The first crystal structure of a Mimosoideae lectin, Parkia platycephala has been solved by MAD phasing using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose as an anomalous X-ray scatterer. This strategy may be useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when molecular replacement methods fail.
Parkia platycephala belongs to the most primitive group of Leguminosae plants. Its seed lectin is made up of three homologous β-prism repeats and exhibits binding specificity for mannose/glucose. The properties of the association between the lectin from P. platycephala seeds and monosaccharide ligands were analysed by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The results are consistent with the lectin bearing three thermodynamically identical binding sites for mannose/glucose per monomer with dissociation constants in the millimolar range. Binding of each ligand by the lectin is enthalpically driven. Crystals have been obtained of the lectin in complex with a brominated derivative of mannose (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose), which were suitable for deriving an electron-density map by MAD phasing. In agreement with the thermodynamic data, six Br atoms were found in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic P21 crystals, which contained two P. platycephala lectin molecules. The availability of other Br derivatives of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fucose) may make this strategy widely useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when (as in the case of the P. platycephala lectin) molecular-replacement methods fail.
protein–carbohydrate interactions; Parkia platycephala lectin; isothermal titration calorimetry; surface plasmon resonance; β-prism domain; MAD phasing
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies are reported for a novel Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from B. bauhinioides which contains no disulfide bridges.
A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (BbKI) found in Bauhinia bauhinioides seeds has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 293 K using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.87 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray generator. The crystals of the recombinant protein (rBbKI) belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.70, b = 64.14, c = 59.24 Å. Calculation of the Matthews coefficient suggests the presence of one monomer of rBbKI in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding solvent content of 51% (V
M = 2.5 Å3 Da−1). Iodinated crystals were prepared and a derivative data set was also collected at 2.1 Å resolution. Crystals soaked for a few seconds in a cryogenic solution containing 0.5 M NaI were found to be reasonably isomorphous to the native crystals. Furthermore, the presence of iodide anions could be confirmed in the NaI-derivatized crystal. Data sets from native and derivative crystals are being evaluated for use in crystal structure determination by means of the SIRAS (single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering) method.
Kunitz-type kallikrein inhibitors; disulfide bridges; Bauhinia bauhinioides
Aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2′′)-IVa] is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. casseliflavus isolates. Three different crystals of wild-type substrate-free APH(2′′)-IVa have been prepared and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken on all three crystal forms.
The deactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by chemical modification is one of the major sources of bacterial resistance to this family of therapeutic compounds, which includes the clinically relevant drugs streptomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) form one such family of enzymes responsible for this resistance. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2′′)-IVa] from Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 306 amino-acid residues) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme was crystallized in three substrate-free forms. Two of the crystal forms belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with similar unit-cell parameters, although one of the crystal forms had a unit-cell volume that was approximately 13% smaller than the other and a very low solvent content of around 38%. The third crystal form belonged to the monoclinic space group P21 and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The orthorhombic crystal forms of apo APH(2′′)-IVa both diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and the monoclinic crystal form diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution; synchrotron diffraction data were collected from these crystals at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). Structure determination by molecular replacement using the structure of the related enzyme APH(2′′)-IIa is proceeding.
aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-IVa; Enterococcus casseliflavus; antibiotic resistance
The N-terminal carbohydrate-binding domains of Flo1p and Lg-Flo1p from two different Saccharomyces spp. were overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in different conditions. A preliminary X-ray analysis of the crystallized flocculin–protein complexes is reported in this work.
