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1.  Cholesterol sensor ORP1L contacts the ER protein VAP to control Rab7–RILP–p150Glued and late endosome positioning 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2009;185(7):1209-1225.
Late endosomes (LEs) have characteristic intracellular distributions determined by their interactions with various motor proteins. Motor proteins associated to the dynactin subunit p150Glued bind to LEs via the Rab7 effector Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) in association with the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. We found that cholesterol levels in LEs are sensed by ORP1L and are lower in peripheral vesicles. Under low cholesterol conditions, ORP1L conformation induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–LE membrane contact sites. At these sites, the ER protein VAP (VAMP [vesicle-associated membrane protein]-associated ER protein) can interact in trans with the Rab7–RILP complex to remove p150Glued and associated motors. LEs then move to the microtubule plus end. Under high cholesterol conditions, as in Niemann-Pick type C disease, this process is prevented, and LEs accumulate at the microtubule minus end as the result of dynein motor activity. These data explain how the ER and cholesterol control the association of LEs with motor proteins and their positioning in cells.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200811005
PMCID: PMC2712958  PMID: 19564404
2.  Adenovirus RIDα regulates endosome maturation by mimicking GTP-Rab7 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;179(5):965-980.
The small guanosine triphosphatase Rab7 regulates late endocytic trafficking. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 1L (ORP1L) are guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–Rab7 effectors that instigate minus end–directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that RILP and ORP1L both interact with the group C adenovirus protein known as receptor internalization and degradation α (RIDα), which was previously shown to clear the cell surface of several membrane proteins, including the epidermal growth factor receptor and Fas (Carlin, C.R., A.E. Tollefson, H.A. Brady, B.L. Hoffman, and W.S. Wold. 1989. Cell. 57:135–144; Shisler, J., C. Yang, B. Walter, C.F. Ware, and L.R. Gooding. 1997. J. Virol. 71:8299–8306). RIDα localizes to endocytic vesicles but is not homologous to Rab7 and is not catalytically active. We show that RIDα compensates for reduced Rab7 or dominant-negative (DN) Rab7(T22N) expression. In vitro, Cu2+ binding to RIDα residues His75 and His76 facilitates the RILP interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis of these His residues results in the loss of RIDα–RILP interaction and RIDα activity in cells. Additionally, expression of the RILP DN C-terminal region hinders RIDα activity during an acute adenovirus infection. We conclude that RIDα coordinates recruitment of these GTP-Rab7 effectors to compartments that would ordinarily be perceived as early endosomes, thereby promoting the degradation of selected cargo.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200702187
PMCID: PMC2099200  PMID: 18039930
3.  Phagosomes Fuse with Late Endosomes and/or Lysosomes by Extension of Membrane Protrusions along Microtubules: Role of Rab7 and RILP 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2003;23(18):6494-6506.
Nascent phagosomes must undergo a series of fusion and fission reactions to acquire the microbicidal properties required for the innate immune response. Here we demonstrate that this maturation process involves the GTPase Rab7. Rab7 recruitment to phagosomes was found to precede and to be essential for their fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. Active Rab7 on the phagosomal membrane associates with the effector protein RILP (Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein), which in turn bridges phagosomes with dynein-dynactin, a microtubule-associated motor complex. The motors not only displace phagosomes in the centripetal direction but, strikingly, promote the extension of phagosomal tubules toward late endocytic compartments. Fusion of tubules with these organelles was documented by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Tubule extension and fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes were prevented by expression of a truncated form of RILP lacking the dynein-dynactin-recruiting domain. We conclude that full maturation of phagosomes requires the retrograde emission of tubular extensions, which are generated by activation of Rab7, recruitment of RILP, and consequent association of phagosomes with microtubule-associated motors.
doi:10.1128/MCB.23.18.6494-6506.2003
PMCID: PMC193691  PMID: 12944476
4.  The Oxysterol-binding Protein Homologue ORP1L Interacts with Rab7 and Alters Functional Properties of Late Endocytic Compartments 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(12):5480-5492.
