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1.  Early results of inguinal hernia repair by the 'mesh plug' technique--first 200 cases. 
INTRODUCTION: Inguinal hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed in the UK. Evidence from several earlier studies suggests that primary inguinal hernia repair has a high recurrence rate of 10-15%. The Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines suggested the use of layered suture (Shouldice) or prosthetic (Lichtenstein) repair. Per-fix plugs have been used in the US for more than a decade with excellent results. This study was a series of 200 consecutive cases. The aim was to evaluate the mesh plug technique in the repair of all types of inguinal hernias and its results in one consultant practice within a district general hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a 15-month period between 1997 and 1998, all patients with inguinal hernias presenting to the general surgical clinic of one consultant were recruited to the study. All had mesh plug repair under local (n = 40), regional (n = 50) or general (n = 110) anaesthesia either by the consultant, associate specialist or specialist registrar (following initial training), using the same standard technique. The majority 80% (n = 160) were done as day cases. The results were evaluated by questionnaire and personal outpatient review initially at 3 weeks, then at 1 year (9-13 months). RESULTS: 200 consecutive patients with inguinal hernias underwent mesh plug repair; mean age was 54 years (95% CI, 46-61). The majority of patients had primary (n = 180) and others had recurrent (n = 20) hernia. All types of hernia (Gilbert's I-VII) were included. Median follow-up was 1 year (9-15 months). Groin pain, which was the leading symptom at presentation, was relieved in 96% of the patients; 79% returned to previous jobs within 4 weeks (95% CI, 0.71-0.87). All retired patients resumed normal life activities within 2 days. Postoperative pain was minimal; 28 patients did not require any postoperative analgesia. There were very few minor (n = 6) and no major complications. During the follow-up, one recurrence occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Mesh plug repair is associated with minimal postoperative pain, quick recovery and return to work. It is an ideal technique for day-case surgery. Although longer follow-up will be required to assess true recurrence rate, so far the recurrence rate at 0.5% is acceptable, particularly in the light of other published series.
PMCID: PMC2503476  PMID: 11103156
2.  Cure of inguinal hernias with large preperitoneal prosthesis: Experience of 2,312 cases 
It is clear that the recurrence rates after nonprosthetic methods for the repair of inguinal hernias, like McVay, Bassini or Shouldice techniques, are high (6–10%). Since 20 years, we are convinced, in the GREPA-EHS group, about the advantages of the use of a prosthetic mesh in majority of patients for repairs of primary or recurrent inguinal hernias and incisional hernias. We describe our typical technique for the cure of all inguinal hernias. We place a large supple mesh, by open inguinal route, posterior to the transversalis fascia and anterior to the peritoneum. We have made a double modification in the initial technique of Rives - the use of a very large unsplit prosthesis (15 × 17 cm) and the parietalization of the spermatic cord helped by a wide opening of the Fruchaud's orifice by diversion of the epigastric vessels. The positioning of the mesh is about the same as in the TEP technique but with the advantages of reduction in the vital laparoscopic risks and reinforcement of the wall by a short tension-free McVay technique.
For this prospective study, we repaired 2,312 consecutive hernias in 1,828 patients, 284 of which were recurrent. We present our results in terms of quality of repairs, recurrence rates (0.4%), morbidity rate (8%), and mortality rate (0.8%).
This technique involves the placement by an open incisional route of a large preperitoneal sheet of mesh for initial treatment of all inguinal hernias - including scrotal, giant or femoral - to ensure a definitive solid muscular wall, even for recurrent hernias.
PMCID: PMC2999772  PMID: 21187983
Femoral hernias; giant hernias; inguinal hernias; preperitoneal mesh; recurrent hernias
3.  Inguinal hernia repair: a survey of Canadian practice patterns 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1999;42(2):127-132.
To describe the preferences of general surgeons across Canada with respect to hernia repair technique.
A survey by mailed questionnaire..
All 1452 fellows of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada currently holding a certificate in general surgery.
Two mailings of the survey: the first in December 1996, the second to nonrespondents in February 1997.
Main outcome measures
Surgeons’ preference of hernia repair technique for specified indications. This was analysed according to practice setting and geographic location.