Flo1p and Lg-Flo1p are two cell-wall adhesins belonging to the Flo (flocculation) protein family from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus. The main function of these modular proteins endowed with calcium-dependent lectin activity is to mediate cell–cell adhesion events during yeast flocculation, a process which is well known at the cellular level but still not fully characterized from a molecular perspective. Recently, structural features of the N-terminal Flo lectin domains, including the N-terminal domain of Lg-Flo1p (N-Lg-Flo1p), and their interactions with carbohydrate molecules have been investigated. However, structural data concerning the N-terminal domain of Flo1p (N-Flo1p), which is the most specific among the Flo proteins, are missing and information about the N-Lg-Flo1p–carbohydrate interaction still lacks detailed structural insight. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the apo form and the mannose complex of N-Flo1p and X-ray analysis of N-Lg-Flo1p crystals soaked in α-1,2-mannobiose are reported. The N-Flo1p crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.43 Å in the case of the apo form and to 2.12 Å resolution for the mannose complex. Both crystals were orthorhombic and belonged to space group P212121, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The N-Lg-Flo1p–α-1,2-mannobiose complex crystal diffracted to 1.73 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P1211 with two molecules in the asymmetric unit.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces pastorianus; yeast flocculation; flocculins; Flo proteins; lectins; Flo1p; Lg-Flo1p
Crystals of the thiaminase type II from S. aureus are orthorhombic, belonging to space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 103.5, b = 104.1, c = 109.6 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution.
Thiaminase type II (TenA) catalyzes the deamination of aminopyrimidines, including the cleavage of thiamine to 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole in the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1), in Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). SaTenA was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and the resulting crystal diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution usng synchrotron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, belonging to space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 103.5, b = 104.1, c = 109.6 Å. With four molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient is 2.85 Å3 Da−1. Initial attempts to solve the structure by molecular-replacement techniques were successful.
thiaminase type II; TenA; Staphylococcus aureus
Diffraction-quality crystals of N. equitans neelaredoxin have been produced. The expression, purification and crystallization of the protein and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the crystals are reported.
Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recent oxygen-detoxification system to be identified in anaerobic and microaerobic bacteria and archaea. SORs are metalloproteins that are characterized by their possession of a catalytic nonhaem iron centre in the ferrous form coordinated by four histidine ligands and one cysteine ligand. Ignicoccus hospitalis, a hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon, is the only organism known to date to serve as a host for Nanoarchaeum equitans, a nanosized hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a submarine hot vent which completely depends on the presence of and contact with I. hospitalis cells for growth to occur. Similarly to I. hospitalis, N. equitans has a neelaredoxin (a 1Fe-type SOR) that keeps toxic oxygen species under control, catalysing the one-electron reduction of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Blue crystals of recombinant N. equitans SOR in the oxidized form (12.7 kDa, 109 residues) were obtained using polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 MME) as precipitant. These crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution at 100 K and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.88, b = 82.01, c = 91.30 Å. Cell-content analysis suggested the presence of four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient (V
M) was determined to be 1.9 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to an estimated solvent content of 36%. Self-rotation function and native Patterson calculations suggested a tetramer with 222 point-group symmetry, similar to other 1Fe-SORs. The three-dimensional structure will be determined by the molecular-replacement method.
superoxide reductases; Nanoarchaeum equitans; oxidative stress; neelaredoxins
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) from S. pyogenes was purified and crystallized. Crystals of native and NAD+-complexed SSADH diffracted to resolutions of 1.6 and 1.7 Å, respectively.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) plays a critical role in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and catalyzes the NAD(P)+-coupled oxidation of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to succinic acid (SA). SSADH from Streptococcus pyogenes has been purified and crystallized as the apoenzyme and in a complex with NAD+. The crystals of native and NAD+-complexed SSADH diffracted to resolutions of 1.6 and 1.7 Å, respectively, using a synchrotron-radiation source. Both crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.3, b = 100.3, c = 105.1 Å for the native crystal and a = 93.3, b = 100.3, c = 105.0 Å for the complex crystal. Preliminary molecular replacement confirmed the presence of one dimer in both crystals, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient (V
M) of 2.37 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 48.0%.
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase; NAD+; Streptococcus pyogenes; GabD
Grass carp β2-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å.
β2-Microglobulin (β2m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β2m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β2m (Ctid-β2m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da−1 and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β2m as a model.
β2-microglobulin; MHC I
Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone from the kuruma prawn M. japonicus was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in its weakly active precursor form which has an extra glycine residue at the C-terminus. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 and diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution.
Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in crustaceans. Pej-SGP-I, one of the six known CHHs in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally His-tagged and Nus-tagged protein in its weakly active precursor form, Pej-SGP-I-Gly, which has an extra glycine residue at the C-terminus. The recombinant peptide was subjected to affinity purification, tag removal, further purification and crystallization by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using NaCl as the main precipitant. The crystals diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution and the space group was assigned as primitive orthorhombic P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.19, b = 53.65, c = 53.63 Å. The Matthews coefficient (V
M = 1.73 Å3 Da−1) indicated that the crystal contained two Pej-SGP-I-Gly molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 29.0%.
Marsupenaeus japonicus; crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone
The PH domain and ORD of the oxysterol-binding protein Osh3 from S. cerevisae were crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected.
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) related proteins (ORPs) are conserved from yeast to humans and are implicated in regulation of sterol homeostasis and in signal transduction pathways. Osh3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing ORP member that regulates phosphoinositide metabolism at endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane contact sites. The N-terminal PH domain of Osh3 was purified and crystallized as a lysozyme fusion and the resulting crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.03, b = 91.31, c = 84.13 Å, β = 81.41°. With two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was 3.13 Å3 Da−1. Initial attempts to solve the structure by molecular-replacement techniques using T4 lysozyme as a search model were successful. The C-terminal OSBP-related domain (OBD) of Osh3 was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and the resulting crystal diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution. The crystal was orthorhombic, belonging to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.57, b = 87.52, c = 100.58 Å. With one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was 2.01 Å3 Da−1. Initial attempts to solve the structure by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique using bromine were successful.
oxysterol-binding protein; Osh3; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The PsbP-domain-containing protein PPD6 from A. thaliana was expressed, purified and crystallized.
The PsbP protein is an extrinsic component of photosystem II that together with PsbO and PsbQ forms the thylakoid lumenal part of the oxygen-evolving complex in higher plants. In addition to PsbP, the thylakoid lumen contains two PsbP-like proteins (PPLs) and six PsbP-domain proteins (PPDs). While the functions of the PsbP-like proteins PPL1 and PPL2 are currently under investigation, the function of the PsbP-domain proteins still remains completely unknown. PPD6 is unique among the PsbP family of proteins in that it contains a conserved disulfide bond which can be reduced in vitro by thioredoxin. The crystal structure determination of the PPD6 protein has been initiated in order to elucidate its function and to gain deeper insights into redox-regulation pathways in the thylakoid lumen. PPD6 has been expressed, purified and crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction data have been collected. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.0, b = 64.3, c = 62.0 Å, β = 94.2°, and diffracted to a maximum d-spacing of 2.1 Å.
photosynthesis; thylakoid lumen; PsbP domain
Two crystal forms of β-carbonic anhydrase psCA3 from P. aeruginosa were grown. Crystal form A belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.9, b = 84.9, c = 124.2 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution; crystal form B belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.9, b = 77.7, c = 88.5 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals and is resistant to most clinically available antimicrobials. Genomic and proteomic studies have identified three genes, pa0102, pa2053 and pa4676, in P. aeruginosa PAO1 encoding three functional β-carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs): psCA1, psCA2 and psCA3, respectively. These β-CAs could serve as novel antimicrobial drug targets for this pathogen. X-ray crystallographic structural studies have been initiated to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. This communication describes the production of two crystal forms (A and B) of β-CA psCA3. Form A diffracted to a resolution of 2.9 Å; it belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.9, b = 84.9, c = 124.2 Å, and had a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.23 Å3 Da−1 assuming four molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Form B diffracted to a resolution of 3.0 Å; it belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.9, b = 77.7, c = 88.5 Å, and had a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.48 Å3 Da−1 assuming two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Preliminary molecular-replacement solutions have been determined with the PHENIX AutoMR wizard and refinement of both crystal forms is currently in progress.
carbonic anhydrases; β-class carbonic anhydrases; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The crystallization of a specific nanobody against mouse PrPC and preliminary diffraction analysis of a crystal that diffracted to 1.23 Å resolution are presented.