ORP1L is a member of the human oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family. ORP1L localizes to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes, colocalizing with the GTPases Rab7 and Rab9 and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1. We demonstrate that ORP1L interacts physically with Rab7, preferentially with its GTP-bound form, and provide evidence that ORP1L stabilizes GTP-bound Rab7 on LEs/lysosomes. The Rab7-binding determinant is mapped to the ankyrin repeat (ANK) region of ORP1L. The pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) of ORP1L binds phosphoinositides with low affinity and specificity. ORP1L ANK- and ANK+PHD fragments induce perinuclear clustering of LE/lysosomes. This is dependent on an intact microtubule network and a functional dynein/dynactin motor complex. The dominant inhibitory Rab7 mutant T22N reverses the LE clustering, suggesting that the effect is dependent on active Rab7. Transport of fluorescent dextran to LEs is inhibited by overexpression of ORP1L. Overexpression of ORP1L, and in particular the N-terminal fragments of ORP1L, inhibits vacuolation of LE caused by Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA, a process also involving Rab7. The present study demonstrates that ORP1L binds to Rab7, modifies its functional cycle, and can interfere with LE/lysosome organization and endocytic membrane trafficking. This is the first report of a direct connection between the OSBP-related protein family and the Rab GTPases.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-03-0189
PMCID: PMC1289395  PMID: 16176980
5.  Recruitment of dynein to late endosomes and lysosomes through light intermediate chains 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(4):467-477.
How cytoplasmic dynein is recruited to diverse organelles remains incompletely understood. Using the first subcellular localization of LIC isoforms, along with RNAi, RILP, and dynactin dominant negatives, the LIC subunits are found to recruit dynein specifically to components of the late endocytic pathway through a dynactin-independent mechanism.
Cytoplasmic dynein is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, but how it is regulated and how it recognizes an extremely wide range of cargo are incompletely understood. The dynein light intermediate chains, LIC1 and LIC2 (DYNC1LI1 and DYNC1LI2, respectively), have been implicated in cargo binding, but their full range of functions is unknown. Using LIC isoform-specific antibodies, we report the first characterization of their subcellular distribution and identify a specific association with elements of the late endocytic pathway, but not other vesicular compartments. LIC1 and LIC2 RNA interference (RNAi) each specifically disrupts the distribution of lysosomes and late endosomes. Stimulation of dynein-mediated late-endosomal transport by the Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) is reversed by LIC1 RNAi, which displaces dynein, but not dynactin, from these structures. Conversely, expression of ΔN-RILP or the dynactin subunit dynamitin each fails to displace dynein, but not dynactin. Thus, using a variety of complementary approaches, our results indicate a novel specific role for the LICs in dynein recruitment to components of the late endocytic pathway.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E10-02-0129
PMCID: PMC3038645  PMID: 21169557
6.  Salmonella Impairs RILP Recruitment to Rab7 during Maturation of Invasion Vacuoles 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(7):3146-3154.
After invasion of epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium resides within membrane-bound vacuoles where it survives and replicates. Like endocytic vesicles, the Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) undergo a maturation process that involves sequential acquisition of Rab5 and Rab7 and displacement toward the microtubule-organizing center. However, SCVs fail to merge with lysosomes and instead develop subsequently into a filamentous network that extends toward the cell periphery. We found that the initial centripetal displacement of the SCV is due to recruitment by Rab7 of Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), an effector protein that can simultaneously associate with the dynein motor complex. Unlike the early SCVs, the Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) formed later are devoid of RILP and dynein, despite the presence of active Rab7 on their membranes. Kinesin seems to be involved in the elongation of Sifs. SifA, a secreted effector of Salmonella, was found to be at least partly responsible for uncoupling Rab7 from RILP in Sifs and in vitro experiments suggest that SifA may exert this effect by interacting with Rab7. We propose that, by disengaging RILP from Rab7, SifA enables the centrifugal extension of tubules from the Salmonella-containing vacuoles, thereby providing additional protected space for bacterial replication.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-02-0092
PMCID: PMC452572  PMID: 15121880
7.  Dynein-mediated Vesicle Transport Controls Intracellular Salmonella Replication 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(6):2954-2964.
Salmonella typhimurium survives and replicates intracellular in a membrane-bound compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). In HeLa cells, the SCV matures through interactions with the endocytic pathway, but Salmonella avoids fusion with mature lysosomes. The exact mechanism of the inhibition of phagolysosomal fusion is not understood. Rab GTPases control several proteins involved in membrane fusion and vesicular transport. The small GTPase Rab7 regulates the transport of and fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes and associates with the SCV. We show that the Rab7 GTPase cycle is not affected on the SCV. We then manipulated a pathway downstream of the small GTPase Rab7 in HeLa cells infected with Salmonella. Expression of the Rab7 effector RILP induces recruitment of the dynein/dynactin motor complex to the SCV. Subsequently, SCV fuse with lysosomes. As a result, the intracellular replication of Salmonella is inhibited. Activation of dynein-mediated vesicle transport can thus control intracellular survival of Salmonella.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-08-0614
PMCID: PMC420117  PMID: 15064357
8.  A Role for Rab7 in the Movement of Secretory Granules in Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2011;12(7):902-911.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are potent killers of virally infected and tumorigenic cells. Upon recognition of target cells, CTL undergo polarized secretion of secretory lysosomes at the immunological synapse (IS) that forms between CTL and target. However, the molecular machinery involved in the polarization of secretory lysosomes is still largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we investigated the role of Rab7 in the polarization of secretory lysosomes. We show that silencing of Rab7 by RNA interference reduces the ability of CTL to kill targets. GTP-bound Rab7 and Rab interacting lysosomal protein, RILP, interact and both localize to secretory lysosomes in CTL. Over-expression of RILP recruits dynein to the membranes of secretory lysosomes and triggers their movement toward the centrosome. Together, these results suggest that Rab7 may play a role in secretory lysosome movement toward the centrosome by interacting with RILP to recruit the minus-end motor, dynein.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01194.x
PMCID: PMC4116565  PMID: 21438969
Bicaudal; CTL; CMT2B; dynein; lymphocytes; lysosomes; ORP1L; polarization; Rab7; RILP; secretion
9.  Role of Dynactin in Endocytic Traffic: Effects of Dynamitin Overexpression and Colocalization with CLIP-170 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1999;10(12):4107-4120.