Main results
Based on 706 completed questionnaires, the preferred techniques for repair of primary inguinal hernias were as follows: 23% Bassini, 20% mesh plug, 16% Lichtenstein, 15% laparoscopic, 11% Shouldice and 11% McVay. Preference for laparoscopic repair increased to 34% for recurrent hernias and 35% for bilateral hernias. The Atlantic provinces had the lowest preference rates for laparoscopic repair and the highest rates for the mesh plug technique.
Most surgeons select the type of repair on the basis of the clinical scenario. Large variations in practice exist between provinces.
PMCID: PMC3788975  PMID: 10223074
4.  Audit of Referral Patterns for Hernia Repair – Are General Practitioners Aware of the Changing Face of Herniorrhaphy? 
The objective of this study was to examine referral patterns from general practitioners for groin hernia surgery and to assess their knowledge of services available to their patients.
An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to 120 general practitioners (GPs) in the South East Wales region who routinely refer patients for inguinal hernia surgery to the Royal Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust.
A total of 86 questionnaire replies were returned. There was variation in referral patterns between the GPs with the majority (84%) referring their patients for groin hernia repair to either a general surgeon or as an open referral. Only 14% referred directly to a hernia specialist and none regularly referred to a laparoscopic surgeon.
Referral patterns for inguinal hernia surgery do not reflect services provided in secondary care. Further education is required so that a patient's care can be optimised.
PMCID: PMC2443310  PMID: 18325215
Referral patterns; Hernia repair; General practitioners
5.  Inguinal Hernia Repair: Local or General Anaesthesia? 
Specialist hernia centres and public hospitals with a dedicated hernia service (Plymouth Hernia Service) have achieved remarkable results for inguinal hernia repair with the use of local anaesthesia and set the standards for groin hernia surgery. There is minimal data in the literature as to whether such results are reproducible in the National Health Service in the UK.
A retrospective analysis of all inguinal hernia repairs performed in one district general hospital over a 9-year period was performed. The outcome measures were type of anaesthesia used, early and late postoperative complications and recurrence. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain satisfaction rates. In addition, a postal questionnaire survey of consultant surgeons in Wales was performed to determine the use of local anaesthesia and day-case rates for inguinal hernia repair.
A total of 577 hernia repairs were performed during the study period. Of these, 369 (64%) repairs were performed under local anaesthesia (LA) and 208 (36%) under general anaesthesia (GA). Day-case repair was achieved in 70% (400) of cases. The day-case rates were significantly higher under LA compared to GA (82.6% versus 42.6%; P < 0.05). Patients operated under LA had lower postoperative analgesic requirements and lower incidence of urinary retention compared with the GA group (P < 0.05). There were 7 (1.2%) recurrences at a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 10.3–2.5 years). Postal questionnaire revealed higher satisfaction rates with LA compared to GA repair. Only 15% of surgeons in Wales offer the majority of their patients local anaesthetic repair.
The use of LA results in increased day-case rates, lesser postoperative analgesic requirements and fewer micturition problems. The excellent results obtained by specialist hernia centres can be reproduced by district general hospitals by increasing the use of LA to repair inguinal hernias.
PMCID: PMC2048598  PMID: 17688723
Inguinal hernia; Local anaesthesia; District general hospital
6.  Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective inguinal hernia repair in adults in London and south-east England: a cross-sectional survey 
Hernia  2013;17:657-664.
Evidence regarding whether or not antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial in preventing post-operative surgical site infection in adult inguinal hernia repair is conflicting. A recent Cochrane review based on 17 randomised trials did not reach a conclusion on this subject. This study aimed to describe the current practice and determine whether clinical equipoise is prevalent.
Surgeons in training were recruited to administer the Survey of Hernia Antibiotic Prophylaxis usE survey to consultant-level general surgeons in London and the south-east of England on their practices and beliefs regarding antibiotic prophylaxis in adult elective inguinal hernia repair. Local prophylaxis guidelines for the participating hospital sites were also determined.
