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1.  Cross-scale, cross-pathway evaluation using an agent-based non-small cell lung cancer model 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(18):2389-2396.
We present a multiscale agent-based non-small cell lung cancer model that consists of a 3D environment with which cancer cells interact while processing phenotypic changes. At the molecular level, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) has been integrated into our previously developed in silico model as a second extrinsic input in addition to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The main aim of this study is to investigate how the effects of individual and combinatorial change in EGF and TGFβ concentrations at the molecular level alter tumor growth dynamics on the multi-cellular level, specifically tumor volume and expansion rate. Our simulation results show that separate EGF and TGFβ fluctuations trigger competing multi-cellular phenotypes, yet synchronous EGF and TGFβ signaling yields a spatially more aggressive tumor that overall exhibits an EGF-driven phenotype. By altering EGF and TGFβ concentration levels simultaneously and asynchronously, we discovered a particular region of EGF-TGFβ profiles that ensures phenotypic stability of the tumor system. Within this region, concentration changes in EGF and TGFβ do not impact the resulting multi-cellular response substantially, while outside these concentration ranges, a change at the molecular level will substantially alter either tumor volume or tumor expansion rate, or both. By evaluating tumor growth dynamics across different scales, we show that, under certain conditions, therapeutic targeting of only one signaling pathway may be insufficient. Potential implications of these in silico results for future clinico-pharmacological applications are discussed.
Contact: deisboec@helix.mgh.harvard.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp416
PMCID: PMC2735669  PMID: 19578172
2.  IMPAIRED SHP2-MEDIATED ERK ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO GEFITINIB SENSITIVITY OF LUNG CANCER CELLS WITH EGFR-ACTIVATING MUTATIONS 
Cancer research  2010;70(9):3843-3850.
Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but response to EGFR kinase inhibitors is predominantly limited to NSCLC harboring EGFR-activating mutations. These mutations are associated with increased activity of survival pathways including PI3K/AKT and STAT3/5. We report that EGFR-activating mutations also surprisingly lead to decreased ability to activate ERK compared to wild-type EGFR. In NSCLC cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing mutant EGFR, this effect on ERK correlates with decreased EGFR internalization and reduced phosphorylation of SHP2, a tyrosine phosphatase required for the full activation of ERK. We further demonstrate that ERK activation levels impact cellular response to gefitinib. NSCLC cells with EGFR mutation display reduced gefitinib sensitivity when ERK activation is augmented by expression of constitutively active mutants of MEK. Conversely, in an NSCLC cell line expressing wild-type EGFR, gefitinib treatment along with or following MEK inhibition increases death response compared to treatment with gefitinib alone. Our results demonstrate that EGFR-activating mutations may promote some survival pathways but simultaneously impair others. This multivariate alteration of the network governing cellular response to gefitinib, which we term “oncogene imbalance”, portends a potentially broader ability to treat gefitinib-resistant NSCLC.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3421
PMCID: PMC2862125  PMID: 20406974
endocytosis; oncogene addiction; MEK; non-small cell lung cancer
3.  Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in combination with expression of MIG6 alters gefitinib sensitivity 
BMC Systems Biology  2011;5:29.
Background
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and invasion in various tumors. Earlier studies showed that the EGFR is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and EGFR mutations at specific amino acid residues in the kinase domain induce altered responsiveness to gefitinib, a small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, the mechanism underlying the drug response modulated by EGFR mutation is still largely unknown. To elucidate drug response in EGFR signal transduction pathway in which complex dynamics of multiple molecules involved, a systematic approach is necessary. In this paper, we performed experimental and computational analyses to clarify the underlying mechanism of EGFR signaling and cell-specific gefitinib responsiveness in three H1299-derived NSCLC cell lines; H1299 wild type (H1299WT), H1299 with an overexpressed wild type EGFR (H1299EGFR-WT), and H1299 with an overexpressed mutant EGFR L858R (H1299L858R; gefitinib sensitive mutant).
Results
We predicted and experimentally verified that Mig6, which is a known negative regulator of EGFR and specifically expressed in H1299L858R cells, synergized with gefitinib to suppress cellular growth. Computational analyses indicated that this inhibitory effect is amplified at the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation steps of MEK and ERK.
Conclusions
Thus, we showed that L858R receptor mutation in combination with expression of its negative regulator, Mig6, alters signaling outcomes and results in variable drug sensitivity.