The flow of material from peripheral, early endosomes to late endosomes requires microtubules and is thought to be facilitated by the minus end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin. The microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 may also play a role by providing an early link to endosomes. Here, we show that perturbation of dynactin function in vivo affects endosome dynamics and trafficking. Endosome movement, which is normally bidirectional, is completely inhibited. Receptor-mediated uptake and recycling occur normally, but cells are less susceptible to infection by enveloped viruses that require delivery to late endosomes, and they show reduced accumulation of lysosomally targeted probes. Dynactin colocalizes at microtubule plus ends with CLIP-170 in a way that depends on CLIP-170’s putative cargo-binding domain. Overexpression studies using p150Glued, the microtubule-binding subunit of dynactin, and mutant and wild-type forms of CLIP-170 indicate that CLIP-170 recruits dynactin to microtubule ends. These data suggest a new model for the formation of motile complexes of endosomes and microtubules early in the endocytic pathway.
PMCID: PMC25746  PMID: 10588646
10.  RILP interacts with HOPS complex via VPS41 subunit to regulate endocytic trafficking 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7282.
The HOPS complex serves as a tethering complex with GEF activity for Ypt7p in yeast to regulate late endosomal membrane maturation. While the role of HOPS complex is well established in yeast cells, its functional and mechanistic aspects in mammalian cells are less well defined. In this study, we report that RILP, a downstream effector of Rab7, interacts with HOPS complex and recruits HOPS subunits to the late endosomal compartment. Structurally, the amino-terminal portion of RILP interacts with HOPS complex. Unexpectedly, this interaction is independent of Rab7. VPS41 subunit of HOPS complex was defined to be the major partner for interacting with RILP. The carboxyl-terminal region of VPS41 was mapped to be responsible for the interaction. Functionally, either depletion of VPS41 by shRNA or overexpression of VPS41 C-terminal half retarded EGF-induced degradation of EGFR. These results suggest that interaction of RILP with HOPS complex via VPS41 plays a role in endocytic trafficking of EGFR.
doi:10.1038/srep07282
PMCID: PMC4250914  PMID: 25445562
11.  Role of AP1 and Gadkin in the traffic of secretory endo-lysosomes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(12):2068-2082.
We report that exocytosis of secretory lysosomes in nonspecialized cells does not depend on the mechanisms of late endocytic membrane transport but on Rab27A-like, lysosome-related organelles in specialized cells. We also find that this unconventional secretory process depends on clathrin, the Adaptor Protein complex 1 (AP1) adaptor, and the AP1-binding partner Gadkin.
Whereas lysosome-related organelles (LRO) of specialized cells display both exocytic and endocytic features, lysosomes in nonspecialized cells can also acquire the property to fuse with the plasma membrane upon an acute rise in cytosolic calcium. Here, we characterize this unconventional secretory pathway in fibroblast-like cells, by monitoring the appearance of Lamp1 on the plasma membrane and the release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. After sequential ablation of endocytic compartments in living cells, we find that donor membranes primarily derive from a late compartment, but that an early compartment is also involved. Strikingly, this endo-secretory process is not affected by treatments that inhibit endosome dynamics (microtubule depolymerization, cholesterol accumulation, overexpression of Rab7 or its effector Rab-interacting lysosomal protein [RILP], overexpression of Rab5 mutants), but depends on Rab27a, a GTPase involved in LRO secretion, and is controlled by F-actin. Moreover, we find that this unconventional endo-secretory pathway requires the adaptor protein complexes AP1, Gadkin (which recruits AP1 by binding to the γ1 subunit), and AP2, but not AP3. We conclude that a specific fraction of the AP2-derived endocytic pathway is dedicated to secretory purposes under the control of AP1 and Gadkin.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E11-03-0193
PMCID: PMC3113771  PMID: 21525240
12.  Dynactin Subunit p150Glued Is a Neuron-Specific Anti-Catastrophe Factor 
PLoS Biology  2013;11(7):e1001611.
