary hernia group (P < 0.001), and peritoneal tearing occurred more frequently in the recurrent hernia group (P < 0.001). Direct hernia was more frequent in the recurrent hernia group (P < 0.001). The mean number of hospital days and complications, such as seroma and postoperative pain, were similar in both groups. Three cases of recurrence occurred (0.28%): 2 occurred in the recurrent hernia group (2%) and the other occurred in the primary hernia group (0.1%).
Conclusions
Laparoscopic TEP repair is safe and effective for treating recurrent inguinal hernia after an open hernioplasty, because the recurrence rate was low (2%) and other complications were similar for both groups. Direct inguinal hernia was more frequent in patients who had recurrent inguinal hernia.
doi:10.1089/lap.2010.0029
PMCID: PMC3157332  PMID: 20518685
7.  Laparoscopic Hernia: Umbilical-Pubis Length Versus Technical Difficulty 
Laparoscopic hernia repair is more difficult than open hernia repair. The totally extraperitoneal procedure with 3 trocars on the midline is more comfortable for the surgeon. We studied the impact of the length between the umbilicus and the pubis on the totally extraperitoneal procedure (95 hernias operated on in 70 patients). This length did not influence the totally extraperitoneal procedure in this study.
Background:
The laparoscopic repair of hernias is considered to be difficult especially for the totally extra-peritoneal technique (TEP) due to a limited working space and different appreciation of the usual anatomical landmarks seen through an anterior approach. The aim of our study has been to answer a question: does the umbilical-pubic distance, which influences the size of the mesh, affect the TEP technique used in the treatment of inguinal hernias?
Methods:
From January 2001 to May 2011, the umbilical-pubic (UP) distance was measured with a sterile ruler graduated in centimeters in all patients who underwent a symptomatic inguinal hernia by the TEP technique in two hernia surgery centers. The sex, age, BMI, hernia type, UP distance, operation time, hospital stay and complications were prospectively examined based on the medical records.
Results:
Seventy patients underwent 95 inguinal hernia repairs by the TEP technique. The umbilical-pubic distance average was 14 cm (10 to 22) and a 25 kg/m2 (16–30) average concerning the body mass index (BMI). Seventy percent of patients were treated on an outpatient basis. The postoperative course was very simple. There was no recurrence of hernia within this early postoperative period.
Conclusion:
The umbilical-pubic distance had no influence on the production of TEP with 3 trocars on the midline in this study.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00078
PMCID: PMC4208897  PMID: 25392661
Inguinal hernia; Laparoscopy; Herniorrhaphy
8.  Health Technology Assessment of laparoscopic compared to conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair regarding safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness 
Introduction
Incisional hernias are a common complication following abdominal surgery and they represent about 80% of all ventral hernia. In uncomplicated postoperative follow-up they can develop in about eleven percent of cases and up to 23% of cases with wound infections or other forms of wound complications. Localisation and size of the incisional hernia can vary according to the causal abdominal scar. Conservative treatment (e. g. weight reduction) is only available to relieve symptoms while operative treatments are the only therapeutic treatment option for incisional hernia. Traditionally, open suture repair was used for incisional hernia repair but was associated with recurrence rates as high as 46%. To strengthen the abdominal wall and prevent the development of recurrences the additional implantation of an alloplastic mesh is nowadays commonly used. Conventional hernia surgery as well as minimally invasive surgery, introduced in the early 90s, make use of this mesh-technique and thereby showed marked reductions in recurrence rates. However, there are possible side effects associated with mesh-implantation. Therefore recommendations remain uncertain on which technique to apply for incisional hernia repair and which technique might, under specific circumstances, be associated with advantages over others.
Objectives
The goal of this HTA-Report is to compare laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR) and conventional incisional hernia repair with and without mesh-implantation in terms of their medical efficacy and safety, their cost-effectiveness as well as their ethical, social und legal implications. In addition, this report aims to compare different techniques of mesh-implantation and mesh-fixation as well as to identify factors, in which certain techniques might be associated with advantages over
others.
Methods
Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) as well as by a manual search. The former included the following electronic resources:
SOMED (SM78), Cochrane Library – Central (CCTR93), MEDLINE Alert (ME0A), MEDLINE (ME95), CATFILEplus (CATLINE) (CA66), ETHMED (ED93), GeroLit (GE79), HECLINET (HN69), AMED (CB85), CAB Abstracts (CV72), GLOBAL Health (AZ72), IPA (IA70), Elsevier BIOBASE (EB94), BIOSIS Previews (BA93), EMBASE (EM95), EMBASE Alert (EA08), SciSearch (IS90), Cochrane Library – CDSR (CDSR93), NHS-CRD-DARE (CDAR94), NHS-CRD-HTA (INAHTA) as well as NHSEED (NHSEED).
