Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
During endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), interruption of the internal iliac arteries (IIAs) or the inferior mesenteric artery by stents or embolization is thought to cause colon ischemia. To minimize this risk, attempts have been made to preserve the IIAs using iliac branch devices or IIA revascularization. Here we present our experience of colon ischemia after EVAR in a patient with bilaterally patent IIAs without evidence of embolism. A 70-year-old man had abdominal pain and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm was found. We performed EVAR with custom-made tube grafts preserving the bilateral IIAs. On postoperative day 2, the patient complained of abdominal pain, a sigmoidoscopy was performed revealing colon ischemia. On laparotomy, transmural infarction of the sigmoid colon was found and resected. Because IIA preservation cannot guarantee protection against colon ischemia, surgeons should maintain a high level of suspicion and use surveillance liberally after EVAR for early diagnosis of colon ischemia, even if both IIAs are preserved.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Ischemic colitis; Iliac artery; Inferior mesenteric artery
Common iliac artery aneurysm (CIA) often occurs in conjunction with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which extends into one or both CIAs in 20% to 30% of patients. Conventional endovascular treatment includes coil embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA), followed by extension of the main bifurcated AAA stent-graft into the external iliac artery. However, complications from intentional occlusion of unilateral or bilateral IIAs are frequent and sometimes serious. Several methods try to preserve the unilateral or bilateral IIA. Here we report a case of concomitant bilateral CIA and AAA successfully treated with bilateral branched iliac stent-grafts.
Iliac aneurysm; Endovascular procedure
Endovascular aortic repair, if technically feasible, is the treatment of choice for patients with a contained ruptured aortic aneurysm who are unfit for open surgery.
We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian man who presented with an unusually configured, symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm. His aneurysm showed an erosion of the fourth lumbar vertebra and a severely arteriosclerotic pelvic axis. A high thigh amputation of his right leg had been performed 15 months previously. On his right side, occlusion of his external iliac artery, common femoral artery, and deep femoral artery had occurred. His aneurysm was treated by a left-sided aortomonoiliac stent graft without femorofemoral revascularization, resulting in occlusions of both internal iliac arteries. No ischemic symptoms appeared, although perfusion of his right side was maintained only over epigastric collaterals.
The placement of aortomonoiliac stent grafts for endovascular treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms without contralateral revascularization is a feasible treatment option in isolated cases. In this report, access problems and revascularization options in endovascular aneurysm repair are discussed.
Introduction: Ruptured common iliac aneurysms present with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This case describes the successful outcome in a patient with complex vascular surgical history.
Case presentation: An elderly patient presented with abdominal pain confirmed by CT as leaking iliac aneurysm. He had previously undergone an aorto-bifemoral bypass graft for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The iliac aneurysm was treated by simple ligation of the external iliac artery.
Discussion: Aorto-bifemoral bypass graft may be required for aortic aneurysm repair in severe iliac calicification. Iliac artery fed by retrograde blood flow from the aorto-bifemoral bypass graft contributed to aneurysm development here
aorto-bifemoral bypass graft; common iliac aneurysm; rupture
We report a case of macroscopic hematuria secondary to an aneurysm of the internal iliac artery. An 84-year-old male presented to our department with a 12-hour history of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed decreased expansion suggesting compression from outside the bladder. At the point of compression, increased vascularization was noted in the bladder mucosa without evidence of active bleeding. No trace of blood was identified coming from the ureteric orifices, the bladder neck, or the prostate. There was no evidence of intra-vesicular masses or other inflammatory changes. The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left-sided hydronephrosis and an abdominal aortic aneurysm involving the aortic bifurcation and both internal iliac arteries. There was no evidence of rupture. An aneurysm of the internal iliac artery is a rare cause of macroscopic hematuria that can be fatal. Awareness of this as a possible cause of hematuria may assist in immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Objectives: To reveal the variations of the iliolumbar artery and the iliolumabar veins and their correlation with the surrounding important structures.