The dynein partner dynactin not only binds to microtubules, but is found to potently influence microtubule dynamics in neurons.
Regulation of microtubule dynamics in neurons is critical, as defects in the microtubule-based transport of axonal organelles lead to neurodegenerative disease. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein and its partner complex dynactin drive retrograde transport from the distal axon. We have recently shown that the p150Glued subunit of dynactin promotes the initiation of dynein-driven cargo motility from the microtubule plus-end. Because plus end-localized microtubule-associated proteins like p150Glued may also modulate the dynamics of microtubules, we hypothesized that p150Glued might promote cargo initiation by stabilizing the microtubule track. Here, we demonstrate in vitro using assembly assays and TIRF microscopy, and in primary neurons using live-cell imaging, that p150Glued is a potent anti-catastrophe factor for microtubules. p150Glued alters microtubule dynamics by binding both to microtubules and to tubulin dimers; both the N-terminal CAP-Gly and basic domains of p150Glued are required in tandem for this activity. p150Glued is alternatively spliced in vivo, with the full-length isoform including these two domains expressed primarily in neurons. Accordingly, we find that RNAi of p150Glued in nonpolarized cells does not alter microtubule dynamics, while depletion of p150Glued in neurons leads to a dramatic increase in microtubule catastrophe. Strikingly, a mutation in p150Glued causal for the lethal neurodegenerative disorder Perry syndrome abrogates this anti-catastrophe activity. Thus, we find that dynactin has multiple functions in neurons, both activating dynein-mediated retrograde axonal transport and enhancing microtubule stability through a novel anti-catastrophe mechanism regulated by tissue-specific isoform expression; disruption of either or both of these functions may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Author Summary
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that undergo successive cycles of growth and shrinkage so that the cell can maintain a stable yet adaptable cytoskeleton. In neurons, the microtubule motor protein dynein and its partner complex dynactin drive retrograde transport along microtubules from the distal axon towards the cell body. In addition to binding to dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin independently binds directly to microtubules. We hypothesized that by binding to microtubules, p150Glued might also alter microtubule dynamics. We demonstrate using biochemistry and microscopy in vitro and in cells that p150Glued stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting the transition from growth to shrinkage. We show that specific domains of p150Glued encoded by neuronally enriched splice-forms are necessary for this activity. Although depletion of p150Glued in nonpolarized cells does not alter microtubule dynamics, depletion of endogenous p150Glued in neurons leads to dramatic microtubule instability. Strikingly, a mutation in p150Glued known to cause the neurodegenerative disorder Perry syndrome abolishes this activity. In summary, we identified a previously unappreciated function of dynactin in direct regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. This activity may enhance generic microtubule stability in the cell, but could be especially important in specific areas of the cell where dynactin and dynein are loaded onto microtubules.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001611
PMCID: PMC3712912  PMID: 23874158
13.  Roles of Dynein and Dynactin in Early Endosome Dynamics Revealed Using Automated Tracking and Global Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24479.
Microtubule-dependent movement is crucial for the spatial organization of endosomes in most eukaryotes, but as yet there has been no systematic analysis of how a particular microtubule motor contributes to early endosome dynamics. Here we tracked early endosomes labeled with GFP-Rab5 on the nanometer scale, and combined this with global, first passage probability (FPP) analysis to provide an unbiased description of how the minus-end microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein, supports endosome motility. Dynein contributes to short-range endosome movement, but in particular drives 85–98% of long, inward translocations. For these, it requires an intact dynactin complex to allow membrane-bound p150Glued to activate dynein, since p50 over-expression, which disrupts the dynactin complex, inhibits inward movement even though dynein and p150Glued remain membrane-bound. Long dynein-dependent movements occur via bursts at up to ∼8 µms−1 that are linked by changes in rate or pauses. These peak speeds during rapid inward endosome movement are still seen when cellular dynein levels are 50-fold reduced by RNAi knock-down of dynein heavy chain, while the number of movements is reduced 5-fold. Altogether, these findings identify how dynein helps define the dynamics of early endosomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024479
PMCID: PMC3167862  PMID: 21915335
14.  PKA-dependent dynein switching from lysosomes to adenovirus: A novel form of host–virus competition 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2014;205(2):163-177.
PKA-mediated phosphorylation of a specific residue in the dynein light intermediate chain 1 releases the motor protein from lysosomes and late endosomes while activating its recruitment to adenovirus capsids.
Cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for transport of several viruses to the nucleus. Adenovirus recruits dynein directly. Transport depends on virus-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and other cellular protein kinases, whose roles in infection are poorly understood. We find that PKA phosphorylates cytoplasmic dynein at a novel site in light intermediate chain 1 (LIC1) that is essential for dynein binding to the hexon capsid subunit and for virus motility. Surprisingly, the same LIC1 modification induces a slow, but specific, dispersal of lysosomes (lyso)/late endosomes (LEs) that is mediated by inhibition of a newly identified LIC1 interaction with the RILP (Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein). These results identify an organelle-specific dynein regulatory modification that adenovirus uses for its own transport. PKA-mediated LIC1 phosphorylation causes only partial lyso/LE dispersal, suggesting a role for additional, parallel mechanisms for dynein recruitment to lyso/LEs. This arrangement provides a novel means to fine tune transport of these organelles in response to infection as well as to developmental and physiological cues.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201307116
PMCID: PMC4003248  PMID: 24778311
15.  Apoptotic Cleavage of Cytoplasmic Dynein Intermediate Chain and P150GluedStops Dynein-Dependent Membrane Motility 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;153(7):1415-1426.
Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus end–directed microtubule motor in animal cells, and associates with many of its cargoes in conjunction with the dynactin complex. Interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin is mediated by the binding of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains (CD-IC) to the dynactin subunit, p150Glued. We have found that both CD-IC and p150Glued are cleaved by caspases during apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells and in Xenopus egg extracts. Xenopus CD-IC is rapidly cleaved at a conserved aspartic acid residue adjacent to its NH2-terminal p150Glued binding domain, resulting in loss of the otherwise intact cytoplasmic dynein complex from membranes. Cleavage of CD-IC and p150Glued in apoptotic Xenopus egg extracts causes the cessation of cytoplasmic dynein–driven endoplasmic reticulum movement. Motility of apoptotic membranes is restored by recruitment of intact cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin from control cytosol, or from apoptotic cytosol supplemented with purified cytoplasmic dynein–dynactin, demonstrating the dynamic nature of the association of cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin with their membrane cargo.
PMCID: PMC2150727  PMID: 11425872
microtubule; motor; apoptosis; trafficking; caspase
16.  The p150Glued CAP-Gly Domain Regulates Initiation of Retrograde Transport at Synaptic Termini 
Neuron  2012;74(2):344-360.
Summary
p150Glued is the major subunit of dynactin, a complex that functions with dynein in minus-end directed microtubule transport. Mutations within the p150Glued CAP-Gly microtubule-binding domain cause neurodegenerative diseases through an unclear mechanism. A p150Glued motor neuron degenerative disease-associated mutation introduced into the Drosophila Glued locus generates a partial loss-of-function allele (GlG38S) with impaired neurotransmitter release and adult-onset locomotor dysfunction. Disruption of the dynein/dynactin complex in neurons causes a specific disruption of vesicle trafficking at terminal boutons (TBs), the distal-most ends of synapses. GlG38S larvae accumulate endosomes along with dynein and kinesin motor proteins within swollen TBs, and genetic analyses show that kinesin and p150Glued function cooperatively at TBs to coordinate transport. Therefore, the p150Glued CAP-Gly domain regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport at synaptic termini, and this function of dynactin is disrupted by a mutation that causes motor neuron disease.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.026
PMCID: PMC3353876  PMID: 22542187
17.  Bicaudal D2, Dynein, and Kinesin-1 Associate with Nuclear Pore Complexes and Regulate Centrosome and Nuclear Positioning during Mitotic Entry 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(4):e1000350.
Mammalian Bicaudal D2 is the missing molecular link between cytoplasmic motor proteins and the nucleus during nuclear positioning prior to the onset of mitosis.
BICD2 is one of the two mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Bicaudal D, an evolutionarily conserved adaptor between microtubule motors and their cargo that was previously shown to link vesicles and mRNP complexes to the dynein motor. Here, we identified a G2-specific role for BICD2 in the relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosomes in dividing cells. By combining mass spectrometry, biochemical and cell biological approaches, we show that the nuclear pore complex (NPC) component RanBP2 directly binds to BICD2 and recruits it to NPCs specifically in G2 phase of the cell cycle. BICD2, in turn, recruits dynein-dynactin to NPCs and as such is needed to keep centrosomes closely tethered to the nucleus prior to mitotic entry. When dynein function is suppressed by RNA interference-mediated depletion or antibody microinjection, centrosomes and nuclei are actively pushed apart in late G2 and we show that this is due to the action of kinesin-1. Surprisingly, depletion of BICD2 inhibits both dynein and kinesin-1-dependent movements of the nucleus and cytoplasmic NPCs, demonstrating that BICD2 is needed not only for the dynein function at the nuclear pores but also for the antagonistic activity of kinesin-1. Our study demonstrates that the nucleus is subject to opposing activities of dynein and kinesin-1 motors and that BICD2 contributes to nuclear and centrosomal positioning prior to mitotic entry through regulation of both dynein and kinesin-1.