The present report includes German and English literature published until 31.08.2005. The search parameters can be found in the appendix. No limits were placed on the target population. The methodological quality of the included clinical studies was assessed using the criteria recommended by the “Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Grading Review Group“. Economic studies were evaluated by the criteria of the German Scientific Working Group Technology Assessment for Health Care.
Results
The literature search identified 17 relevant medical publications. One of these studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair, while 16 studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh for incisional hernia repair. Among these studies were 14 primary studies (one randomised controlled trial (RCT), two systematic reviews and one HTA-Report. The only study comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery without mesh found substantial differences in terms of baseline characteristics between treatment groups. The outcome parameters showed decreased recurrence rates for the laparoscopic repair and similar safety of the procedures. Studies comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh found similar outcome in terms of medical efficacy and safety. However, there was a trend towards lower recurrence rates, length of hospital stay, and postoperative pain as well as decreased complication rates for laparoscopic repair in the majority of studies. The impact of the technique of mesh-implantation and -fixation as well as the impact of certain factors on the choice of technique has not been systematically assessed in any of the studies.
Discussion
All identified studies suffer from significant methodological weaknesses, such as differences between treatment groups, mainly due to the non-randomised study design, small treatment groups causing low case numbers and lack of statistical power as well as the neglect of important risk factors or adjustment for those. Therefore, no conclusive differences could be identified concerning compared operative techniques, mesh-implantation and -fixation techniques or certain risk factors. Only the comparison of laparoscopic and conventional technique with mesh provides some evidence for a trend towards similar or slightly improved outcome in terms of medical efficacy and safety for the laparoscopic technique. However, there is still a great need for further research to investigate these questions.
Basically, there is no full economic evaluation focussing on the relevant alternatives. Cost compareisons were available, even though only briefly attached to clinical research results. None of the studies primarily aimed to investigate costs or even cost-effectiveness.
Conclusion
When deciding on the choice of operative technique for incisional hernia repair, surgeons take various considerations into account, including patient characteristics, hernia characteristics and their own experience. The studies included in this HTA did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the research questions. Nonetheless, laparoscopic surgery demonstrated a trend towards similar or slightly improved outcome following incisional hernia repair. However, for more conclusive recommendations on the choice of operative technique, high quality trials are required
From the economic perspective, alternative methods are not yet assessed. Only five of the studies involve a cost analysis, though in an insufficient manner. None of the studies identified were laid out as a health economic evaluation. Hence, further research is strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3011306  PMID: 21289907
9.  Adult hernia surgery in Wales revisited: impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
This study investigated the impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England on the practice of hernia surgery in Wales. This was assessed by means of a postal survey to all consultant general surgeons in Wales in 1996-1997. The areas covered were: awareness of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England and the impact of such guidelines on their practice, attendance at hernia courses, operative technique, materials used for repair and skin suture, proportion of day case hernias, length of inpatient stay, thromboembolic (TE) prophylaxis and postoperative advice to patients with regard to light work, heavy work and sport. In all, 79 replies were received (85%). Almost all the surgeons had read the guidelines; this changed the practice of 20% of respondents but did not in 32%. A further 48% did not answer the question. In contrast with our 1993 survey results, in Wales there is now a uniform surgical management of adult inguinal hernias: the most common operation is the Liechtenstein, with monofilament non-absorbable suture to secure the mesh, followed by the Shouldice repair. The Bassini and inguinal darn operations are becoming much less common and none now uses braided or absorbable sutures for the repair. Skin closure is still rather variable, with only 58% of respondents adhering to the recommended absorbable subcuticular suture. Postoperative advice is now uniform and in accordance with the guidelines. A trend towards more TE prophylaxis and more day case hernia surgery is also seen.
PMCID: PMC2503110  PMID: 9849333
10.  The effect of ultrapro or prolene mesh on postoperative pain and well-being following endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair (TULP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:76.
Background
The purpose of this study was to describe the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial analyzing the effects of mesh type (Ultrapro versus Prolene mesh) on postoperative pain and well-being following an endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) repair for inguinal hernias (short: TULP trial).