Methods: We dissected the iliolumbar region bilaterally in 20 formalin-fixed adult cadavers. The diameter of the iliolumbar artery at its origin, its length up to the branching point, the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the inferior margin of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery, were measured. The pattern of drainage, the dimensions, the points of confluence with the common iliac vein and the obliquity of the iliolumbar vein were noted. The correlation between the iliolumbar artery and the veins to the obturator nerve and the lumbosacral trunk was recorded.
Results: The iliolumbar artery originated from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery or from the internal iliac artery. The mean diameter of the iliolumbar artery, at its origin, was 3.5±0.5 mm. The mean distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point to the iliac and the lumbar branches was 12.2±5.5 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the lower edge of the fifth lumbar vertebra was 43.2±11.6 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery was 38.7±10.6 mm.
The mean distance of the iliolumbar veins from the inferior vena cava, overall, was 35± 9.9 mm. The mean width of the mouth of the iliolumbar vein was10.7 ± 5.1 mm and the mean angle of obliquity of the vein with respect to the long axis of the common iliac vein was 75.50. The tributaries which drained into the main iliolumbar vein were variable.
The iliolumbar artery passed anterior in 70% and it passed posterior to the obturator nerve in 30%. The veins were lying anterior to the obturator nerve in 45% and they were lying posterior in 55%. The multiple tributaries which drained into the iliolumbar vein relation of the tributaries were variable, few passed anterior and few passed posterior.
The iliolumbar artery was seen anterior to the lumbosacral trunk in 30%, it was posterior in 54%, it was cleaved in 8% and the branches of the artery were passing on either side of the lumbosacral trunk to enclose it like a clasp in 8%. The veins were anterior to the lumbosacral trunk in 40% and they were posterior in 60%.
Conclusion: The anatomical features of the iliolumbar artery, the iliolumbar veins and their correlation with the anatomical landmarks, which were presented here, would be helpful in decreasing the iatrogenic trauma to the neurovascular structures in the iliolumbar region.
Iliolumbar artery; Iliolumbar veins; Obturator nerve; Lumbosacral trunk; Injury; Spine surgery
A significant proportion of patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) have common iliac artery aneurysms (CIAA). Aneurysmal involvement at the iliac bifurcation potentially undermines long-term durability.
Patients who underwent EVAR with CIAA were identified in two teaching hospitals. Bell-bottom technique (iliac limb ≥ 20mm) (BBT) or internal iliac artery embolization and limb extension to the external iliac artery (IIE+EE) were used. Outcome between these two approaches are compared.
One hundred and eighty five patients were identified. . Indication for EVAR included asymptomatic AAA (n=157), symptomatic or ruptured aneurysm (n=19), and common iliac artery aneurysm (n=9). Mean AAA diameter was 59 mm. A total of 260 large CIAAs were treated. One hundred and sixty six CIAA limbs were treated with BBT, 94 limbs underwent IIE+EE. Total reintervention rates were similar for BBT (n=19, 11%) and IIE+EE (n=18, 19.1%) (p=0.149). Similar rates of reintervention for type 1b or 3 endoleak are reported, BBT (n=7, 4%) versus IIE+EE (n=4, 4%) (p=1.0). There was no significant difference in limb patency rates. Thirty-day mortality was 1%. Median follow-up was 22 months. While there was no significant difference in complications between the two groups the combined incidence of perioperative complications and reinterventions was higher in the IIE+EE group (49% versus 22%, p-0.002).
The combined incidence of perioperative complications and reinterventions is significantly higher in the IIE+EE when compared with the BB technique. Therefore, when feasible, BB is desirable..
A 75-year old man presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and a clinical picture of hypovolemic shock. An emergency CT scan revealed a ruptured para-anastomotic left common iliac artery aneurysm. The patient had undergone an elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair operation and placement of an aortoiliac bifurcated graft 10 years before. Para-anastomotic aneurysms had developed in all 3 (aortic and the 2 iliac) anastomosis. As the patient was highrisk, a combined endovascular/surgical approach was undertaken. The patient was discharged 4 days later.