The study was conducted at 34 different sites and received completed surveys from 229 out of a possible 245 surgeons, a 93 % response rate. Overall, a large majority of hospital guidelines (22/28) and surgeons’ personal beliefs (192/229, 84 %) supported the use of single-dose pre-operative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis in inguinal hernia repair, although there was considerable variation in the regimens in use. The most widely used regimen was intravenous co-amoxiclav (1.2 g). Less than half of surgeons were adherent to their own hospital antibiotic guidelines for this procedure, although many incorrectly believed that they were following these.
In the south-east of England, there is a strong majority of surgical opinion in favour of the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in this procedure. It is therefore likely to be extremely difficult to conduct further randomised studies in the UK to support or refute the effectiveness of prophylaxis in this commonly performed procedure.
PMCID: PMC3788180  PMID: 23543332
Antibiotic prophylaxis; Inguinal hernia repair; Hernioplasty
7.  Long-term recurrence and complication rates after incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique 
BMC Surgery  2009;9:6.
Incisional hernia after abdominal surgery is a well-known complication. Controversy still exists with respect to the choice of hernia repair technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate as well as surgical complications in a consecutive group of patients undergoing open repair using an onlay mesh technique.
Consecutive patients undergoing open incisional hernia repair with onlay-technique between 01/05/1995 and 01/09/2007 at a single institution were included in the study. For follow-up patients were contacted by telephone, and answered a questionnaire containing questions related to the primary operation, the hernia and general risk factors. Patients were examined by a consultant surgeon in the outpatient clinic or in the patient's home if there was suspicion of an incisional hernia recurrence.
The study included 56 patients with 100% follow-up. The median follow-up was 35 months (range 4–151). Recurrent incisional hernia was found in 8 of 56 patients (15%, 95% CI: 6–24). The overall complication rate was 13% (95% CI, 4–22). All complications were minor and needed no hospital admission.
This study with a long follow-up showed low recurrence and complication rates in patients undergoing incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique.
PMCID: PMC2684736  PMID: 19400934
8.  Laparoscopic Repair of Inguinal Hernia Using Surgisis Mesh and Fibrin Sealant 
We tested the hypothesis that laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy using Surgisis mesh secured with fibrin sealant is an effective long-term treatment for repair of inguinal hernia. This case series involved 38 adult patients with 51 inguinal hernias treated in a primary care center.
Between December 2002 and May 2005, 38 patients with 45 primary and 6 recurrent inguinal hernias were treated with laparoscopic repair by the total extra-peritoneal mesh placement (TEP) technique using Surgisis mesh secured into place with fibrin sealant. Postoperative complications, incidence of pain, and recurrence were recorded, as evaluated at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 1 year, and with a follow-up questionnaire and telephone interview conducted in May and June 2005.
The operations were successfully performed on all patients with no complications or revisions to an open procedure. Average follow-up was 13 months (range, 1 to 30). One hernia recurred (second recurrence of unilateral direct hernia), indicating a 2% recurrence rate.
Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia using Surgisis mesh secured with fibrin sealant can be effectively used to treat primary, recurrent, direct, indirect, and bilateral inguinal hernias in adults without complications and minimal recurrence within 1-year of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3015740  PMID: 17575758
Inguinal hernia; Laparoscopy; TEP repair; Surgisis mesh; Fibrin glue
9.  Primary inguinal hernia repair: how audit changed a surgeon's practice. 
Over 10 years one senior consultant surgeon performed 114 standard plication darn herniorraphies on 92 patients with primary inguinal hernias. These patients were contacted and were reviewed if there was any suspicion of recurrence. Four recurrences were detected, giving an overall recurrence rate of about 3.5%. According to actuarial life-table analysis the risks of recurrence at 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 0.94%, 3.02% and 9%. This level of recurrence is unacceptable in modern practice and, as a result of the audit, the surgeon changed his technique of primary inguinal hernia repair.
PMCID: PMC1296952  PMID: 10325875
10.  Laparoscopic Repair of Inguinal Hernias 
World Journal of Surgery  2011;35(7):1519-1525.
For patients with recurrent inguinal hernia, or bilateral inguinal hernia, or for women, laparoscopic repair offers significant advantages over open techniques with regard to recurrence risk, pain, and recovery. For unilateral first-time hernias, either laparoscopic or open repair with mesh can offer excellent results. The major drawback of laparoscopy is that the technique requires a significant number of cases to master. For surgeons in group practice, it makes sense to have one surgeon in the group perform laparoscopic repairs so that experience can be concentrated. For others, the best technique remains the approach that the surgeon is most comfortable and experienced performing.