Prion disorders are infectious diseases that are characterized by the conversion of the cellular prion protein PrPC into the pathogenic isoform PrPSc. Specific antibodies that interact with the cellular prion protein have been shown to inhibit this transition. Recombinant VHHs (variable domain of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies) or nanobodies are single-domain antibodies, making them the smallest antigen-binding fragments. A specific nanobody (Nb_PrP_01) was raised against mouse PrPC. A crystallization condition for this recombinant nanobody was identified using high-throughput screening. The crystals were optimized using streak-seeding and the hanging-drop method. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 30.04, b = 37.15, c = 83.00 Å, and diffracted to 1.23 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure of this specific nanobody against PrPC together with the known PrPC structure may help in understanding the PrPC/PrPSc transition mechanism.
Camelidae; nanobodies; prions; PrPC; PrPSc
Crystals of the helicase domain from a tomato mosaic virus replication protein obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 285 K diffracted X-rays to 2.05 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.8, b = 128.3, c = 40.7 Å.
Tomato mosaic virus belongs to the genus Tobamovirus in the alphavirus-like superfamily of positive-strand RNA viruses. The alphavirus-like superfamily includes many plant and animal viruses of agronomical and clinical importance. These viruses encode replication-associated proteins that contain a putative superfamily 1 helicase domain. No three-dimensional structures for this domain have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the 130K helicase domain are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.05 and 1.75 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals, respectively. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.8, b = 128.3, c = 40.7 Å.
tomato mosaic virus; replicase protein; helicase domain
The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of vitamin D3 hydroxylase isolated from P. autotrophica are reported.
Vitamin D3 hydroxylase (Vdh) is a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase isolated from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia autotrophica and consisting of 403 amino-acid residues. Vdh catalyzes the activation of vitamin D3
via sequential hydroxylation reactions: these reactions involve the conversion of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol or VD3) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)VD3] and the subsequent conversion of 25(OH)VD3 to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [calciferol or 1α,25(OH)2VD3]. Overexpression of recombinant Vdh was carried out using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system and the protein was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The form I crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P31, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.7, c = 98.8 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 47.6%. The form II crystal was grown in the presence of 25(OH)VD3 and belonged to the orthorhombic system P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 65.6 c = 102.2 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 46.7%. Native data sets were collected to resolutions of 1.75 and 3.05 Å for form I and form II crystals, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. The structure solution was obtained by the molecular-replacement method and model refinement is in progress for the form I crystal.
cholecalciferol; CYP107; cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; hydroxylation; Pseudonocardia autotrophica; vitamin D3
Crystals of the wild-type haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA derived from R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 and of its catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 were grown in the presence of various ligands and diffraction data were collected to high and atomic resolution.
Haloalkane dehalogenases make up an important class of hydrolytic enzymes which catalyse the cleavage of carbon–halogen bonds in halogenated aliphatic compounds. There is growing interest in these enzymes owing to their potential use in environmental and industrial applications. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 can slowly detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Structural analysis of this enzyme complexed with target ligands was conducted in order to obtain detailed information about the structural limitations of its catalytic properties. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of complexes of wild-type DhaA with 2-propanol and with TCP and of complexes of the catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 with the dye coumarin and with TCP are described. The crystals of wild-type DhaA were plate-shaped and belonged to the triclinic space group P1, while the variant DhaA13 can form prism-shaped crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P212121 as well as plate-shaped crystals belonging to the triclinic space group P1. Diffraction data for crystals of wild-type DhaA grown from crystallization solutions with different concentrations of 2-propanol were collected to 1.70 and 1.26 Å resolution, respectively. A prism-shaped crystal of DhaA13 complexed with TCP and a plate-shaped crystal of the same variant complexed with the dye coumarin diffracted X-rays to 1.60 and 1.33 Å resolution, respectively. A crystal of wild-type DhaA and a plate-shaped crystal of DhaA13, both complexed with TCP, diffracted to atomic resolutions of 1.04 and 0.97 Å, respectively.
haloalkane dehalogenases; DhaA; Rhodococcus rhodochrous; microseeding; atomic resolution
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.25 Å resolution of free-ligand arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are reported. Crystals belong to space group P212121, phases were determined by molecular replacement and refinement was performed with Phenix.