This article discusses the applicability of endovascular procedures in emergency settings to high-risk patients.
Endovascular procedures; high-risk patients; ruptured aneurysm repair; EVAR.
Isolated bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm is a rare and potentially lethal disease. Endovascular repair of this disorder is a matter of debate. A symptomatic 68-year-old male presented with severe pelvic pains. Computed tomography revealed a leaking 46-mm aneurysm in the right IIA, a 27-mm aneurysm in the left IIA, and ectatic changes at a diameter of 31 mm in the right common iliac artery (CIA). Due to lower rates of morbidity and mortality, an endovascular approach was chosen instead of open surgical repair. However, due to anatomical constraints, an endograft had to be implanted in a healthy aorta in order to support an iliac branch endograft in the left CIA. Subsequently, following coil embolization of the left IIA, an iliac stent graft was extended to the right external iliac artery (EIA). Two-year follow-up CT imaging showed complete exclusion of all the aneurysms and patency of the pelvic visceral arteries. The patient is currently asymptomatic.
Endovascular repair of bilateral isolated IIAs can be a feasible treatment option. However, due to limited availability of sizes in iliac branch devices currently on the market, a main body device is sometimes required to be deployed in a healthy aorta for additional endograft support.
Iliac aneurysm; Iliac artery; Treatment outcome
Congenital solitary pelvic kidney is a rare condition, and its association with an abdominal aortic aneurysm is even more unusual. To the best of our knowledge, only two such cases have been reported in the literature to date.
We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian man with a congenital solitary pelvic kidney, who was found to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm 83 mm in diameter. Abdominal computed tomography angiography clearly identified two renal arteries, one originating from the aortic bifurcation. and the other from the proximal portion of the right common iliac artery. At surgery, renal ischaemia was prevented by introduction of an axillofemoral shunt (consisting of two femoral cannulas and a vent tube of extracorporeal circulation) from the right axillary to the right femoral artery, and a second Argyle shunt from the right common iliac artery to the origin of the left renal artery. A 20 mm Dacron tube graft was then implanted. Our patient's postoperative renal function was normal.
The renal preservation double shunt technique used in this case seems to be effective during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
A 71-year-old patient was admitted for synchronous aneurysms of the aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk, and juxtarenal abdominal aorta involving the iliac arteries. The patient first underwent open surgical repair of the juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm by means of aorto-bifemoral bypass. Three months later, he underwent off-pump surgical repair of the aneurysm of the brachiocephalic trunk and bypass grafting from the ascending aorta to the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery, followed by successful exclusion of the aneurysm of the aortic arch by deployment of a Zenith TX1 custom-made endograft, inserted through a limb of the aorto-bifemoral graft.
Combined endovascular and open surgical treatment is an appealing new alternative to open surgical repair for complex aortic diseases. Debranching of the aortic arch enables endovascular grafting in this area, thereby avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. Staged and simultaneous procedures should be considered for the treatment of complex aortic diseases even in poor-risk patients; however, due to the investigative characteristics of these procedures, patient selection and postoperative follow-up should be carried out with utmost attention.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/surgery; aortic diseases/therapy; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/methods; brachiocephalic trunk; carotid arteries; stents; vascular surgical procedures/methods
We describe a case of successful surgical treatment for spontaneous rupture of an iliac artery aneurysm into a ureter. An 80-year-old man was admitted with massive hematuria. Immediate enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan and cystoscopy were suspicious for a uretero-arterial fistula caused by aneurysmal rupture. Emergent surgical intervention was performed because of the high mortality rate of this condition. Intraoperative findings revealed the fistula between the true aneurysm of the right common iliac artery and the ureter. Repair of the aneurysm and ligation of the ureter was performed, with an uneventful postoperative course.