PMCID: PMC3140939  PMID: 21400014
11.  Proceed™ Mesh for Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair 
A laparoscopic approach to ventral hernia repair using Proceed mesh was associated with low conversion rate and no major complications in this study of single surgeon's experience.
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopic technique to repair ventral hernia offers advantages over conventional open surgery such as shorter recovery time, decreased pain, and lower recurrence rates. There are a myriad of meshes available for laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias. This study evaluated the outcomes of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias with Proceed mesh (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) in a single academic institution.
An institutional review board–approved retrospective review was performed for 100 consecutive patients with ventral hernia who underwent a laparoscopic approach at our institution from August 2006 to February 2009. All patients were operated on by a single surgeon using a standard technique with transabdominal suture fixation and tacks.
The study included 100 consecutive patients (57 female and 43 male patients). The mean age was 55 years (range, 16–78 years), and the mean body mass index was 33.3 kg/m2 (range, 19.6–68.9 kg/m2). Of the repairs, 27% were performed for a recurrent hernia. The mean and median size of the defect were 128 cm2 and 119.5 cm2 (range, 4–500 cm2), respectively. To ensure appropriate mesh overlap, the mean size of mesh was 253 cm2 (range, 36–700 cm2). There were 4 conversions. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 35–286 minutes). The mean length of stay was 1.9 days. There were no major abdominal complications. With a mean follow-up period of 50 months (range, 38–68 months), we have not recorded any recurrences. No mesh-related complications have been documented.
The laparoscopic approach to ventral hernia repairs using Proceed mesh is associated with a low conversion rate and no major complications. At 50 months of follow-up, the recurrence rate is 0%. There were no mesh-related complications.
PMCID: PMC3866060  PMID: 24398198
Hernia; Laparoscopic; Ventral Hernia; Proceed; Mesh
12.  Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair: Pros and Cons Compared With Open Hernia Repair 
The purpose of this study was to analyse the surgical techniques, perioperative complications, and recurrence rate of laparocopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR), in comparison with the open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature.
A Medline search of the English literature was performed using the term “laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.” Further articles were found by cross-referencing the references of each main article.
Current literature on the topic suggests that LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, a shorter convalescence period, and better cosmetic results. Main complications after the laparoscopic approach, such as incidental enterotomy, protracted pain, postoperative seroma, or mesh infection occur at an acceptable rate. Furthermore, most articles favor LVHR versus OVHR in terms of recurrence rate.
Although further randomized studies are needed to draw safe conclusions in terms of complications and recurrence, LVHR is fast becoming the standard approach in the repair of abdominal wall hernias.
PMCID: PMC3016190  PMID: 18435882
Hernia; Laparoscopy; Open; Ventral; Incisional
13.  The Safety and Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Repair for Recurrent Inguinal Hernia After Open Hernioplasty 
Many studies have reported that laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair for recurrent inguinal hernia after an open hernioplasy was safe and effective. This study was conducted to evaluate TEP repair for recurrent inguinal hernia through a retrospective analysis of our data.
Materials and Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who were scheduled for laparoscopic TEP repair from December 2000 to December 2008. A total of 1065 cases of laparoscopic TEP repairs were performed for 944 patients by a single surgeon, and 100 cases of recurrent inguinal hernias were enrolled.
The mean operation time was longer in the recurrent hernia group than that in the primary hernia group (P < 0.001), and peritoneal tearing occurred more frequently in the recurrent hernia group (P < 0.001). Direct hernia was more frequent in the recurrent hernia group (P < 0.001). The mean number of hospital days and complications, such as seroma and postoperative pain, were similar in both groups. Three cases of recurrence occurred (0.28%): 2 occurred in the recurrent hernia group (2%) and the other occurred in the primary hernia group (0.1%).
Laparoscopic TEP repair is safe and effective for treating recurrent inguinal hernia after an open hernioplasty, because the recurrence rate was low (2%) and other complications were similar for both groups. Direct inguinal hernia was more frequent in patients who had recurrent inguinal hernia.