doi:10.1186/1752-0509-5-29
PMCID: PMC3224393  PMID: 21333004
4.  Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) is an ETS-regulated negative feedback mediator of oncogenic ERK signaling in lung cancer cells 
Carcinogenesis  2010;31(4):577-586.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling plays an important role in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In a prior microarray analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition in NSCLC cell lines, we noted that several dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) were among the most highly and immediately regulated genes. DUSPs act as natural terminators of MAPK signal transduction and therefore, we hypothesized a tumor suppressive role via feedback mechanisms. In the current study, we focus on the assessment of DUSP6, a cytoplasmic DUSP with high specificity for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that DUSP6 expression tracks in tandem with ERK inhibition and that regulation of DUSP6 is mediated at the promoter level by ETS1, a well-known nuclear target of activated ERK. Small interfering RNA knockdown in DUSP6-high H441 lung cancer cells significantly increased ERK activation and cellular proliferation, whereas plasmid-driven overexpression in DUSP6-low H1975 lung cancer cells significantly reduced ERK activation and cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Also, DUSP6 overexpression synergized with EGFR inhibitor treatment in EGFR-mutant HCC827 cells. Our results indicate that DUSP6 expression is regulated by ERK signaling and that DUSP6 exerts antitumor effects via negative feedback regulation, pointing to an important feedback loop in NSCLC. Further studies assessing the tumor suppressive role of DUSP6 and strategies aimed at modulation of its activity are warranted.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq020
PMCID: PMC2847094  PMID: 20097731
5.  Diminished Functional Role and Altered Localization of Shp2 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells With Egfr-Activating Mutations 
Oncogene  2012;32(18):2346-235610.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells harboring activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tend to display elevated activity of several survival signaling pathways. Surprisingly, these mutations also correlate with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase required for complete ERK activation downstream of most receptor tyrosine kinases. Since ERK activity influences cellular response to EGFR inhibition, altered SHP2 function could play a role in the striking response to gefitinib witnessed with EGFR mutation. Here, we demonstrate that impaired SHP2 phosphorylation correlates with diminished SHP2 function in NSCLC cells expressing mutant, versus wild-type, EGFR. In NSCLC cells expressing wild-type EGFR, SHP2 knockdown decreased ERK phosphorylation, basally and in response to gefitinib, and increased cellular sensitivity to gefitinib. In cells expressing EGFR mutants, these effects of SHP2 knockdown were less substantial, but expression of constitutively active SHP2 reduced cellular sensitivity to gefitinib. In cells expressing EGFR mutants, which do not undergo efficient ligand-mediated endocytosis, SHP2 was basally associated with GAB1 and EGFR, and SHP2′s presence in membrane fractions was dependent on EGFR activity. Whereas EGF promoted a more uniform intracellular distribution of initially centrally localized SHP2 in cells expressing wild-type EGFR, SHP2 was basally evenly distributed and did not redistribute in response to EGF in cells with EGFR mutation. Thus, EGFR mutation may promote association of a fraction of SHP2 at the plasma membrane with adapters which promote SHP2 activity. Consistent with this, SHP2 immunoprecipitated from cells with EGFR mutation was active, and EGF treatment did not change this activity. Overall, our data suggest that a fraction of SHP2 is sequestered at the plasma membrane in cells with EGFR mutation in a way that impedes SHP2′s ability to promote ERK activity and identify SHP2 as a potential target for co-inhibition with EGFR in NSCLC.
doi:10.1038/onc.2012.240
PMCID: PMC3727284  PMID: 22777356
oncogene addiction; extracellular signal-regulated kinase; gefitinib; endocytosis; GRB2-associated binder-1
6.  Cross-Scale Sensitivity Analysis of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Model: Linking Molecular Signaling Properties to Cellular Behavior 
Bio Systems  2008;92(3):249-258.
Sensitivity analysis is an effective tool for systematically identifying specific perturbations in parameters that have significant effects on the behavior of a given biosystem, at the scale investigated. In this work, using a two-dimensional, multiscale non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) model, we examine the effects of perturbations in system parameters which span both molecular and cellular levels, i.e. across scales of interest. This is achieved by first linking molecular and cellular activities and then assessing the influence of parameters at the molecular level on the tumor’s spatio-temporal expansion rate, which serves as the output behavior at the cellular level. Overall, the algorithm operated reliably over relatively large variations of most parameters, hence confirming the robustness of the model. However, three pathway components (proteins PKC, MEK, and ERK) and eleven reaction steps were determined to be of critical importance by employing a sensitivity coefficient as an evaluation index. Each of these sensitive parameters exhibited a similar changing pattern in that a relatively larger increase or decrease in its value resulted in a lesser influence on the system’s cellular performance. This study provides a novel cross-scaled approach to analyzing sensitivities of computational model parameters and proposes its application to interdisciplinary biomarker studies.
doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2008.03.002
PMCID: PMC2430419  PMID: 18448237
agent-based model; cellular behavior; epidermal growth factor; expansion rate; non-small cell lung cancer; sensitivity analysis
7.  Gefitinib-Induced Killing of NSCLC Cell Lines Expressing Mutant EGFR Requires BIM and Can Be Enhanced by BH3 Mimetics 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(10):e316.
Background
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Abnormalities in EGF-EGFR signaling, such as mutations that render the EGFR hyperactive or cause overexpression of the wild-type receptor, have been found in a broad range of cancers, including carcinomas of the lung, breast, and colon. EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib have proven successful in the treatment of certain cancers, particularly non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring activating mutations within the EGFR gene, but the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor regression remain unknown. Therefore, we wished to delineate these mechanisms.
Methods and Findings
We performed biochemical and genetic studies to investigate the mechanisms by which inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, such as gefitinib, inhibit the growth of human NSCLCs. We found that gefitinib triggered intrinsic (also called “mitochondrial”) apoptosis signaling, involving the activation of BAX and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, ultimately unleashing the caspase cascade. Gefitinib caused a rapid increase in the level of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM (also called BCL2-like 11) through both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that blockade of MEK–ERK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase–extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2) signaling, but not blockade of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase 8), or AKT (protein kinase B), was critical for BIM activation. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated that BIM is essential for gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cells. Moreover, we found that gefitinib-induced apoptosis is enhanced by addition of the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.