Methods and design
The TULP trial is a prospective, two arm, double blind, randomized controlled trial to assess chronic postoperative pain and quality of life following implantation of a lightweight (Ultrapro) and heavyweight (Prolene) mesh in endoscopic TEP hernia repair. The setting is a high-volume single center hospital, specializing in TEP hernia repair. All patients are operated on by one of four surgeons. Adult male patients (≥18 years of age) with primary, reducible, unilateral inguinal hernias and no contraindications for TEP repair are eligible for inclusion in the study. The primary outcome is substantial chronic postoperative pain, defined as moderate to severe pain persisting ≥ 3 months postoperatively (Numerical Rating Scale, NRS 4–10). Secondary endpoints are the individual development of pain until three years after the TEP procedure, the quality of life (QoL), recurrence rate, patient satisfaction and complications.
Discussion
Large prospective randomized controlled studies with a long follow-up evaluating the incidence of chronic postoperative pain following implantation of lightweight and heavyweight mesh in endoscopic (TEP) hernia repair are limited. By studying the presence of pain and quality of life, but also complications and recurrences in a large patient population, a complete efficiency and feasibility assessment of both mesh types in TEP hernia repair will be performed.
Trial registration
The TULP study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR2131)
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-76
PMCID: PMC3404916  PMID: 22676248
Endoscopic hernia repair; TEP; Mesh; Chronic postoperative pain; Quality of life
11.  Laparoscopic Repair of Inguinal Hernia Using Surgisis Mesh and Fibrin Sealant 
Objective:
We tested the hypothesis that laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy using Surgisis mesh secured with fibrin sealant is an effective long-term treatment for repair of inguinal hernia. This case series involved 38 adult patients with 51 inguinal hernias treated in a primary care center.
Methods:
Between December 2002 and May 2005, 38 patients with 45 primary and 6 recurrent inguinal hernias were treated with laparoscopic repair by the total extra-peritoneal mesh placement (TEP) technique using Surgisis mesh secured into place with fibrin sealant. Postoperative complications, incidence of pain, and recurrence were recorded, as evaluated at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 1 year, and with a follow-up questionnaire and telephone interview conducted in May and June 2005.
Results:
The operations were successfully performed on all patients with no complications or revisions to an open procedure. Average follow-up was 13 months (range, 1 to 30). One hernia recurred (second recurrence of unilateral direct hernia), indicating a 2% recurrence rate.
Conclusions:
Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia using Surgisis mesh secured with fibrin sealant can be effectively used to treat primary, recurrent, direct, indirect, and bilateral inguinal hernias in adults without complications and minimal recurrence within 1-year of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3015740  PMID: 17575758
Inguinal hernia; Laparoscopy; TEP repair; Surgisis mesh; Fibrin glue
12.  Laparoscopic repair of complicated umbilical hernia with Strattice Laparoscopic™ reconstructive tissue matrix 
INTRODUCTION
Complex hernias continue to present a challenge. Surgical techniques for repair are carefully considered to reduce risk for complications. Laparoscopic repairs improve postoperative infection rates, and placement of biologic mesh decreases mesh infection rates. However, laparoscopic repairs using biologic mesh is generally challenging due to difficulty with maneuverability.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of a complex ventral hernia that was laparoscopically repaired using a new FDA cleared laparoscopic biologic graft. The patient had multiple comorbidities, including obesity, hepatitis C, endocarditis secondary to IV drug use, tobacco smoking, bilateral inguinal hernia, and recurrent umbilical hernia. The recurrent hernia was larger, irreducible, and discolored compared to original defect. The patient underwent laparoscopic repair with primary closure and reinforcement with Strattice™ Tissue Matrix Laparoscopic (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ). At nine months postoperative, the patient had no evidence of recurrence, infection, or chronic pain, demonstrating early success from the surgical management.
DISCUSSION
Presence of multiple comorbidities and incarcerated recurrent hernia increase risk for complications during and/or after hernia repair. Considering these factors, laparoscopic repair with Strattice Laparoscopic and defect closure was a reasonable technique for repair.
CONCLUSION
Laparoscopic suture repair reinforced with biologic dermal tissue matrix was successfully performed during a complex hernia repair.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.11.007
PMCID: PMC4276323  PMID: 25437666
Umbilical hernia; Strattice; Laparoscopic hernia repair; Incarcerated hernia; Recurrent hernia
13.  Follow-up period of 13 years after endoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of inguinal hernias: a cohort study 
Surgical Endoscopy  2010;25(5):1624-1629.