PMCID: PMC3157332  PMID: 20518685
14.  The INCH-Trial: a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of conventional open surgery and laparoscopic surgery for incisional hernia repair 
BMC Surgery  2013;13:18.
Annually approximately 100.000 patients undergo a laparotomy in the Netherlands. About 15,000 of these patients will develop an incisional hernia. Both open and laparoscopic surgical repair have been proven to be safe. However, the most effective treatment of incisional hernias remains unclear. This study, the ‘INCH-trial’, comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, is therefore needed.
A randomized multi-center clinical trial comparing cost-effectiveness of open and laparoscopic repair of incisional hernias. Patients with a symptomatic incisional hernia, eligible for laparoscopic and open incisional hernia repair. Only surgeons, experienced in both open and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, will participate in the INCH trial. During incisional hernia repair, a mesh is placed under or on top of the fascia, with a minimal overlap of 5 cm. Primary endpoint is length of hospital stay after an incisional hernia repair. Secondary endpoints are time to full recovery within three months after index surgery, post-operative complications, recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic incisional hernia repair comes with a significant shorter hospital stay compared to open incisional hernia repair. A difference of two days is considered significant. One-hunderd-and-thirty-five patients are enrolled in each treatment arm. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. Primary outcomes are costs per patient related to time-to-recovery and quality of life.
The main goal of the trial is to establish whether laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is superior to conventional open incisional hernia repair in terms of cost-effectiveness. This is measured through length of hospital stay and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are re-operation rate due to post-operative complications or recurrences, mortality and quality of life.
The difference in time to full recovery between the two treatment strategies is thought to be in favor of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is therefore expected to be a more cost-effective approach.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial register: NTR2808
PMCID: PMC3680330  PMID: 24499061
15.  Over a thousand ambulatory hernia repairs in a primary care setting 
This paper outlines the development and feasibility of a dedicated ambulatory primary care hernia service and examines the outcomes achieved during the period 1 March 2005 to 31 December 2008.
A prospective analysis of 1164 patients who underwent abdominal wall hernia repair at Probus Surgical Centre during the study period. The operations were carried out by two GPs with a special interest (GPwSI) and one retired surgeon. The techniques used were a Lichtenstein mesh repair or modified Shouldice repair for inguinal hernias and a primary sutured repair for ventral hernias. All procedures were performed as day-cases under local anaesthesia without sedation. All patients were reviewed routinely at 6 weeks. The primary outcomes of the study were recurrence and patient satisfaction levels, and complications such as infection, haematoma and chronic pain.
No patient required conversion to general anaesthesia. There were three (0.3%) recurrences. Complication rates were low and similar to those obtained in other specialist hernia units. More than 90% of patients were satisfied with the service and would recommend it to a friend.
Routine elective abdominal wall hernia repairs can be performed in a primary care setting, safely and with excellent outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3025236  PMID: 19995492
Primary care; Hernia repair; Local anaesthesia
16.  A modified Lichtenstein hernia repair using fibrin glue 
In recent years, general surgeons who perform inguinal hernia repair have paid attention to successful reduction in the recurrence rate. The Lichtenstein technique is widely used because it is easy to learn and is associated with a low rate of complication and recurrences. Today, the new objective in primary hernia surgery should be to reduce complications such as chronic pain. Chronic pain after hernia repair can be disabling, with considerable impact on quality of life and there is evidence to suggest increased use of health services by patients who have chronic pain. We have proposed an international randomized controlled trial with seven referenced European centers: The TI.ME.LI. trial. The aim of this study is to evaluate pain and further disabling complications in patients undergoing Lichtenstein technique for primary inguinal hernia repair by fixing the mesh with fibrin sealant versus sutures (control group).
PMCID: PMC2999771  PMID: 21187982
Chronic pain; fibrin glue; lichtenstein hernia repair
17.  A randomized prospective trial comparing clinical outcomes 3 years after surgery by Marcy repair and Prolene Hernia System® repair for adult indirect inguinal hernia 
Surgery Today  2012;43:1109-1115.