Conclusions
Inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase have proven useful in the therapy of certain cancers, in particular NSCLCs possessing activating mutations in the EGFR kinase domain, but the mechanisms of tumor cell killing are still unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that activation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM is essential for tumor cell killing and that shutdown of the EGFR–MEK–ERK signaling cascade is critical for BIM activation. Moreover, we demonstrate that addition of a BH3 mimetic significantly enhances killing of NSCLC cells by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. It appears likely that this approach represents a paradigm shared by many, and perhaps all, oncogenic tyrosine kinases and suggests a powerful new strategy for cancer therapy.
Andreas Strasser and colleagues demonstrate that activation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM is essential for tumor cell killing and that shutdown of the EGFR−MEK−ERK signaling cascade is critical for BIM activation.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Normally, cell division (which produces new cells) and cell death are finely balanced to keep the human body in good working order. But sometimes cells acquire changes (mutations) in their genetic material that allow them to divide uncontrollably to form cancers—life-threatening, disorganized masses of cells. One protein with a critical role in cell division that is often mutated in tumors is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In normal cells, protein messengers bind to EGFR and activate its tyrosine kinase. This enzyme then adds phosphate groups to tyrosine (an amino acid) in proteins that form part of signaling cascades (for example, the MEK–ERK signaling cascade) that tell the cell to divide. In cancers that have mutations in EGFR, signaling is overactive so the cancer cells divide much more than they should. Some non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, the commonest type of lung cancer), for example, have activating mutations within the EGFR tyrosine kinase. Treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib induces the cells in these tumors to stop growing and die. This cell death causes tumor shrinkage (regression) and increases the life expectancy of patients with this type of NSCLC.
Why Was This Study Done?
Unfortunately, treatment with TKIs rarely cures NSCLC, so it would be useful to find a way to augment the effect that TKIs have on cancer cells. To do this, the molecular mechanisms that cause cancer-cell death and tumor regression in response to these drugs need to be fully understood. In this study, the researchers have used a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to investigate how gefitinib kills NSCLC cells with mutated EGFR.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first measured the sensitivity of NSCLC cell lines (tumor cells that grow indefinitely in dishes) to gefitinib-induced apoptosis. Gefitinib caused extensive apoptosis in two cell lines expressing mutant EGFR but not in one expressing normal EGFR. Next, they investigated the mechanism of gefitinib-induced apoptosis in the most sensitive cell line (H3255). Apoptosis is activated via two major pathways. Hallmarks of the “intrinsic” pathway include activation of a protein called BAX and cytochrome c release from subcellular compartments known as mitochondria. Gefitinib treatment induced both these events in H3255 cells. BAX (a proapoptotic member of the BCL-2 family of proteins) is activated when proapoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 proteins (for example, BIM; “BH3-only” describes the structure of these proteins) bind to antiapoptotic BCL2 proteins. Gefitinib treatment rapidly increased BIM activity in H3255 and HCC827 cells (but not in gefitinib-resistant cells) by increasing the production of BIM protein and the removal of phosphate groups from it, which increases BIM activity. Pharmacological blockade of the MEK–ERK signaling cascade, but not of other EGFR signaling cascades, also caused the accumulation of BIM. By contrast, blocking BIM expression using a technique called RNA interference reduced gefitinib-induced apoptosis. Finally, a combination of gefitinib and a BH3-mimicking compound called ABT-737 (which, like BIM, binds to antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins) caused more apoptosis than gefitinib alone.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings (and those reported by Gong et al. and Costa et al.) indicate that activation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM is essential for gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cells that carry EGFR tyrosine kinase mutations. They also show that inhibition of the EGFR–MEK–ERK signaling cascade by gefitinib is essential for BIM activation. Because these findings come from studies on NSCLC cell lines, they need confirming in freshly isolated tumor cells and in tumors growing in people. However, the demonstration that a compound that mimics BH3 action enhances gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cells suggests that combinations of TKIs and drugs that affect the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis activation might provide a powerful strategy for treating cancers in which tyrosine kinase mutations drive tumor growth.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040316.
A perspective by Ingo Mellinghoff discusses this article and two related research articles
Wikipedia pages on epidermal growth factor receptor, apoptosis, and BCL2 proteins (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
CancerQuest provides information on all aspects of cancer from Emory University (in several languages)
US National Cancer Institute information for patients and professionals on lung cancer (in English and Spanish)
Information for patients from Cancer Research UK on lung cancer including information on treatment with TKIs
Information for patients from Cancerbackup on erlotinib and gefitinib
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040316
PMCID: PMC2043013  PMID: 17973573
8.  Aberrant trafficking of NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants through the endocytic recycling pathway promotes interaction with Src@ 
BMC Cell Biology  2009;10:84.
Background
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and altered EGFR signaling contributes to human cancer. EGFR kinase domain mutants found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are constitutively active, a trait critical for cell transformation through activation of downstream pathways. Endocytic trafficking of EGFR is a major regulatory mechanism as ligand-induced lysosomal degradation results in termination of signaling. While numerous studies have examined mutant EGFR signaling, the endocytic traffic of mutant EGFR within the NSCLC milieu remains less clear.