Background
Endoscopic inguinal hernia repair was introduced in the Netherlands in the early 1990s. The authors’ institution was among the first to adopt this technique. In this study, long-term hernia recurrence among patients treated by the total extraperitoneal (TEP) approach for an inguinal hernia is described. A cohort study was conducted.
Methods
Between January 1993 and December 1997, 346 TEP hernia repairs were performed for 318 patients. After a mean follow-up period of 13-years, a senior resident examined each patient. An experienced surgeon subsequently examined the patients with a diagnosis of recurrent hernia. Data were collected on an intention-to-treat basis, meaning that conversions were included in the analysis. Univariant tests were used to analyze age older than 50 years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, body mass index, smoking habit, hernia type, history of open hernia repair, conversion, and surgeon as potential risk factors.
Results
The analysis included 191 patients (62%) with 213 hernias. Of the original 318 patients, 59 patients died, and 68 were lost to follow-up evaluation. Perioperatively, 105 lateral, 55 medial, and 53 pantalon hernias were observed. Of the 213 hernias, 176 were primary and 37 were recurrent. The overall recurrence rate was 8.9% (8.5% for primary and 10.8% for recurrent hernias). Of the total study group, 48% of the patients experienced a bilateral inguinal hernia during their lifetime. No predicting factor for recurrent hernia could be identified.
Conclusions
The current long-term results for TEP repair of primary and secondary inguinal hernia show an overall recurrence rate of 8.9%, which is slightly higher than in previous studies. The thorough examination at follow-up assessment, the learning curve effect, and the intention-to-treat-analysis may have influenced the observed recurrence rate. Also, the percentage of bilateral hernias was higher than known to date. Therefore, examination of the contralateral side should be standard procedure.
doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1462-7
PMCID: PMC3071468  PMID: 21170663
Bilateral hernia; Endoscopic hernia repair; Inguinal hernia; Long term; Recurrence rate; TEP
14.  Cure of inguinal hernias with large preperitoneal prosthesis: Experience of 2,312 cases 
It is clear that the recurrence rates after nonprosthetic methods for the repair of inguinal hernias, like McVay, Bassini or Shouldice techniques, are high (6–10%). Since 20 years, we are convinced, in the GREPA-EHS group, about the advantages of the use of a prosthetic mesh in majority of patients for repairs of primary or recurrent inguinal hernias and incisional hernias. We describe our typical technique for the cure of all inguinal hernias. We place a large supple mesh, by open inguinal route, posterior to the transversalis fascia and anterior to the peritoneum. We have made a double modification in the initial technique of Rives - the use of a very large unsplit prosthesis (15 × 17 cm) and the parietalization of the spermatic cord helped by a wide opening of the Fruchaud's orifice by diversion of the epigastric vessels. The positioning of the mesh is about the same as in the TEP technique but with the advantages of reduction in the vital laparoscopic risks and reinforcement of the wall by a short tension-free McVay technique.
For this prospective study, we repaired 2,312 consecutive hernias in 1,828 patients, 284 of which were recurrent. We present our results in terms of quality of repairs, recurrence rates (0.4%), morbidity rate (8%), and mortality rate (0.8%).
This technique involves the placement by an open incisional route of a large preperitoneal sheet of mesh for initial treatment of all inguinal hernias - including scrotal, giant or femoral - to ensure a definitive solid muscular wall, even for recurrent hernias.
PMCID: PMC2999772  PMID: 21187983
Femoral hernias; giant hernias; inguinal hernias; preperitoneal mesh; recurrent hernias
15.  The INCH-Trial: a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of conventional open surgery and laparoscopic surgery for incisional hernia repair 
BMC Surgery  2013;13:18.
Background
Annually approximately 100.000 patients undergo a laparotomy in the Netherlands. About 15,000 of these patients will develop an incisional hernia. Both open and laparoscopic surgical repair have been proven to be safe. However, the most effective treatment of incisional hernias remains unclear. This study, the ‘INCH-trial’, comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, is therefore needed.
Methods/Design
A randomized multi-center clinical trial comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic repair of incisional hernias. Patients with a symptomatic incisional hernia, eligible for laparoscopic and open incisional hernia repair. Only surgeons, experienced in both open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, will participate in the INCH trial. During incisional hernia repair, a mesh is placed under or on top of the fascia, with a minimal overlap of 5 cm. Primary endpoint is length of hospital stay after an incisional hernia repair. Secondary endpoints are time to full recovery within three months after index surgery, post-operative complications, recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic incisional hernia repair comes with a significant shorter hospital stay compared to open incisional hernia repair. A difference of two days is considered significant. One-hunderd-and-thirty-five patients are enrolled in each treatment arm. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. Primary outcomes are costs per patient related to time-to-recovery and quality of life.