Crystals of an unligated monomeric arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) were successfully obtained using the microbatch method. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.25 Å resolution are reported. Data were collected at 100 K on NSLS beamline X6A. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 70.2, c = 81.7 Å. One monomer per asymmetric unit was found, with a Matthews coefficient (V
M) of 2.05 Å3 Da−1 and 40% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvAK as the search model. Refinement was performed with PHENIX, with final R
work and R
free values of 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. Biological analysis of the structure is currently in progress.
arginine kinases; Litopenaeus vannamei
Crystallization and the structure determination at 1.6 Å resolution of LIPSBS, a thermoalkalophilic lipase from Geobacillus strain SBS-4S, are described. The crystals belonged to orthorhombic space group P212121.
A thermoalkalophilic lipase (LIPSBS) from the newly isolated Geobacillus strain SBS-4S which hydrolyzes a wide range of fatty acids has been characterized. In the present study, the crystallization of purified LIPSBS using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and its X-ray diffraction studies are described. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.13, b = 71.75, c = 126.26 Å. The structure was determined at 1.6 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method using the lipase from G. stearothermophilus L1 as a model.
Geobacillus SBS-4S; lipases; thermoalkalophilic; molecular replacement; crystal structure
A novel haemagglutinin from Jatropha curcas seeds is purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P212121 and the crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K.
The plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is an important source of biofuel from the inedible oil present in its toxic seeds. The toxicity arises from the presence of curcin, a ribosome-inactivating protein showing haemagglutination activity. In this communication, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization are reported of a small protein isolated from J. curcas seeds with a molecular mass of ∼10 kDa that agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and also by the microbatch method in 72-well HLA plates, using PEG 8000 as the precipitant in both conditions. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P212121. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K.
Jatropha curcas; haemagglutinins
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the MxaJ protein of the mox operon from the marine bacterium M. aminisulfidivorans MPT is reported.
The methanol-oxidizing system (mox) is essential for methylotrophic bacteria to extract energy during the oxidoreduction reaction and consists of a series of electron-transfer proteins encoded by the mox operon. One of the key enzymes is the α2β2 methanol dehydrogenase complex (type I MDH), which converts methanol to formaldehyde during the 2e− transfer through the prosthetic group pyrroloquinoline quinone. MxaJ, a product of mxaJ of the mox operon, is a component of the MDH complex and enhances the methanol-converting activity of the MDH complex. However, the exact functional mechanism of MxaJ in the complex is not clearly known. To investigate the functional role of MxaJ in MDH activity, an attempt was made to determine its crystal structure. Diffraction data were collected from a selenomethionine-substituted crystal to 1.92 Å resolution at the peak wavelength. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.127, b = 63.761, c = 99.246 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one MxaJ molecule with a calculated Matthews coefficient of 2.11 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 41.7%. Three-dimensional structure determination of the MxaJ protein is currently in progress by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and model building.
methanol-oxidizing system (mox); MxaJ; Methylophaga aminisulfidivorans
The cytochrome c nitrite reductase complex from D. vulgaris Hildenborough has been crystallized. The preliminary crystallographic structure reveals a 2:1 NrfA:NrfH complex stoichiometry.
The cytochrome c nitrite reductase (cNiR) isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a membrane-bound complex formed of NrfA and NrfH subunits. The catalytic subunit NrfA is a soluble pentahaem cytochrome c that forms a physiological dimer of about 120 kDa. The electron-donor subunit NrfH is a membrane-anchored tetrahaem cytochrome c of about 18 kDa molecular weight and belongs to the NapC/NirT family of quinol dehydrogenases, for which no structures are known. Crystals of the native cNiR membrane complex, solubilized with dodecylmaltoside detergent (DDM), were obtained using PEG 4K as precipitant. Anomalous diffraction data were measured at the Swiss Light Source to 2.3 Å resolution. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.5, b = 256.7, c = 578.2 Å. Molecular-replacement and MAD methods were combined to solve the structure. The data presented reveal that D. vulgaris cNiR contains one NrfH subunit per NrfA dimer.
cytochrome c nitrite reductase; membrane-bound NrfHA complex; NapC/NirT family; multi-haem protein
Studies pertaining to the overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray work of AspB from M. tuberculosis are reported.