Results
This study shows that mutant EGFRs in NSCLC cell lines are constitutively endocytosed as shown by their colocalization with the early/recycling endosomal marker transferrin and the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1. Notably, mutant EGFRs, but not the wild-type EGFR, show a perinuclear accumulation and colocalization with recycling endosomal markers such as Rab11 and EHD1 upon treatment of cells with endocytic recycling inhibitor monensin, suggesting that mutant EGFRs preferentially traffic through the endocytic recycling compartments. Importantly, monensin treatment enhanced the mutant EGFR association and colocalization with Src, indicating that aberrant transit through the endocytic recycling compartment promotes mutant EGFR-Src association.
Conclusion
The findings presented in this study show that mutant EGFRs undergo aberrant traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment which allows mutant EGFRs to engage in a preferential interaction with Src, a critical partner for EGFR-mediated oncogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-10-84
PMCID: PMC2790444  PMID: 19948031
9.  Epidermal growth factor receptor regulates MET levels and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in non-small cell lung cancer cells 
Oncogene  2010;29(18):2616-2627.
Recent studies have established that amplification of the MET proto-oncogene can cause resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with EGFR-activating mutations. The role of non-amplified MET in EGFR-dependent signaling before TKI resistance, however, is not well understood. Using NSCLC cell lines and transgenic models, we demonstrate here that EGFR activation by either mutation or ligand binding increases MET gene expression and protein levels. Our analysis of 202 NSCLC patient specimens was consistent with these observations: levels of MET were significantly higher in NSCLC with EGFR mutations than in NSCLC with wild-type EGFR. EGFR regulation of MET levels in cell lines occurred through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α pathway in a hypoxia-independent manner. This regulation was lost, however, after MET gene amplification or overexpression of a constitutively active form of HIF-1α. EGFR- and hypoxia-induced invasiveness of NSCLC cells, but not cell survival, were found to be MET dependent. These findings establish that, absent MET amplification, EGFR signaling can regulate MET levels through HIF-1α and that MET is a key downstream mediator of EGFR-induced invasiveness in EGFR-dependent NSCLC cells.
doi:10.1038/onc.2010.16
PMCID: PMC3378055  PMID: 20154724
EGFR; MET; non-small cell lung cancer; HIF-1α; invasiveness
10.  Cooperative Interaction between Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 with EGFR blockade in Lung Cancer 
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) targeting in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an established treatment modality, yet only benefits a minority of patients. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) plays an important role in the oncogenic signal transduction pathway of NSCLC. Inhibition of STAT3 results in NSCLC growth inhibition and apoptosis. We have previously shown that combined inhibition of EGFR and STAT3 by small molecules resulted in improved therapeutic efficacy as compared to blocking EGFR alone. However, the STAT3 protein has a number of endogenous negative regulators including PIAS3 (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3). In this study we investigated for the first time the role of PIAS3 in modulating oncogenic EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway in lung cancer and the antiproliferative effect of using PIAS3 in conjunction with EGFR blockade in NSCLC. We demonstrate that PIAS3 is expressed in variable degrees in all NSCLC cells. EGF and IL-6 stimulation resulted in the association of PIAS3 with STAT3. The PIAS3/STAT3 complex then bound the STAT3 DNA binding sequence resulting in STAT3 regulated gene expression. Over-expression of PIAS3, using a PIAS3 expression construct, decreases STAT3 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, over-expression of PIAS3 consistently decreased proliferation. EGFR blockade and PIAS3 over-expression in combination had significantly greater anti-proliferative effects as compared to either EGFR blockade or PIAS3 over-expression alone. In conclusion, PIAS3 is expressed in NSCLC cell lines and its over-expression decreased STAT3 transcriptional activity, decreased proliferation of NSCLC cells and when used in conjunction with EGFR inhibitors, increased the anti-proliferative effects.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24553
PMCID: PMC2764252  PMID: 19569236
11.  Landscape of EGFR Signaling Network in Human Cancers: Biology and Therapeutic Response in Relation to Receptor Subcellular Locations 
Cancer Letters  2012;318(2):124-134.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is one of the most dysregulated molecular pathways in human cancers. Despite its well-established importance in tumor growth, progression and drug-resistant phenotype over the past several decades, targeted therapy designed to circumvent EGFR has yielded only modest clinical success in cancer patients, except those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying EGFR activation mutations. However, almost all of these NSCLC patients eventually developed resistance to small molecule EGFR kinase inhibitors. These disappointing outcomes are, in part, due to the high complexity and the interactive nature of the EGFR signaling network. More recent compelling evidence further indicates that EGFR functionality can be dependent on its subcellular location. In this regard, EGFR undergoes translocation into different organelles where it elicits distinctly different functions than its best known activity as a plasma membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase. EGFR can be shuttled into the cell nucleus and mitochondrion upon ligand binding, radiation, EGFR-targeted therapy and other stimuli. Nuclear EGFR behaves as transcriptional regulator, tyrosine kinase, and mediator of other physiological processes. The role of mitochondrial EGFR remains poorly understood but it appears to regulate apoptosis. While studies using patient tumors have shown nuclear EGFR to be an indicator for poor clinical outcomes in cancer patients, the impact of mitochondrial EGFR on tumor behavior and patient prognosis remains to be defined. Most recently, several lines of evidence suggest that mislocated EGFR may regulate tumor response to therapy and that plasma membrane-bound EGFR elicits survival signals independent of its kinase activity. In light of these recent progresses and discoveries, we will outline in this minireview an emerging line of research that uncovers and functionally characterizes several novel modes of EGFR signaling that take center stage in the cell nucleus, mitochondrion and other subcellular compartments. We will also discuss the clinical implications of these findings in the rationale design for therapeutic strategy that overcomes tumor drug resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.01.011
PMCID: PMC3304012  PMID: 22261334
12.  Response to gefitinib and erlotinib in Non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective study 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:333.