The main goal of the trial is to establish whether laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is superior to conventional open incisional hernia repair in terms of cost-effectiveness. This is measured through length of hospital stay and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are re-operation rate due to post-operative complications or recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
Discussion
The difference in time to full recovery between the two treatment strategies is thought to be in favor of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is therefore expected to be a more cost-effective approach.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial register: NTR2808
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-18
PMCID: PMC3680330  PMID: 24499061
16.  Initial experience of single port laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair: nearly-scarless inguinal hernia repair 
Purpose
In the early 1990's laparoscopic hernioplasty gained popularity worldwide. Thereafter, laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to improve cosmesis using single port surgery. This study aims to introduce and assess the safety and feasibility of single port laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair with a nearly-scarless umbilical incision.
Methods
Sixty three single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repairs were performed in sixty patients from June 2010 to March 2011 at Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, with the use of a glove single-port device and standard laparoscopic instruments. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperative findings, and postoperative course were reviewed.
Results
Of the 63 hernias treated, 31 were right inguinal hernias, 26 were left inguinal hernias and 3 were both inguinal hernias. There was one conversion to conventional three port laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty. Mean operative time was 62 minutes (range, 32 to 150 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (wound seroma and urinary retension) and were successfully treated conservatively. Mean hospital stay was 2.15 days.
Conclusion
Single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repair is safe and feasible. Umbilical incision provides an excellent cosmetic outcome. Prospective randomized studies comparing single port and conventional three port laparoscopic TEP repairs with short-term outcome and long-term recurrence rate are needed for confirmation.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.5.339
PMCID: PMC3229003  PMID: 22148127
Single port; SILS; LESS; TEP; Inguinal hernia
17.  Clinical usefulness of laparoscopic total extraperitoneal hernia repair for recurrent inguinal hernia 
Purpose
Hernia repair after recurrence is a challenging procedure, and many approaches have been suggested for it. Total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair should be considered in recurrent hernia. This study was conducted for the purpose of investigating the clinical usefulness of laparoscopic TEP hernia repair for recurrent inguinal hernia.
Methods
Among the 191 patients who underwent TEP hernia repair at these authors' center from June 2006 to January 2010, the bilateral-hernia cases and the patients with a history of previous pelvic surgery were excluded. A total of 19 patients (12.5%) were enrolled in the recurrent-inguinal-hernia group (group R), and 133 patients (87.5%) in the primary-hernia group (group P). Data were investigated retrospectively, based on the medical records.
Results
The mean operation time was 97 minutes in group R and 99 minutes in group P (>0.05). In group R, no operation modality change occurred, and temporary urinary retention was developed in four patients (21.1%). In group P, on the other hand, operation modality change from TEP to the transabdominal preperitoneal approach was necessary in four patients (3%). Additionally, in group P, 30 patients (22.6%) had temporary urinary retention and six (4.5%) had testicular edema. No recurrence was identified during the follow-up period in both groups (mean follow-up period: 15.8 months for group R and 18.0 months for group P).
Conclusion
Laparoscopic TEP hernia repair seems to be a safe and useful method for correcting recurrent inguinal hernia.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.313
PMCID: PMC3204698  PMID: 22066054
Recurrent inguinal hernia; Laparoscopy; Total extraperitoneal approach
18.  Inguinal hernia repair: a survey of Canadian practice patterns 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1999;42(2):127-132.
Objective
To describe the preferences of general surgeons across Canada with respect to hernia repair technique.
Design
A survey by mailed questionnaire..
Participants
All 1452 fellows of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada currently holding a certificate in general surgery.
Intervention
Two mailings of the survey: the first in December 1996, the second to nonrespondents in February 1997.
Main outcome measures
Surgeons’ preference of hernia repair technique for specified indications. This was analysed according to practice setting and geographic location.
Main results
Based on 706 completed questionnaires, the preferred techniques for repair of primary inguinal hernias were as follows: 23% Bassini, 20% mesh plug, 16% Lichtenstein, 15% laparoscopic, 11% Shouldice and 11% McVay. Preference for laparoscopic repair increased to 34% for recurrent hernias and 35% for bilateral hernias. The Atlantic provinces had the lowest preference rates for laparoscopic repair and the highest rates for the mesh plug technique.