A recombinant version of a putative aspartate aminotransferase, AspB (encoded by the ORF Rv3565), from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was overexpressed in M. smegmatis and purified to homogeneity using liquid chromatography. Crystals of AspB were grown in a condition consisting of 0.2 M ammonium phosphate monobasic, 0.1 M calcium chloride dihydrate employing the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 298 K. The crystals diffracted to a limit of 2.50 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.27, b = 98.19, c = 198.70 Å. The structure of AspB was solved by the molecular-replacement method using a putative aminotransferase from Silicibacter pomeroyi (PDB entry 3h14) as the search model. The template shares 46% amino-acid sequence identity with Mtb AspB. The crystal asymmetric unit contains four AspB molecules (the M
r of each is 42 035 Da).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; AspB
The molecular chaperone-like reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12) dependent diol dehydratase was crystallized in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that crystals are orthorhombic and diffract to 2.0 Å.
Adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12) dependent diol dehydratase (EC 184.108.40.206) catalyzes the conversion of 1,2-diols and glycerol to the corresponding aldehydes. It undergoes mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol. The diol dehydratase-reactivating factor (DDR) reactivates the inactivated holoenzymes in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, ATP and Mg2+ by mediating the release of a damaged cofactor. This molecular chaperone-like factor was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms by the sandwich-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the ADP-bound form belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121 and unit-cell parameters a = 83.26, b = 84.60, c = 280.09 Å, and diffract to 2.0 Å. In the absence of nucleotide, DDR crystals were orthorhombic, with space group P212121 and unit-cell parameters a = 81.92, b = 85.37, c = 296.99 Å and diffract to 3.0 Å. Crystals of both forms were suitable for structural analysis.
reactivating factor; molecular chaperone; diol dehydratase; adenosylcobalamin; coenzyme B12
Cellobiose 2-epimerase epimerizes and isomerizes β-1,4- and α-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. The cellobiose 2-epimerase gene from D. turgidum was cloned and the protein was expressed, purified and crystallized. A preliminary X-ray crystallography analysis of the cellobiose 2-epimerase crystals was performed.
Cellobiose 2-epimerase epimerizes and isomerizes β-1,4- and α-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. N-Acyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerase (DT_epimerase) from Dictyoglomus turgidum has an unusually high catalytic activity towards its substrate cellobiose. DT_epimerase was expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained of both His-tagged DT_epimerase and untagged DT_epimerase. The crystals of His-tagged DT_epimerase diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.9, b = 85.1, c = 79.8 Å, β = 110.8°. With a Matthews coefficient V
M of 2.18 Å3 Da−1, two protomers were expected to be present in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 43.74%. The crystals of untagged DT_epimerase diffracted to 1.85 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.9, b = 80.0, c = 93.7 Å. One protomer in the asymmetric unit was expected, with a corresponding V
M of 2.26 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 45.6%.
cellobiose 2-epimerase; Dictyoglomus turgidum
The production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 and SoGST6, two GST-like proteins from S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented.
Genome analysis of Shewanella oneidensis, a Gram-negative bacterium with an unusual repertoire of respiratory and redox capabilities, revealed the presence of six glutathione S-transferase-like genes (sogst1–sogst6). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 220.127.116.11) are found in all kingdoms of life and are involved in phase II detoxification processes by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of reduced glutathione on diverse electrophilic substrates, thereby decreasing their reactivity. Structure–function studies of prokaryotic GST-like proteins are surprisingly underrepresented in the scientific literature when compared with eukaryotic GSTs. Here, the production and purification of recombinant SoGST3 (SO_1576) and SoGST6 (SO_4697), two of the six GST-like proteins in S. oneidensis, are reported and preliminary crystallographic studies of crystals of the recombinant enzymes are presented. SoGST3 was crystallized in two different crystal forms in the presence of GSH and DTT that diffracted to high resolution: a primitive trigonal form in space group P31 that exhibited merohedral twinning with a high twin fraction and a primitive monoclinic form in space group P21. SoGST6 yielded primitive orthorhombic crystals in space group P212121 from which diffraction data could be collected to medium resolution after application of cryo-annealing protocols. Crystal structures of both SoGST3 and SoGST6 have been determined based on marginal search models by maximum-likelihood molecular replacement as implemented in the program Phaser.
glutathione S-transferases; Shewanella oneidensis