uretero-arterial fistula; iliac aneurysm; spontaneous rupture
Abdominal compartment syndrome is a possible complication after aneurysm repair and has a high mortality rate. Although there has been an increment in patient survival rates after aneurysm repair, there has also been an increase in this entity. However, there are few data about the incidence and management of this complication after endovascular repair of a ruptured iliac artery aneurysm. The objective of this report is to describe a case of abdominal compartment syndrome after endovascular correction of a ruptured iliac artery aneurysm, emphasizing the importance of the accurate monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure, medical therapy and timely laparotomy. An 85-year old male was submitted to the endovascular repair of a ruptured iliac artery aneurysm. On the first day after the intervention, he developed abdominal compartment syndrome which did not resolve with medical therapy. Consequently, on the second postoperative day, a decompressive laparotomy was performed, removing the retroperitoneal haematoma, which was the main cause of the high intra-abdominal pressure and the abdominal compartment syndrome. At 12 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of complications. This case stresses the importance of early recognition of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Isolated iliac artery aneurysm; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Endovascular repair
The combination of Trans-Atlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC) D aortoiliac occlusive disease as well as a symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not a common occurrence. Extensive calcified atherosclerotic disease, occlusions, and small iliofemoral segmental arteries make transfemoral access difficult, if not impossible, for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in these patients. We present a case in which “controlled rupture” of the external iliac artery with a covered stent allowed transfemoral delivery of an aortouni-iliac stent graft with a completion femoral-to-femoral bypass. The patient is a 60-year-old male with a 5.3 cm symptomatic infrarenal AAA and a history of one block right leg claudication. Preoperative computed tomography angiography revealed the patient to have occlusion of the right common iliac artery, extensive calcified stenoses of his aortoiliac segments, and a prohibitively small left external iliac artery, which measured 4.5 mm at its narrowest diameter. The patient, despite discussions concerning the suitability of his iliac arteries as conduits for the delivery of the stent graft, insisted on an endovascular approach to lessen his chances of postoperative sexual dysfunction as well as minimize his length of stay. Access was obtained through bilateral femoral artery cutdowns, and attempts at dilating the left external iliac artery using 16-French dilators were performed without success. An 8 mm × 5 cm covered self-expanding stent was deployed in the diseased 4.5 mm left external iliac artery, followed by angioplasty performed with an 8 mm noncompliant balloon to disrupt the vessel. This endoconduit now allowed accommodation of our 18-French introducer for the aortouni-iliac stent graft. The operation was completed with a femoral—femoral bypass. Flow to both hypogastric arteries was preserved. We believe use of such techniques will ultimately expand the number of patients eligible for EVAR and avoid devastating access-related complications.
We report a case of ruptured mycotic aneurysm involving innominate artery requiring an urgent surgical treatment. A 62-yr-old woman presented with fever and dyspnea. Previously, she was diagnosed with colon cancer and received right hemicolectomy and one cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy. On echocardiogram, pericardial effusion was noted and emergency pericardiocentesis was performed. CT scan revealed aortic aneurysm involving ascending aorta and innominate artery, and thrombi surrounding those structures. Patch repair of the defect in the ascending aorta and ringed Goretex graft to bypass the innominate and ascending aorta were performed. We believe that this is the first case of ruptured mycotic aneurysm involving innominate artery.
We sought to evaluate and describe our centre’s experience with the Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) for the occlusion of common and internal iliac arteries (CIA; IIA) during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).
We performed a retrospective analysis of 20 consecutive patients between October 2006 and December 2007, who underwent occlusion of the CIA or IIA before or during EVAR to prevent endoleak.