Author Summary
Bidirectional microtubule-based transport is responsible for the positioning of a large variety of cellular organelles, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment of microtubule-based motors to their cargoes and their activation remain poorly understood. In particular, the molecular players involved in the important processes of nuclear and centrosomal positioning prior to the onset of cell division are not known. In this study we focus on the function of one of the mammalian homologues of Drosophila Bicaudal D, an adaptor for the microtubule minus-end-directed dynein-dynactin motor complex. Previously, Drosophila Bicaudal D and its mammalian homologues were shown to act as linkers between the dynein motor and mRNP complexes or secretory vesicles. Here, we identify a new cargo for mammalian Bicaudal D2 (BICD2)–the nucleus. We show that BICD2 specifically binds to nuclear pore complexes in cells in G2 phase of the cell division cycle. We also show that this interaction is required for G2-specific recruitment of dynein to the nuclear envelope and thus for proper positioning of the nucleus relative to centrosomes prior to the onset of mitosis. Further, our findings demonstrate that the motor protein kinesin-1 opposes dynein's activity during this process and requires BICD2 for its activity. Our study therefore reveals BICD2 as the critical molecular adaptor that allows molecular motors to regulate nuclear and centrosomal positioning before cell division.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000350
PMCID: PMC2850381  PMID: 20386726
18.  Cytoplasmic dynein binds dynactin through a direct interaction between the intermediate chains and p150Glued 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1995;131(6):1507-1516.
Cytoplasmic dynein is a retrograde microtubule motor thought to participate in organelle transport and some aspects of minus end- directed chromosome movement. The mechanism of binding to organelles and kinetochores is unknown. Based on homology with the Chlamydomonas flagellar outer arm dynein intermediate chains (ICs), we proposed a role for the cytoplasmic dynein ICs in linking the motor protein to organelles and kinetochores. In this study two different IC isoforms were used in blot overlay and immunoprecipitation assays to identify IC- binding partners. In overlays of complex protein samples, the ICs bound specifically to polypeptides of 150 and 135 kD, identified as the p150Glued doublet of the dynactin complex. In reciprocal overlay assays, p150Glued specifically recognized the ICs. Immunoprecipitations from total Rat2 cell extracts, rat brain cytosol, and rat brain membranes further identified the dynactin complex as a specific target for IC binding. using truncation mutants, the sites of interaction were mapped to amino acids 1-123 of IC-1A and amino acids 200-811 of p150Glued. While cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin have been implicated in a common pathway by genetic analysis, our findings identify a direct interaction between two specific component polypeptides and support a role for dynactin as a dynein "receptor". Our data also suggest, however, that this interaction must be highly regulated.
PMCID: PMC2120689  PMID: 8522607
19.  Rabring7, a Novel Rab7 Target Protein with a RING Finger Motif 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(9):3741-3752.
Rab7, a member of the Rab family small G proteins, has been shown to regulate intracellular vesicle traffic to late endosome/lysosome and lysosome biogenesis, but the exact roles of Rab7 are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that each Rab protein has multiple target proteins that function in the exocytic/endocytic pathway. We have isolated a new Rab7 target protein, Rabring7 (Rab7-interacting RING finger protein), using a CytoTrap system. It contains an H2 type RING finger motif at the C termini. Rabring7 shows no homology with RILP, which has been reported as another Rab7 target protein. GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that Rabring7 specifically binds the GTP-bound form of Rab7 at the N-terminal portion. Rabring7 is found mainly in the cytosol and is recruited efficiently to late endosomes/lysosomes by the GTP-bound form of Rab7 in BHK cells. Overexpression of Rabring7 not only affects epidermal growth factor degradation but also causes the perinuclear aggregation of lysosomes, in which the accumulation of the acidotropic probe LysoTracker is remarkably enhanced. These results suggest that Rabring7 plays crucial roles as a Rab7 target protein in vesicle traffic to late endosome/lysosome and lysosome biogenesis.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-08-0495
PMCID: PMC196564  PMID: 12972561
20.  p150Glued, the largest subunit of the dynactin complex, is nonessential in Neurospora but required for nuclear distribution. 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1996;7(5):731-742.