Background
In Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an overactive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is a component of the malignant phenotype. Two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of EGFR, gefinitib and erlotinib, have been used with variable benefit.
Methods
We have analyzed outcome data of a population of NSCLC patients that received these TKIs to determine the benefit derived and to define the clinical and molecular parameters that correlate with response. Tumor tissue from a subgroup of these patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to measure the expression level of EGFR and four activated (phosphorylated) members of the pathway, pEGFR, pERK, pAKT, and pSTAT3.
Results
Erlotinib was slightly superior to gefitinib in all measures of response, although the differences were not statistically significant. The most robust clinical predictors of time to progression (TTP) were best response and rash (p < 0.0001). A higher level of pEGFR was associated with longer TTP, while the total EGFR level was not associated with response. Higher levels of pAKT and pSTAT3 were also associated with longer TTP. In contrast, a higher level of pERK1/2 was associated with shorter TTP.
Conclusion
These observations suggest the hypothesis that tumor cells that have activated EGFR pathways, presumably being utilized for survival, are clinically relevant targets for pathway inhibition. An accurate molecular predictive model of TKI response should include activated members of the EGFR pathway. TKIs may be best reserved for tumors expressing pEGFR and pAKT or pSTAT, and little pERK. In the absence of molecular predictors of response, the appearance of a rash and a positive first scan are good clinical indicators of response.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-333
PMCID: PMC2758901  PMID: 19765296
13.  Somatic mutations of the EGF receptor and their signal transducers affect the efficacy of EGF receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors 
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major subtype of lung cancer that has been the most common and most fatal cancer worldwide. Gefitinib (Iressa™) and erlotinib (Tarceva™), specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), have been demonstrated to be effective for some NSCLC patients and are pioneering molecular-targeted drugs used in the clinic for cancer. Because many studies indicate that only some patient populations benefit from these drugs, there has been an urgent need to develop diagnostic methods to select appropriate patients for whom treatment with these drugs will be beneficial. Moreover, problems of acquired resistance after long-term treatment with the drugs have emerged. In this review, I summarize the current understanding of the EGFR-activated signal transduction pathway, which plays important roles in tumorigenesis, and of the molecular mechanisms that determine the sensitivity toward EGFR-TKI.
PMCID: PMC3096503  PMID: 21594003
HER; ErbB; Ras; PI-3 kinase; lungadenocarcinoma; acquired resistance
14.  Combined assessment of EGFR pathway-related molecular markers and prognosis of NSCLC patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;100(1):145-152.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of the combined assessment of multiple molecular markers related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Tumour specimens of 178 NSCLC patients were collected and analysed for EGFR and KRAS mutation status by DNA sequencing, and for EGFR copy number by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Tissue microarrays were generated and used to determine the expression of multiple EGFR pathway-related proteins by immunohistochemistry. We analysed the association between each marker and patient prognosis. Univariate analyses for each clinical variable and each molecular marker were performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests. From these results, we selected the variables KRAS mutations and expression of cytoplasmic EGFR, granular pERK, nuclear pSTAT3, cytoplasmic E-cadherin and cytoplasmic pCMET to enter into a Cox proportional hazards model, along with stage as the strongest clinical variable related with prognosis. Of the EGFR-related markers evaluated here, the markers EGFR, pERK, pSTAT3, E-cadherin, pCMET and mutations in KRAS were associated with survival when analysed in combination in our patient cohort, with P=0.00015 as the P-value for a test of the additional impact of markers on prognosis, after taking stage into consideration. Confirmation of the impact of these markers in independent studies will be necessary.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604781
PMCID: PMC2634682  PMID: 19050706
EGFR pathway; NSCLC; prognosis; CMET; KRAS; biomarkers
15.  Antiestrogen fulvestrant enhances the antiproliferative effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in human non-small cell lung cancer 
Introduction
Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and its interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a potential therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To explore cross-communication between ER and EGFR, we have correlated ER pathway gene and protein expression profiles and examined effects of antiestrogens with or without EGFR inhibitors in preclinical models of human NSCLC.
Methods
We evaluated 54 NSCLC cell lines for growth inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, antiestrogen treatment or the combination. Each line was evaluated for baseline ER pathway protein expression. The majority were also evaluated for baseline ER pathway gene expression. Human NSCLC xenografts were evaluated for effects of inhibition of each pathway either individually or in combination.
Results
The specific antiestrogen fulvestrant has modest single agent activity in vitro, but in many lines fulvestrant adds to effects of EGFR inhibitors, including synergy in the EGFR mutant, erlotinib-resistant H1975 line. ERα, ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR)-A, PR-B and aromatase proteins are expressed in all lines to varying degrees, with trends towards lower aromatase in more sensitive cell lines. Sensitivity to fulvestrant correlates with greater baseline ERα gene expression. Tumor stability is achieved in human tumor xenografts with either fulvestrant or EGFR inhibitors, but tumors regress significantly when both pathways are inhibited.