Conclusions
Most surgeons select the type of repair on the basis of the clinical scenario. Large variations in practice exist between provinces.
PMCID: PMC3788975  PMID: 10223074
19.  Randomized Prospective Study of Totally Extraperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair: Fixation Versus No Fixation of Mesh 
Background:
Fixation of the mesh during laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase postoperative pain and lead to an increased risk of complications. We questioned whether elimination of fixation of the mesh during TEP inguinal hernia repair leads to decreased postoperative pain or complications, or both, without an increased rate of recurrence.
Methods:
A randomized prospective single-blinded study was carried out in 40 patients who underwent laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with (Group A=20) or without (Group B=20) fixation of the mesh.
Results:
Patients in whom the mesh was not fixed had shorter hospital length of stay (8.3 vs 16.0 hours, P=0.01), were less likely to be admitted to the hospital (P=0.001), used less postoperative narcotic analgesia in the PACU (P=0.01), and were less likely to develop urinary retention (P=0.04). No significant differences occurred in the level of pain, time to return to normal activity, or the difficulty of the operation between the 2 groups. No hernia recurrences were observed in either group (follow-up range, 6 to 30 months, median=19).
Conclusions:
Elimination of tack fixation of mesh during laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair significantly reduces the use of postoperative narcotic analgesia, hospital length of stay, and the development of postoperative urinary retention but does not lead to a significant reduction in postoperative pain. Eliminating tacks does not lead to an increased rate of recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3015750  PMID: 17575757
Hernia; Urinary retention; Endoscopic; TEP; Laparoscopic
20.  Characterizing laparoscopic incisional hernia repair 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2007;50(3):195-201.
Introduction
Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernias (LVIHRs) is feasible; however, many facets of this procedure remain poorly defined. The indications, essential technical features and postoperative management should be standardized to optimize outcomes and facilitate training in this promising approach to incisional hernia repair.
Methods
All patients referred to one surgeon at a tertiary care centre for LVIHR from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed. Patient records were analyzed and perioperative outcomes were documented.
Results
Of the 69 patients who were referred for management of incisional hernia, 64 underwent LVIHR. The mean age of patients selected for surgery was 61.4 years (28% of patients over age 70 years); their mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.8 kg/m2 and mean American Association of Anaesthetists (ASA) score was 2.5 (52% of patients had an ASA score equal to 3). The mean operating time was 130.7 minutes for a mean abdominal wall defect of 123.9 cm2 and a mean prosthetic mesh size of 344 cm2. Patients with recurrent incisional hernias and previous prosthetic mesh were the most challenging, with a mean BMI of 39 kg/m2, mean operating time of 191 minutes, mean defect of 224 cm2 and mean prosthetic mesh size of 508 cm2. One patient was converted to open surgery and, in 2 patients, small bowel injuries were repaired laparoscopically without adverse sequelae. The mean length of stay was 4.5 days (median 3.0 d). Postoperatively, 78% of patients developed seromas within the residual hernia sac. All seromas were managed nonoperatively; one-half resolved by 7 weeks, and larger seromas persisted for up to 24 weeks. There was an 18.7% rate of minor complications and a 3.1% rate of major complications (no deaths). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 months, 2 recurrent hernias (3.1%) were identified in patients with multiple previous open mesh repairs.
Conclusion
Although LVIHR may be challenging, it has the potential to be considered a primary approach for most ventral and incisional hernias, regardless of patient status or hernia complexity.
PMCID: PMC2384279  PMID: 17568491
21.  Efficiency and safety of mesh fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using n-butyl cyanoacrylate: long-term biocompatibility in over 1,300 mesh fixations 
Hernia  2011;16(2):153-162.
Introduction
In adult patients, most inguinal hernias are treated by implanting a prosthetic mesh. To prevent mesh dislocation and thus recurrence, different types of fixation have been proposed. In contrast to penetrating fixation known to cause acute chronic pain, adhesive fixation is becoming increasingly popular as it reduces markedly the risk of injury and chronic pain. Apart from the biological sealants (e.g., fibrin glue), surgical adhesives include a group of synthetic glues and genetically engineered protein glues. For example, cyanoacrylate is used in various medical and veterinary indications due to its fast action, excellent bonding strength and low price.
Objective
The main objective of this paper was to communicate positive results obtained using n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue to fix prosthetic meshes in over 1,300 TAPP repairs of primary and recurrent inguinal hernias. The secondary objective was to highlight the rationale (e.g., safety) for using non-fibrin based glue in this type of procedure.