The use of mesh in the surgical repair of adult indirect inguinal hernias is widely recommended in Western countries, but no randomized controlled trials have so far been reported in Japan. The purpose of the present randomized prospective trial was to compare a mesh method with non-mesh method for surgical repair of primary adult indirect inguinal hernias in which the diameter of the internal inguinal ring was up to 3.0 cm (I-1 or I-2 of Japanese Hernia Society Classification).
Patients with a primary unilateral inguinal hernia and I-1 or I-2 surgical findings were randomized to undergo either Marcy repair or Prolene Hernia System® repair. Primary endpoints were recurrence, infection, and pain, with follow-up continued for 3 years postoperatively.
Ninety-one of 479 patients with an inguinal hernia during the study period did not meet the exclusion criteria, and 46 were allocated to Marcy repair and 45 were allocated to Prolene Hernia System® repair. No recurrence was observed in either group, and no significant differences were identified between the groups in any of the primary endpoints.
This randomized prospective trial of I-1 and I-2 inguinal hernias suggests that Marcy repair is not inferior to PHS repair. A large-scale randomized controlled trial appears warranted to confirm whether to use mesh for Japanese adult I-1 and I-2 hernias.
PMCID: PMC3778839  PMID: 23099622
Prosthesis; Mesh; PHS; Tension free
18.  Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair Using a Two (5-mm) Port Technique 
High recurrence rates have been documented after primary repair of incisional hernias. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repairs have been performed with very low rates of recurrence. We have modified the standard technique of laparoscopic repair in patients with small incisional and ventral hernias. The purpose of this study was to document the technique utilizing only two 5-mm ports and demonstrate that it is safe, effective, and feasible.
Three patients with small incisional or ventral hernias were examined. The standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair technique was modified as follows: two 5-mm ports were inserted on opposite sides of the defect. The defects ranged from 2.5 cm to 4 cm in size. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene mesh (DualMesh, WL Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) was used to cover the hernia defect, overlapping the defect margins circumferentially by 3 cm. The mesh diameter ranged from 8.5 cm to 10 cm. The mesh was inserted through a 5-mm skin incision site and affixed into position with transfascial sutures and spiral tacks.
The operative time ranged from 53 minutes to 57 minutes. All patients were discharged home the day of surgery and reported minimal postoperative pain. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 1 year; all patients were doing well without recurrence.
Laparoscopic repair of ventral or incisional hernias can be performed using only two 5-mm ports. This technique can be done on an outpatient basis in a safe, timely fashion.
PMCID: PMC3015548  PMID: 15791980
Laparoscopy; Ventral hernia
19.  Laparoscopic Versus Open Umbilical Hernia Repair 
The use of prosthetic material for open umbilical hernia repair has been reported to reduce recurrence rates. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes after laparoscopic versus open umbilical hernia repair.
We reviewed all umbilical hernia repairs performed from November 1995 to October 2000. Demographic data, hernia characteristics, and outcomes were compared.
Of the 76 patients identified, 32 underwent laparoscopic repair (LR), 24 primary suture repairs (PSR), and 20 open repairs with mesh (ORWM). Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. Hernia size was similar between LR and ORWM groups, and both were larger than that in the PSR group. ORWM compared with the other techniques resulted in longer operating time, more frequent use of drains, higher complication rates, and prolonged return to normal activities (RTNA). The length of stay (LOS) was longer in the ORWM than in the PSR group. When compared with ORWM, LR resulted in lower recurrence rates. LR resulted in fewer recurrences in patients with previous repairs and hernias larger than 3 cm than in both open techniques.
LR results in faster RTNA, and lower complication and recurrence rates compared with those in ORWM. Patients with larger hernias and previous repairs benefit from LR.