Conclusions
These data provide a rationale for further investigation of the antitumor activity of combined therapy with antiestrogen and anti-EGFR agents in the clinic. Future work should also evaluate dual ER and EGFR inhibition in the setting of secondary resistance to EGFR inhibition.
doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31827d525c
PMCID: PMC3573351  PMID: 23399957
epidermal growth factor receptor; estrogen; estrogen receptor; lung cancer; fulvestrant
16.  Targeting mTOR to Overcome Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69104.
Aims
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic clinical benefits in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance remains a serious problem in clinical practice. The present study analyzed mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences between the EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines and investigated the feasibility of targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitor in EGFR TKI resistant NSCLC cells.
Methods
We selected four different types of EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cells: PC9, PC9GR, H1650 and H1975 cells as models to detect mTOR-associated signaling-pathway differences by western blot and Immunoprecipitation and evaluated the antiproliferative effect and cell cycle arrest of ku-0063794 by MTT method and flow cytometry.
Results
In the present study, we observed that mTORC2-associated Akt ser473-FOXO1 signaling pathway in a basal state was highly activated in resistant cells. In vitro mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase activities assays showed that EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines had higher mTORC2 kinase activity, whereas sensitive cells had higher mTORC1 kinase activity in the basal state. The ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor ku-0063794 showed dramatic antiproliferative effects and G1-cell cycle arrest in both sensitive and resistant cells. Ku-0063794 at the IC50 concentration effectively inhibited both mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation levels; the latter is an mTORC1 substrate and did not upregulate Akt ser473 phosphorylation which would be induced by rapamycin and resulted in partial inhibition of FOXO1 phosphorylation. We also observed that EGFR TKI-sensitive and -resistant clinical NSCLC tumor specimens had higher total and phosphorylated p70S6K expression levels.
Conclusion
Our results indicate mTORC2-associated signaling-pathway was hyperactivated in EGFR TKI-resistant cells and targeting mTOR with specific mTOR inhibitors is likely a good strategy for patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC who develop EGFR TKI resistance; the potential specific roles of mTORC2 in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells were still unknown and should be further investigated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069104
PMCID: PMC3712950  PMID: 23874880
17.  Association of epidermal growth factor receptor and K-Ras mutations with smoking history in non-small cell lung cancer patients 
Lung cancer, a major health problem affecting the epithelial lining of the lower respiratory tract, is considered to be one of the deadliest types of cancer in males and females and it is well-known that smoking is the chief cause of lung cancer. In addition to smoking and environmental factors, genetic susceptibility may also contribute to the development of lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that certain non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor gain-of-function mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR). Phosphorylated EGFR triggers the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, including the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-Akt and STAT pathways. However, K-Ras gene point mutations in codons 12, 13 or 61 cause the inactivation of GTPase activity which results in overstimulation of cellular growth and gives rise to neoplastic development. Our aim was to investigate the presence and association of EGFR and K-Ras mutations in 50 primary NSCLC patients with a smoking history by using real-time PCR and sequencing. EGFR mutations were detected in four patients (8%). Two of these mutations were L858R mutations and the remaining two were deletion mutations spanning between codons 746 and 750. The L858R mutation was significantly associated with smoking status (P=0.003). K-Ras codon 12 and 61 mutations were also observed in four patients. However, no association was observed between K-Ras mutations and the tumor staging, gender, histology and smoking status of the patients.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.829
PMCID: PMC3570153  PMID: 23403410
non-small cell lung cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor; K-Ras; smoking
18.  The Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Network and its Role in Cancer 
Discovery Medicine  2011;12(66):419-432.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). EGFR activation via ligand binding results in signaling through various pathways ultimately resulting in cellular proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Aberrant expression or activity of EGFR has been strongly linked to the etiology of several human epithelial cancers including but not limited to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and brain cancer. Thus intense efforts have been made to inhibit the activity of EGFR by designing antibodies against the ligand binding domains (cetuximab and panitumumab) or small molecules against the tyrosine kinase domains (erlotinib, gefitinib, and lapatinib). Although targeting membrane bound EGFR has shown benefit a new and emerging role for the EGFR is now being elucidated. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge of the nuclear EGFR signaling network, including how it is trafficked to the nucleus, the functions it serves in the nucleus, and how these functions impact cancer progression, survival and response to chemotherapeutics.
PMCID: PMC3305885  PMID: 22127113
nuclear EGFR; transcription factor; poor overall survival; resistance
19.  Association of integrin beta1 and c-MET in mediating EGFR TKI gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer 
Although some patients are initially sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), resistance invariably develops. Therefore, it’s very important to study the molecular mechanism of this resistance. In our previous study we found that integrin beta1 can induce EGFR TKIs resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here we analyzed the association of integrin beta1 and c-MET that is a recognized mechanism of EGFR TKIs resistance in NSCLC to demonstrate the mechanism of integrin beta1 related EGFR TKIs resistance. We found that the ligands of integrin beta1 and c-MET could synergistically promote cell proliferation and their inhibitors could synergistically improve the sensitivity to gfitinib, increase apoptosis, and inhibit the downstream signal transduction: focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT. On the other hand, ligand-dependent activation of integrin beta1 could induce EGFR TKIs resistance through activating c-MET and its downstream signals. Thus, it can be concluded that there is crosstalk between integrin beta1 and c-MET and integrin beta1 mediates EGFR TKI resistance associating with c-MET signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-15
PMCID: PMC3583715  PMID: 23402326
Non-small cell lung cancer; Integrin beta1; c-MET; EGFR TKI; Resistance
20.  The Role of Irreversible HER Family Inhibition in the Treatment of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
The Oncologist  2011;16(11):1498-1507.