Method
We present the in vitro and in vivo data necessary for the approval of n-butyl cyanoacrylate Histoacryl® glue. We use an equivalent glue, Glubran-2®, to fix prosthetic meshes in 1,336 laparoscopic TAPP repairs.
Results
Standardized tests to detect sensitization, irritation, genotoxicity or systemic toxicity demonstrated the safety and biocompatibility of Histoacryl®, which met all requirements, including those of ISO 10993. Histological long-term studies in rabbits yielded results comparable to routine suture fixations, with full integration of the mesh into the abdominal wall. The clinical results showed the following advantages: fast application of the glue, reduced postoperative pain, 0.0% infection rate, continuously low recurrence rate and shorter hospital stay. No adverse effects and no complaints were recorded.
Conclusion
The experimental and clinical data demonstrate the safe use and the excellent cost-benefit ratio of n-butyl cyanoacrylate compared with other techniques of mesh fixation.
doi:10.1007/s10029-011-0887-9
PMCID: PMC3315639  PMID: 22015810
Laparoscopic hernia repair; Mesh fixation; Glue fixation; Cyanoacrylate
22.  Local and General Anesthesia in the Laparoscopic Preperitoneal Hernia Repair 
Objective:
The extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach (EXTRA) has been shown to be an effective and safe repair for primary (PIH), recurrent (RIH) and bilateral hernia (BIH). There is very little data examining the merits of laparoscopic repair for hernias under local anesthesia. In this paper, we compare EXTRA performed under both general and local anesthesia.
Methods:
This nonrandomized prospective study was performed selectively on a male population only. Patients with associated pulmonary disease and high risk for general surgery were selected. Patients with recurrence and previous abdominal operations were excluded to decrease confounding variables in the study. A Prolene mesh was used in all patients.
Results:
Between May 1997 and September 1998, 92 male patients underwent the repair of 107 groin hernias using the EXTRA technique. The procedure was explained to them, and different anesthesia options were given. Fourteen of these repairs were performed under local anesthesia and 93 under general anesthesia. Of the 10 patients who underwent a repair under local anesthesia, there were 8 indirect, 5 direct and 1 pantaloon. The mean age was 53 years. In the group of general anesthesia, the types of hernias repaired were 45 indirect, 30 direct and 11 pantaloon. The mean age was 45 years. The mean follow-up was 15 months. Each patient was sent home the same day.
Two peritoneal tears were recorded in the first group. The operative time was longer in the local group (47 ± 11 vs 18 ± 3). None of the patients required conversion to an open technique or change of anesthesia. No recurrences were found in either group. The average time of return to work and regular activity was 3.5 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 days, respectively.
Conclusion:
There appears to be no significant difference in recurrence and complication rates when the EXTRA is performed under local anesthesia as compared to general. Blunt dissection of the preperitoneal space does not trigger pain and does not require lidocaine injection. The most painful area is the peritoneal reflection over the cord structure. The laparoscopic repair under local anesthesia represents an advantage in the repair of the inguinal hernia, particularly in the population where general anesthesia is contraindicated.
PMCID: PMC3113173  PMID: 10987398
Laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repair
23.  Mesh Or Patch for Hernia on Epigastric and Umbilical Sites (MORPHEUS trial): study protocol for a multi-centre patient blinded randomized controlled trial 
BMC Surgery  2014;14:33.
Background
Evidence is accumulating that, similar to other ventral hernias, umbilical and epigastric hernias must be mesh repaired. The difficulties involved in mesh placement and in mesh-related complications could be the reason many small abdominal hernias are still primary closed. In laparoscopic repair, a mesh is placed intraperitoneally, while the most common procedure is open surgery is pre-peritoneal mesh placement. A recently developed alternative method is the so-called patch repair, in this approach a mesh can be placed intraperitoneally through open surgery. In theory, such patches are particularly suitable for small hernias due to a reduction in the required dissection. This simple procedure is described in several studies. It is still unclear whether this new approach is associated with an equal risk of recurrence and complications compared with pre-peritoneal meshes. The material of the patch is in direct contact with intra-abdominal organs, it is unknown if this leads to more complications. On the other hand, the smaller dissection in the pre-peritoneal plane may lead to a reduction in wound complications.