PMCID: PMC3021337  PMID: 14626398
Umbilical hernia; Laparoscopic surgery; Hernia repair; Hernia recurrence
20.  Guidelines for inguinal hernia repair in everyday practice. 
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Surgeons of England published clinical guidelines for the management of groin hernia in adults in July 1993. We compared our indications, techniques, complications and outcome with these guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 440 patients who underwent a groin hernia repair from the 1 July 1994 to 30 July 1995 were studied retrospectively. Special consideration was given to the advantages and acceptance of day-case surgery. Confidential questionnaires were sent to all patients 6-12 months following surgery. RESULTS: The majority of elective primary inguinal hernias (83%) were repaired by the open tension-free Lichtenstein mesh technique. Our selection criteria for day-case surgery included ASA I, age (< 65 years) and social situation; 56% underwent an operation on a day-case basis. Including in-patients discharged within 24 h following operation, this proportion of 'day-cases' increased to 72.5%. Less complications occurred in the day-case group (P = 0.018). However, this difference may be caused by incomplete reporting of complications in the day-case group. There were no significant differences in patients' satisfaction, postoperative attendance for medical advice or time back to work between the day-case and in-patient group. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines need to be reviewed. The Lichtenstein repair offers an excellent and simple technique for hernia repair as a day-case procedure. Our results suggest that the number of hernia repairs performed as a day-case could substantially be increased to more than the recommended 30%. Time off work is mainly influenced by the advice given by GPs and surgeons. Reducing time off work by giving more appropriate recommendations and increasing the number of day-case surgery cases could significantly reduce the costs of health-care.
PMCID: PMC2503569  PMID: 11432143
21.  Implications of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair on open, laparoscopic, and robotic radical prostatectomy 
Prostate International  2014;2(1):8-11.
There have been anecdotal reports of surgeons having to abandon radical prostatectomy (RP) after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) due to obliteration of tissue planes by mesh. Nodal dissection may also be compromised. We prospectively collected data from four experienced prostate surgeons from separate institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the success rate of performing open RP (ORP), laparoscopic RP (LRP) and robotic assisted RP (RALRP) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) after LIHR, and the frequency of complications.
A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained databases of men who underwent RP after LIHR between 2004 and 2010 at four institutions was undertaken. The data recorded included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, preoperative Gleason score, and clinical stage. The operative approach, success or failure to perform RP, success or failure to perform PLND, pathological stage, and complications were also recorded.
A total of 1,181 men underwent RP between 2004 and 2010. Fifty-seven patients (4.8%) underwent RP after LIHR. An ORP was attempted in 19 patients, LRP in 33, and RALRP in 5. All 57 cases were able to be successfully completed. Ten of the 18 open PLND were able to be completed (55.6%). Four of the 22 laparoscopic LND were able to be completed (18.2%). Robotic LND was possible in 5 of 5 cases (100%). Therefore, it was not possible to complete a LND 56.8% of patients. Complications were limited to ten patients. These complications included one LRP converted to ORP due to failure to progress, and one rectourethral fistula in a salvage procedure post failed high intensity focused ultrasound.
LIHR is an increasingly common method of treating inguinal hernias. LIHR is not a contra-indication to RP. However PLND may not be possible in over 50% of patients who have had LIHR. Therefore, these patients may be under-staged and under treated.
PMCID: PMC3970989
Prostate cancer; Inguinal hernia; Prostatectomy
22.  Randomized Prospective Study of Totally Extraperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair: Fixation Versus No Fixation of Mesh 
Fixation of the mesh during laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase postoperative pain and lead to an increased risk of complications. We questioned whether elimination of fixation of the mesh during TEP inguinal hernia repair leads to decreased postoperative pain or complications, or both, without an increased rate of recurrence.
A randomized prospective single-blinded study was carried out in 40 patients who underwent laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with (Group A=20) or without (Group B=20) fixation of the mesh.
Patients in whom the mesh was not fixed had shorter hospital length of stay (8.3 vs 16.0 hours, P=0.01), were less likely to be admitted to the hospital (P=0.001), used less postoperative narcotic analgesia in the PACU (P=0.01), and were less likely to develop urinary retention (P=0.04). No significant differences occurred in the level of pain, time to return to normal activity, or the difficulty of the operation between the 2 groups. No hernia recurrences were observed in either group (follow-up range, 6 to 30 months, median=19).
Elimination of tack fixation of mesh during laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair significantly reduces the use of postoperative narcotic analgesia, hospital length of stay, and the development of postoperative urinary retention but does not lead to a significant reduction in postoperative pain. Eliminating tacks does not lead to an increased rate of recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3015750  PMID: 17575757
Hernia; Urinary retention; Endoscopic; TEP; Laparoscopic
23.  Evolution of an inguinal hernia surgery practice 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2001;77(905):188-190.