Among these 20 patients, 21 occlusion procedures occurred and 20 were successful. In the only unsuccessful case, the patient had EVAR, but occlusion with an AVP was not possible because of severe narrowing at the origin of the vessel. Of the successfully treated patients, 2 presented with ruptured aneurysms, whereas the others had elective procedures. Eleven patients received aortouni-iliac grafts and femoral–femoral bypass, and 9 patients received a bifurcated stent graft. In 5 patients, the AVP occlusion and EVAR procedures were staged; in these cases occlusion occurred first, followed by EVAR on average 29 (standard deviation [SD] 23) days later. We deployed 7 AVPs in the CIA, whereas 13 were deployed in the IIA. The average diameter of the vessels occluded was 10 (SD 1) mm and the average size of the device used was 13 (SD 1) mm, representing a device diameter 28% (SD 2%) greater than the vessel diameter. We used a single device in 18 patients, whereas 2 devices were deployed in the same artery in 2 patients. Four patients underwent concomitant coil embolization. On follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans, all occlusion procedures were clinically successful. At the 14-month (SD 1 mo) follow-up, 4 patients had a small type-II endoleak unrelated to the occlusion procedure and 1 had a type-I endoleak that required graft limb extension. Four patients had buttock claudication but none had changes in sexual function, ischemic complications or device dislodgement on CT scans.
The AVP is a safe and effective method to occlude the CIA and IIA in patients undergoing EVAR.
Popliteal artery aneurysms representing 80% of peripheral artery aneurysms rarely rupture (a reported incidence of 0.1–2.8 %) and second commonest in frequency after aorto-iliac aneurysms. They usually present with pain, swelling, occlusion or distal embolisation and can cause diagnostic difficulties. We report a 78 year old man who was previously admitted to hospital with a pulmonary embolus secondary to deep venous thrombosis. He was heparinized then warfarinised and was readmitted with a ruptured popliteal aneurysm leading to a large pseudo aneurysm formation. The pulmonary embolus had been due to popliteal vein thrombosis and propagation of the clot. A thorough review of literature identified only one previously reported case of ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm and subsequent large pseudo aneurysm formation. We feel it is important to exclude a popliteal aneurysm in a patient with DVT. This may be more common than the published literature suggests.
We report a case of surgically treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a patient having crossed ectopia with fusion anomaly of the kidney. One artery from the abdominal aorta above the aneurysm supplies the right kidney while three renal arteries (two from the aneurysm itself and one from the left common iliac artery) supply the crossed ectopic kidney. Preoperative imaging to define the arterial and collecting systems along with a detailed planning of the operation is essential to prevent ischemic renal injury as well as ureteral injury during AAA repair.
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Renal Ectopia; Abnormrlities
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
During endovascular aneurysm repair, interruption of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) or internal iliac arteries (IIAs) is thought to be associated with postoperative pelvic ischemic complications, including ischemic colitis. However, preserving the IIA does not guarantee protection against ischemic colitis. We herein report two cases of bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms, which were treated with bifurcated stent grafting with bilateral IIA embolization and simultaneous IMA stent placement to prevent colonic ischemia. This procedure might be effective for both preserving the IMA circulation and preventing ischemic colitis.
endovascular aneurysm repair; inferior mesenteric artery; ischemia colitis
Our objective was to identify morphologic trends in elective and emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This work will inform hospitals with endovascular programs about the diameters and lengths of endostents that should be available to efficiently care for patients with these conditions.
We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing elective (n = 127) and emergency (n = 17) EVAR. Using computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions, we evaluated the following: diameters of the aneurysm (D3), the aorta at the superior mesenteric (D1) and renal (D2a,b,c; 3 levels) levels, the iliac arteries (D5a,b; right and left) and the aortic bifurcation (D4); lengths from the lowest renal artery to the distal aspect of the aortic neck (H1), to the aortic bifurcation (H3), to the right and left iliac bifurcations (H4a,b); and angles of the origin of the common iliac arteries on the transverse plane (A1). We used descriptive statistics of trends within groups and independent sample t tests.