Dynactin is a multisubunit complex that is required for cytoplasmic dynein, a minus-end-directed, microtubule-associated motor, to efficiently transport vesicles along microtubules in vitro. p150Glued, the largest subunit of dynactin, has been identified in vertebrates and Drosophila and recently has been shown to interact with cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains in vitro. The mechanism by which dynactin facilitates cytoplasmic dynein-dependent vesicle transport is unknown. We have devised a genetic screen for cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin mutants in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In this paper, we report that one of these mutants, ro-3, defines a gene encoding an apparent homologue of p150Glued, and we provide genetic evidence that cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin interact in vivo. The major structural features of vertebrate and Drosophila p150Glued, a microtubule-binding site at the N-terminus and two large alpha-helical coiled-coil regions contained within the distal two-thirds of the polypeptide, are conserved in Ro3. Drosophila p150Glued is essential for viability; however, ro-3 null mutants are viable, indicating that dynactin is not an essential complex in N. crassa. We show that N. crassa cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin mutants have abnormal nuclear distribution but retain the ability to organize cytoplasmic microtubules and actin in anucleate hyphae.
Images
PMCID: PMC275926  PMID: 8744947
21.  Ordered Recruitment of Dynactin to the Microtubule Plus-End is Required for Efficient Initiation of Retrograde Axonal Transport 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2013;33(32):13190-13203.
Long-range retrograde axonal transport in neurons is driven exclusively by the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein. The efficient initiation of dynein-mediated transport from the distal axon is critical for normal neuronal function, and neurodegenerative disease-associated mutations have been shown to specifically disrupt this process. Here, we examine the role of dynamic microtubules and microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs) in the initiation of dynein-mediated retrograde axonal transport using live-cell imaging of cargo motility in primary mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. We show that end-binding (EB)-positive dynamic microtubules are enriched in the distal axon. The +TIPs EB1, EB3, and cytoplasmic linker protein-170 (CLIP-170) interact with these dynamic microtubules, recruiting the dynein activator dynactin in an ordered pathway, leading to the initiation of retrograde transport by the motor dynein. Once transport has initiated, however, neither the EBs nor CLIP-170 are required to maintain transport flux along the mid-axon. In contrast, the +TIP Lis1 activates transport through a distinct mechanism and is required to maintain processive organelle transport along both the distal and mid-axon. Further, we show that the EB/CLIP-170/dynactin-dependent mechanism is required for the efficient initiation of transport from the distal axon for multiple distinct cargos, including mitochondria, Rab5-positive early endosomes, late endosomes/lysosomes, and TrkA-, TrkB-, and APP-positive organelles. Our observations indicate that there is an essential role for +TIPs in the regulation of retrograde transport initiation in the neuron.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0935-13.2013
PMCID: PMC3735891  PMID: 23926272
22.  BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(21):4226-4241.
This study dissects the recruitment of dynein and dynactin to cargo by a conserved motor adaptor BICD2. It is shown that dynein, dynactin, and BICD2 form a triple complex in vitro and in vivo. Investigation of the properties of this complex by direct visualization of dynein in live cells shows that BICD2-induced dynein transport requires LIS1.
Cytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus-end–directed cellular motor. Most dynein activities require dynactin, but the mechanisms regulating cargo-dependent dynein–dynactin interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we focus on dynein–dynactin recruitment to cargo by the conserved motor adaptor Bicaudal D2 (BICD2). We show that dynein and dynactin depend on each other for BICD2-mediated targeting to cargo and that BICD2 N-terminus (BICD2-N) strongly promotes stable interaction between dynein and dynactin both in vitro and in vivo. Direct visualization of dynein in live cells indicates that by itself the triple BICD2-N–dynein–dynactin complex is unable to interact with either cargo or microtubules. However, tethering of BICD2-N to different membranes promotes their microtubule minus-end–directed motility. We further show that LIS1 is required for dynein-mediated transport induced by membrane tethering of BICD2-N and that LIS1 contributes to dynein accumulation at microtubule plus ends and BICD2-positive cellular structures. Our results demonstrate that dynein recruitment to cargo requires concerted action of multiple dynein cofactors.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-03-0210
PMCID: PMC3484101  PMID: 22956769
23.  Dynactin's pointed-end complex is a cargo-targeting module 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(19):3827-3837.
Dynactin serves as an adaptor that allows the dynein motor to bind cargoes, but how dynactin associates with its diverse complement of subcellular binding partners remains mysterious. We show that the “pointed-end complex” of dynactin is a bipartite structural domain that stabilizes dynactin and supports its binding to different subcellular structures.