BACKGROUND—Inguinal hernia surgery has undergone numerous advances in the last few years. This study analysed the changes in the practice of one surgeon in a district general hospital over a seven year interval. The effect of changing from Bassini to Lichtenstein repair in 1994 was evaluated.
METHODS—The study involved two parts: first a search of a computerised database of inguinal hernia procedures, and second, postal audits of men who had an inguinal hernia repair in 1993 and 1994 with outpatient follow up for those with a possible recurrence.
RESULTS—A total of 1037 hernias were repaired over the seven years. There was an increase in the proportion of day cases from 18% to 70% and the number of operations performed under local anaesthetic rose from 1% to 45%. The postal audits had response rates of 79% (1993) and 66% (1994). Some 5/98 (5%) recurrent hernias were identified from the 1993 (Bassini) patients compared with 1/67 (1.5%) from the 1994 (Lichtenstein) cohort.
CONCLUSION—Lichtenstein hernia repair can be performed safely as a day case using local anaesthetic in the majority of patients and appears to have a lower recurrence rate than Bassini repair.

Keywords: inguinal hernia; postoperative complications
PMCID: PMC1741935  PMID: 11222828
24.  Adult hernia surgery in Wales revisited: impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
This study investigated the impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England on the practice of hernia surgery in Wales. This was assessed by means of a postal survey to all consultant general surgeons in Wales in 1996-1997. The areas covered were: awareness of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England and the impact of such guidelines on their practice, attendance at hernia courses, operative technique, materials used for repair and skin suture, proportion of day case hernias, length of inpatient stay, thromboembolic (TE) prophylaxis and postoperative advice to patients with regard to light work, heavy work and sport. In all, 79 replies were received (85%). Almost all the surgeons had read the guidelines; this changed the practice of 20% of respondents but did not in 32%. A further 48% did not answer the question. In contrast with our 1993 survey results, in Wales there is now a uniform surgical management of adult inguinal hernias: the most common operation is the Liechtenstein, with monofilament non-absorbable suture to secure the mesh, followed by the Shouldice repair. The Bassini and inguinal darn operations are becoming much less common and none now uses braided or absorbable sutures for the repair. Skin closure is still rather variable, with only 58% of respondents adhering to the recommended absorbable subcuticular suture. Postoperative advice is now uniform and in accordance with the guidelines. A trend towards more TE prophylaxis and more day case hernia surgery is also seen.
PMCID: PMC2503110  PMID: 9849333
25.  Evaluation of the Rebound Hernia Repair Device for Laparoscopic Hernia Repair 
This investigation of the Rebound Hernia Repair Device found that the device has favorable handling characteristics and may serve as a useful agent in laparoscopic hernia repair.
The characteristics of the ideal type of mesh are still being debated. Mesh shrinkage and fixation have been associated with complications. Avoiding shrinkage and fixation would improve hernia recurrence rates and complications. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a device with a self-expanding frame for laparoscopic hernia repair.
Six Rebound Hernia Repair Devices were placed laparoscopically in pigs. This device is a condensed polypropylene, super-thin, lightweight, macro-porous mesh with a self-expanding Nitinol frame. The devices were assessed for adhesions, shrinkage, and histological examination. Laboratory and radiologic evaluations were also performed.
The handling properties of the devices facilitated their laparoscopic placement. They were easily identified with simple x-rays. The mesh was firmly integrated within the surrounding tissue. One device was associated with 3 small adhesions. The other 5 HRDs had no adhesions. We noted no shrinkage or folding. All devices preserved their original size and shape.
At this evaluation stage, we found that the Rebound Hernia Repair Device may serve for laparoscopic hernia repair and has favorable handling properties. It prevents folding and shrinkage of the mesh. It may eliminate the need for fixation, thus preventing chronic pain. The Nitinol frame also allowed radiologic evaluation for gross movement. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its clinical application.
PMCID: PMC3021309  PMID: 20529534
Hernia; Laparoscopic hernia repair; Mesh; Pig

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