The clinical development of irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the human epidermal growth factor receptor family in non-small cell lung cancer is reviewed.
Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) include the reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER-1) inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib. EGFR TKIs have demonstrated activity in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations; however, multiple mechanisms of resistance limit the benefit of these drugs. Although resistance to EGFR TKIs can be intrinsic and correlated with molecular lesions such as in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS; generally observed in a wild-type EGFR background), acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs can evolve in the setting of activating EGFR mutations, such as in the case of EGFR T790M mutations. Several irreversible inhibitors that target multiple members of the HER family simultaneously are currently in clinical development for NSCLC and may have a role in the treatment of TKI-sensitive and TKI-resistant disease. These include PF00299804, an inhibitor of EGFR/HER-1, HER-2, and HER-4, and afatinib (BIBW 2992), an inhibitor of EGFR/HER-1, HER-2, and HER-4. Results of large, randomized trials of these agents may help to determine their potential for the treatment of NSCLC.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0087
PMCID: PMC3233283  PMID: 22016476
Irreversible EGFR/HER-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors; Non-small cell lung cancer; Resistance; Afatinib (BIBW 2992); PF00299804
21.  EGFR/Src/Akt signaling modulates Sox2 expression and self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer 
Molecular Cancer  2012;11:73.
Background
Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of cancers. In non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), Hoechst 33342 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells are shown to have stem cell like properties. The oncogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells is in part due to their ability to self-renew; however the mechanistic correlation between oncogenic pathways and self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells has remained elusive. Here we characterized the SP cells at the molecular level and evaluated its ability to generate tumors at the orthotopic site in the lung microenvironment. Further, we investigated if the self-renewal of SP cells is dependent on EGFR mediated signaling.
Results
SP cells were detected and isolated from multiple NSCLC cell lines (H1650, H1975, A549), as well as primary human tumor explants grown in nude mice. SP cells demonstrated stem-like properties including ability to self-renew and grow as spheres; they were able to generate primary and metastatic tumors upon orthotopic implantation into the lung of SCID mice. In vitro study revealed elevated expression of stem cell associated markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog as well as demonstrated intrinsic epithelial to mesenchymal transition features in SP cells. Further, we show that abrogation of EGFR, Src and Akt signaling through pharmacological or genetic inhibitors suppresses the self-renewal growth and expansion of SP-cells and resulted in specific downregulation of Sox2 protein expression. siRNA mediated depletion of Sox2 significantly blocked the SP phenotype as well as its self-renewal capacity; whereas other transcription factors like Oct4 and Nanog played a relatively lesser role in regulating self-renewal. Interestingly, Sox2 was elevated in metastatic foci of human NSCLC samples.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that Sox2 is a novel target of EGFR-Src-Akt signaling in NSCLCs that modulates self-renewal and expansion of stem-like cells from NSCLC. Therefore, the outcome of the EGFR-Src-Akt targeted therapy may rely upon the expression and function of Sox2 within the NSCLC-CSCs.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-11-73
PMCID: PMC3497614  PMID: 23009336
Cancer stem-like cells; Side-population cells; Self-renewal; EGFR; Sox2
22.  STRUCTURE OF THE EGF RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION CIRCUIT INTEGRATES MULTIPLE SIGNALS WITH CELL CONTEXT 
Molecular Biosystems  2010;6(7):1293-1306.
Summary
Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is thought to be a process by which a variety of cellular inputs can be integrated into a single signaling pathway through either stimulated proteolysis (shedding) of membrane-anchored EGFR ligands or by modification of the activity of the EGFR. As a first step towards building a predictive model of the EGFR transactivation circuit, we quantitatively defined how signals from multiple agonists were integrated both upstream and downstream of the EGFR to regulate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity in human mammary epithelial cells. By using a “non-binding” reporter of ligand shedding, we found that transactivation triggers a positive feedback loop from ERK back to the EGFR such that ligand shedding drives EGFR-stimulated ERK that in turn drives further ligand shedding. Importantly, activated Ras and ERK levels were nearly linear functions of ligand shedding and the effect of multiple, sub-saturating inputs was additive. Simulations showed that ERK-mediated feedback through ligand shedding resulted in a stable steady-state level of activated ERK, but also showed that the extracellular environment can modulate the level of feedback. Our results suggest that the transactivation circuit acts as a context-dependent integrator and amplifier of multiple extracellular signals and that signal integration can effectively occur at multiple points in the EGFR pathway.
doi:10.1039/c003921g
PMCID: PMC3306786  PMID: 20458382
23.  EGFR-Targeted Hybrid Plasmonic Magnetic Nanoparticles Synergistically Induce Autophagy and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e25507.