Dynactin is an essential part of the cytoplasmic dynein motor that enhances motor processivity and serves as an adaptor that allows dynein to bind cargoes. Much is known about dynactin's interaction with dynein and microtubules, but how it associates with its diverse complement of subcellular binding partners remains mysterious. It has been suggested that cargo specification involves a group of subunits referred to as the “pointed-end complex.” We used chemical cross-linking, RNA interference, and protein overexpression to characterize interactions within the pointed-end complex and explore how it contributes to dynactin's interactions with endomembranes. The Arp11 subunit, which caps one end of dynactin's Arp1 filament, and p62, which binds Arp11 and Arp1, are necessary for dynactin stability. These subunits also allow dynactin to bind the nuclear envelope prior to mitosis. p27 and p25, by contrast, are peripheral components that can be removed without any obvious impact on dynactin integrity. Dynactin lacking these subunits shows reduced membrane binding. Depletion of p27 and p25 results in impaired early and recycling endosome movement, but late endosome movement is unaffected, and mitotic spindles appear normal. We conclude that the pointed-end complex is a bipartite structural domain that stabilizes dynactin and supports its binding to different subcellular structures.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0496
PMCID: PMC3459859  PMID: 22918948
24.  Overexpression of the Dynamitin (p50) Subunit of the Dynactin Complex Disrupts Dynein-dependent Maintenance of Membrane Organelle Distribution  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;139(2):469-484.
Dynactin is a multisubunit complex that plays an accessory role in cytoplasmic dynein function. Overexpression in mammalian cells of one dynactin subunit, dynamitin, disrupts the complex, resulting in dissociation of cytoplasmic dynein from prometaphase kinetochores, with consequent perturbation of mitosis (Echeverri, C.J., B.M. Paschal, K.T. Vaughan, and R.B. Vallee. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 132:617–634). Based on these results, dynactin was proposed to play a role in linking cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores and, potentially, to membrane organelles. The current study reports on the dynamitin interphase phenotype. In dynamitin-overexpressing cells, early endosomes (labeled with antitransferrin receptor), as well as late endosomes and lysosomes (labeled with anti–lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 [LAMP-1]), were redistributed to the cell periphery. This redistribution was disrupted by nocodazole, implicating an underlying plus end–directed microtubule motor activity. The Golgi stack, monitored using sialyltransferase, galactosyltransferase, and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, was dramatically disrupted into scattered structures that colocalized with components of the intermediate compartment (ERGIC-53 and ERD-2). The disrupted Golgi elements were revealed by EM to represent short stacks similar to those formed by microtubule-depolymerizing agents. Golgi-to-ER traffic of stack markers induced by brefeldin A was not inhibited by dynamitin overexpression. Time-lapse observations of dynamitin-overexpressing cells recovering from brefeldin A treatment revealed that the scattered Golgi elements do not undergo microtubule-based transport as seen in control cells, but rather, remain stationary at or near their ER exit sites. These results indicate that dynactin is specifically required for ongoing centripetal movement of endocytic organelles and components of the intermediate compartment. Results similar to those of dynamitin overexpression were obtained by microinjection with antidynein intermediate chain antibody, consistent with a role for dynactin in mediating interactions of cytoplasmic dynein with specific membrane organelles. These results suggest that dynamitin plays a pivotal role in regulating organelle movement at the level of motor–cargo binding.
PMCID: PMC2139801  PMID: 9334349
25.  The Two Variants of Oxysterol Binding Protein-related Protein-1 Display Different Tissue Expression Patterns, Have Different Intracellular Localization, and Are Functionally Distinct 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(3):903-915.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologs comprise a family of 12 proteins in humans (Jaworski et al., 2001; Lehto et al., 2001). Two variants of OSBP-related protein (ORP) 1 have been identified: a short one that consists of the carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain only (ORP1S, 437 aa) and a longer N-terminally extended form (ORP1L, 950 aa) encompassing three ankyrin repeats and a pleckstrin homology domain (PHD). We now report that the two mRNAs show marked differences in tissue expression. ORP1S predominates in skeletal muscle and heart, whereas ORP1L is the most abundant form in brain and lung. On differentiation of primary human monocytes into macrophages, both ORP1S and ORP1L mRNAs were induced, the up-regulation of ORP1L being >100-fold. The intracellular localization of the two ORP1 variants was found to be different. Whereas ORP1S is largely cytosolic, the ORP1L variant localizes to late endosomes. A significant amount of ORP1S but only little ORP1L was found in the nucleus. The ORP1L ankyrin repeat region (aa 1–237) was found to localize to late endosomes such as the full-length protein. This localization was even more pronounced for a fragment that additionally includes the PHD (aa 1–408). The amino-terminal region of ORP1L consisting of the ankyrin repeat and PHDs is therefore likely to be responsible for the targeting of ORP1L to late endosomes. Interestingly, overexpression of ORP1L was found to enhance the LXRα-mediated transactivation of a reporter gene, whereas ORP1S failed to influence this process. The results suggest that the two forms of ORP1 are functionally distinct and that ORP1L is involved in control of cellular lipid metabolism.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-08-0459
PMCID: PMC151568  PMID: 12631712

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