Methods/Design
346 patients suffering from an umbilical or epigastric hernia will be included in a multi-centre patient-blinded trial, comparing mesh repair with patch repair. Randomisation will take place for the two operation techniques. The two devices investigated are a flat pre-peritoneal mesh and a Proceed Ventral Patch®. Stratification will occur per centre. Post-operative evaluation will take place after 1, 3, 12 and 24 months. The number of complications requiring treatment is the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints are Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) pain score and VDS cosmetic score, operation duration, recurrence and costs. An intention to treat analysis will be performed.
Discussion
This trial is one of the first in its kind, to compare different mesh devices in a randomized controlled setting. The results will help to evaluate mesh repair for epigastric an umbilical hernia, and find a surgical method that minimizes the complication rate.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trail Registration (NTR) www.trialregister.nl 2010 NTR2514 NL33995.060.10
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-14-33
PMCID: PMC4042133  PMID: 24884770
Umbilical; Epigastric; Hernia; Herniorraphy; Mesh repair; Proceed Ventral Patch; Complications; Pain; Recurrence; Costs
24.  A randomized prospective trial comparing clinical outcomes 3 years after surgery by Marcy repair and Prolene Hernia System® repair for adult indirect inguinal hernia 
Surgery Today  2012;43(10):1109-1115.
Purpose
The use of mesh in the surgical repair of adult indirect inguinal hernias is widely recommended in Western countries, but no randomized controlled trials have so far been reported in Japan. The purpose of the present randomized prospective trial was to compare a mesh method with non-mesh method for surgical repair of primary adult indirect inguinal hernias in which the diameter of the internal inguinal ring was up to 3.0 cm (I-1 or I-2 of Japanese Hernia Society Classification).
Methods
Patients with a primary unilateral inguinal hernia and I-1 or I-2 surgical findings were randomized to undergo either Marcy repair or Prolene Hernia System® repair. Primary endpoints were recurrence, infection, and pain, with follow-up continued for 3 years postoperatively.
Results
Ninety-one of 479 patients with an inguinal hernia during the study period did not meet the exclusion criteria, and 46 were allocated to Marcy repair and 45 were allocated to Prolene Hernia System® repair. No recurrence was observed in either group, and no significant differences were identified between the groups in any of the primary endpoints.
Conclusion
This randomized prospective trial of I-1 and I-2 inguinal hernias suggests that Marcy repair is not inferior to PHS repair. A large-scale randomized controlled trial appears warranted to confirm whether to use mesh for Japanese adult I-1 and I-2 hernias.
doi:10.1007/s00595-012-0384-5
PMCID: PMC3778839  PMID: 23099622
Prosthesis; Mesh; PHS; Tension free
25.  Laparoscopic Repair of Paraesophageal Hernias 
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopy has quickly become the standard surgical approach to repair paraesophageal hernias. Although many centers routinely perform this procedure, relatively high recurrence rates have led many surgeons to question this approach. We sought to evaluate outcomes in our cohort of patients with an emphasis on recurrence rates and symptom improvement and their correlation with true radiologic recurrence seen on contrast imaging.
Methods:
We retrospectively identified 126 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of a large paraesophageal hernia between 2000 and 2010. Clinical outcomes were reviewed, and data were collected regarding operative details, perioperative and postoperative complications, symptoms, and follow-up imaging. Radiologic evidence of any size hiatal hernia was considered to indicate a recurrence.
Results:
There were 95 female and 31 male patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 71 ± 14 years. Laparoscopic repair was completed successfully in 120 of 126 patients, with 6 operations converted to open procedures. Crural reinforcement with mesh was performed in 79% of patients, and 11% underwent a Collis gastroplasty. Fundoplications were performed in 90% of patients: Nissen (112), Dor (1), and Toupet (1). Radiographic surveillance, obtained at a mean time interval of 23 months postoperatively, was available in 89 of 126 patients (71%). Radiographic evidence of a recurrence was present in 19 patients (21%). Reoperation was necessary in 6 patients (5%): 5 for symptomatic recurrence (4%) and 1 for dysphagia (1%). The median length of stay was 4 days.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair results in an excellent outcome with a short length of stay when performed at an experienced center. Radiologic recurrence is observed relatively frequently with routine surveillance; however, many of these recurrences are small, and few patients require correction of the recurrence. Furthermore, these small recurrent hernias are often asymptomatic and do not seem to be associated with the same risk of severe complications developing as the initial paraesophageal hernia.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00009
PMCID: PMC4208886  PMID: 25392650
Hernia; Paraesophageal; Fundaplication; Laparoscopy; Reflux

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