Background
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 80% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is associated with poor survival. In recent years, EGFR-targeted inhibitors have been tested in the clinic for NSCLC. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutics and their application in cancer therapy, the overall survival rate of lung cancer patients remains 15%. To develop more effective therapies for lung cancer we have combined the anti-EGFR antibody (Clone 225) as a molecular therapeutic with hybrid plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles (NP) and tested on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Cell viability was determined by trypan-blue assay. Cellular protein expression was determined by Western blotting. C225-NPs were detected by electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, and EGFR expression using immunocytochemistry. C225-NP exhibited a strong and selective antitumor effect on EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells by inhibiting EGFR-mediated signal transduction and induced autophagy and apoptosis in tumor cells. Optical images showed specificity of interactions between C225-NP and EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. No binding of C225-NP was observed for EGFR-null NSCLC cells. C225-NP exhibited higher efficiency in induction of cell killing in comparison with the same amount of free C225 antibody in tumor cells with different levels of EGFR expression. Furthermore, in contrast to C225-NP, free C225 antibody did not induce autophagy in cells. However, the therapeutic efficacy of C225-NP gradually approached the level of free antibodies as the amount of C225 antibody conjugated per nanoparticle was decreased. Finally, attaching C225 to NP was important for producing the enhanced tumor cell killing as addition of mixture of free C225 and NP did not demonstrate the same degree of cell killing activity.
Conclusions/Significance
We demonstrated for the first time the molecular mechanism of C225-NP induced cytotoxic effects in lung cancer cells that are not characteristic for free molecular therapeutics thus increasing efficacy of therapy against NSCLC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025507
PMCID: PMC3210119  PMID: 22087216
24.  A Multiscale Computational Approach to Dissect Early Events in the Erb Family Receptor Mediated Activation, Differential Signaling, and Relevance to Oncogenic Transformations 
Annals of biomedical engineering  2007;35(6):1012-1025.
We describe a hierarchical multiscale computational approach based on molecular dynamics simulations, free energy-based molecular docking simulations, deterministic network-based kinetic modeling, and hybrid discrete/continuum stochastic dynamics protocols to study the dimer-mediated receptor activation characteristics of the Erb family receptors, specifically the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Through these modeling approaches, we are able to extend the prior modeling of EGF-mediated signal transduction by considering specific EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFRTK) docking interactions mediated by differential binding and phosphorylation of different C-terminal peptide tyrosines on the RTK tail. By modeling signal flows through branching pathways of the EGFRTK resolved on a molecular basis, we are able to transcribe the effects of molecular alterations in the receptor (e.g., mutant forms of the receptor) to differing kinetic behavior and downstream signaling response. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the drug sensitizing mutation (L834R) of EGFR stabilizes the active conformation to make the system constitutively active. Docking simulations show preferential characteristics (for wildtype vs. mutant receptors) in inhibitor binding as well as preferential enhancement of phosphorylation of particular substrate tyrosines over others. We find that in comparison to the wildtype system, the L834R mutant RTK preferentially binds the inhibitor erlotinib, as well as preferentially phosphorylates the substrate tyrosine Y1068 but not Y1173. We predict that these molecular level changes result in preferential activation of the Akt signaling pathway in comparison to the Erk signaling pathway for cells with normal EGFR expression. For cells with EGFR over expression, the mutant over activates both Erk and Akt pathways, in comparison to wildtype. These results are consistent with qualitative experimental measurements reported in the literature. We discuss these consequences in light of how the network topology and signaling characteristics of altered (mutant) cell lines are shaped differently in relationship to native cell lines.
doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9251-0
PMCID: PMC3021414  PMID: 17273938
Epidermal growth factor receptor; Phosphorylation kinetics; Molecular dynamics; Molecular docking; Signal transduction; Stochastic dynamics
25.  Early Detection of Erlotinib Treatment Response in NSCLC by 3′-Deoxy-3′-[18F]-Fluoro-L-Thymidine ([18F]FLT) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3908.
Background
Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has shown clinical success in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations of EGFR were found in lung adenocarcinoma that lead to exquisite dependency on EGFR signaling; thus patients with EGFR-mutant tumors are at high chance of response to EGFR inhibitors. However, imaging approaches affording early identification of tumor response in EGFR-dependent carcinomas have so far been lacking.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We performed a systematic comparison of 3′-Deoxy-3′-[18F]-fluoro-L-thymidine ([18F]FLT) and 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for their potential to identify response to EGFR inhibitors in a model of EGFR-dependent lung cancer early after treatment initiation. While erlotinib-sensitive tumors exhibited a striking and reproducible decrease in [18F]FLT uptake after only two days of treatment, [18F]FDG PET based imaging revealed no consistent reduction in tumor glucose uptake. In sensitive tumors, a decrease in [18F]FLT PET but not [18F]FDG PET uptake correlated with cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. The reduction in [18F]FLT PET signal at day 2 translated into dramatic tumor shrinkage four days later. Furthermore, the specificity of our results is confirmed by the complete lack of [18F]FLT PET response of tumors expressing the T790M erlotinib resistance mutation of EGFR.
Conclusions
[18F]FLT PET enables robust identification of erlotinib response in EGFR-dependent tumors at a very early stage. [18F]FLT PET imaging may represent an appropriate method for early prediction of response to EGFR TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003908
PMCID: PMC2592703  PMID: 19079597

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