In elective and emergency aneurysm repair, D2max (26, standard deviation [SD] 3, mm v. 30.7 [SD 3] mm), D5a (16 [SD 4.7] mm v. 19.3 [SD 5] mm), D5b (15.3 [SD 4] mm v. 18.1 [SD 3.6] mm), H1 (25.6 [SD 8.6] mm v. 18 [SD 2] mm), H4a (173 [SD 22] mm v. 189.5 [SD 22] mm) and H4b (174 [SD 25] mm v. 190 [SD 14] mm) were significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.006, p = 0.007, p < 0.001, p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively). H3 (118 [SD 17] mm v. 121.5 [SD 13.5] mm) was not significantly different (p = 0.40). In elective patients, A1 identified the right common iliac more frequently anterior relative to the left common iliac (mean 23°, SD 16°).
Significant anatomic differences between elective and emergency patients will require hospitals to stock separate endovascular devices to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms in both groups.
Horseshoe kidney is a rare congenital anomaly that can create various technical problems during surgery for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The diagnosis of this anomaly should be confirmed preoperatively in order to plan surgical strategy. Nowadays, in more than 90% of all cases, ultrasonography, contrast computerized tomography, urography, and angiography are the best instrumental methods of detecting this anomaly in association with abdominal aortic aneurysm. The transperitoneal approach assures the best exposure of the kidney, the ureters, the aneurysm, and both iliac vessels, but the renal isthmus can pose a problem in reimplanting aberrant renal arteries. When it is known preoperatively that renal revascularization should be performed, the left extraperitoneal approach is a better choice. In any event, the coexistence of horseshoe kidney and abdominal aortic aneurysm does not preclude the treatment of the latter. In elective surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm, the morbidity and mortality rates in the presence of horseshoe kidney are much the same as those in the presence of normal kidneys. The best results in this kind of surgery are obtained by adapting one's surgical technique to each anatomical variant that is encountered.
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with
Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital
because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed
tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in
maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral
wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant
signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery
on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm
was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft
was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter
fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this
case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic
AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and
tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
Purpose: We have reviewed ruptured and nonruptured infected aortoiliac aneurysms to study the clinical presentation, management and eventual outcome of patients managed with in situ prostheses, axillofemoral prostheses grafts and endovascular reconstruction.
Design: A retrospective chart review of 16 cases treated at a single institution.
Methods: From January 2007 to March 2008, a total of 93 patients with aortoiliac aneurysms underwent surgical repair at our institution. Among these, 16 patients (17.2%) were shown to be infected aneurysms of the infrarenal (n = 6), juxtarenal (n = 2), and pararenal aorta (n = 1); the others were 5 common, 1 external, and 1 internal iliac arteries. Fourteen patients were male and 2 were female with the mean age of 66 years (range, 45–79). In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal computed tomography and empirical parenteral antibiotics were administered at least 1 week, unless in patients need emergency operations. At the time of an operation, all were saccular and were classified as primary infected aortoiliac aneurysms. Thirteen patients had surgical debridement with in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping, 2 underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass, 1 underwent aneurysmectomy of left external iliac artery and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft interposition, and 1 underwent endovascular exclusion. The parenteral antibiotics were continued in the postoperative period for 4–6 weeks. Chronic renal disease was present in 37.5% (6/16), with diabetes mellitus present in 31.25% (5/16). The most common pathogen was Salmonella sp. (n = 6) and E. coli (n = 5). Thirty-seven percent (6/16) of the patients presented late, with a 37.5% (6/16) incidence of ruptured (4 contained, 2 free ruptured) that needed emergency surgery.
Results: Disease-specific mortality was 31.25% (5/16). The 30-day mortality rate of ruptured cases is high 67% (4/6), because patients present late in the course of the disease. One patient who underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass died 6 months later from burst aortic stump. Salmonella and E. coli are the most common pathogens.
Conclusions: Early diagnosis followed by surgical intervention with proper antibiotic coverage provides the best results. Mortality rate was still high in patients with sepsis and rupture. An in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping is a safe option for revascularization of infected aneurysms of the iliac arteries and infrarenal aorta.
infected aortoiliac aneurysms; open repair; endovascular repair