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1.  Crystal Structures of TbCatB and Rhodesain, Potential Chemotherapeutic Targets and Major Cysteine Proteases of Trypanosoma brucei 
Background
Trypanosoma brucei is the etiological agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis, an endemic parasitic disease of sub-Saharan Africa. TbCatB and rhodesain are the sole Clan CA papain-like cysteine proteases produced by the parasite during infection of the mammalian host and are implicated in the progression of disease. Of considerable interest is the exploration of these two enzymes as targets for cysteine protease inhibitors that are effective against T. brucei.
Methods and Findings
We have determined, by X-ray crystallography, the first reported structure of TbCatB in complex with the cathepsin B selective inhibitor CA074. In addition we report the structure of rhodesain in complex with the vinyl-sulfone K11002.
Conclusions
The mature domain of our TbCat•CA074 structure contains unique features for a cathepsin B-like enzyme including an elongated N-terminus extending 16 residues past the predicted maturation cleavage site. N-terminal Edman sequencing reveals an even longer extension than is observed amongst the ordered portions of the crystal structure. The TbCat•CA074 structure confirms that the occluding loop, which is an essential part of the substrate-binding site, creates a larger prime side pocket in the active site cleft than is found in mammalian cathepsin B-small molecule structures. Our data further highlight enhanced flexibility in the occluding loop main chain and structural deviations from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes that may affect activity and inhibitor design. Comparisons with the rhodesain•K11002 structure highlight key differences that may impact the design of cysteine protease inhibitors as anti-trypanosomal drugs.
Author Summary
Proteases are ubiquitous in all forms of life and catalyze the enzymatic degradation of proteins. These enzymes regulate and coordinate a vast number of cellular processes and are therefore essential to many organisms. While serine proteases dominate in mammals, parasitic organisms commonly rely on cysteine proteases of the Clan CA family throughout their lifecycle. Clan CA cysteine proteases are therefore regarded as promising targets for the selective design of drugs to treat parasitic diseases, such as Human African Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei. The genomes of kinetoplastids such as Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp. encode two Clan CA C1 family cysteine proteases and in T. brucei these are represented by rhodesain and TbCatB. We have determined three-dimensional structures of these two enzymes as part of our ongoing efforts to synthesize more effective anti-trypanosomal drugs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000701
PMCID: PMC2882330  PMID: 20544024
2.  A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(10):6619-6625.
Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had homology to those of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The putative cysteine protease sequence (BmNPV-CP) was 323 amino acids long and showed 35% identity to a cysteine proteinase precursor from Trypanosoma brucei. Of 36 residues conserved among cathepsins B, H, L, and S and papain, 31 were identical in BmNPV-CP. In order to determine the activity and function of the putative cysteine protease, a BmNPV mutant (BmCysPD) was constructed by homologous recombination of the protease gene with a beta-galactosidase gene cassette. BmCysPD-infected BmN cell extracts were significantly reduced in acid protease activity compared with wild-type virus-infected cell extracts. The cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] inhibited wild-type virus-expressed protease activity. Deletion of the cysteine protease gene had no significant effect on viral growth or polyhedron production in BmN cells, indicating that the cysteine protease was not essential for viral replication in vitro. However, B. mori larvae infected with BmCysPD showed symptoms different from those of wild-type BmNPV-infected larvae, e.g., less degradation of the body, including fat body cells, white body surface color due presumably to undegraded epidermal cells, and an increase in the number of polyhedra released into the hemolymph. This is the first report of (i) a virus-encoded protease with activity on general substrates and (ii) evidence that a virus-encoded protease may play a role in degradation of infected larvae to facilitate horizontal transmission of the virus.
Images
PMCID: PMC237082  PMID: 8083997
3.  Major histocompatibility complex class II-associated p41 invariant chain fragment is a strong inhibitor of lysosomal cathepsin L 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1996;183(4):1331-1338.
The invariant chain (Ii) is associated with major histocompatibility complex class II molecules during early stages of their intracellular transport. In an acidic endosomal/lysosomal compartment, it is proteolytically cleaved and removed from class II heterodimers. Participation of aspartic and cysteine proteases has been observed in in vitro degradation of Ii, but the specific enzymes responsible for its in vivo processing are as yet undefined. We have previously isolated a noncovalent complex of the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L with a peptide fragment derived from the p41 form of Ii from human kidney. Here we show that this Ii fragment, which is identical to the alternatively spliced segment of p41, is a very potent competitive inhibitor of cathepsin L (equilibrium inhibition constant Ki = 1.7 X 10(-12) M). It inhibits two other cysteine proteases, cathepsin H and papain, but to much lesser extent. Cysteine proteases cathepsins B, C, and S, as well as representatives of serine, aspartic, and metalloproteases, are not inhibited at all. These findings suggest a novel role for p41 in the regulation of various proteolytic activities during antigen processing and presentation. The Ii inhibitory fragment shows no sequence homology with the known cysteine protease inhibitors, and may, therefore, represent a new class.
PMCID: PMC2192513  PMID: 8666891
4.  The impact of whole genome sequence data on drug discovery--a malaria case study. 
Molecular Medicine  2001;7(10):698-710.
BACKGROUND: Identification and validation of a drug discovery target is a prominent step in drug development. In the post-genomic era it is possible to reevaluate the association of a gene with a specific biological function to see if a homologous gene can subsume this role. This concept has special relevance to drug discovery in human infectious diseases, like malaria. A trophozoite cysteine protease (falcipain-1) from the papain family, thought to be responsible for the degradation of erythrocyte hemoglobin, has been considered a promising target for drug discovery efforts owing to the antimalarial activity of peptide based covalent cysteine protease inhibitors. This led to the development of non-peptidic non-covalent inhibitors of falcipain-1 and their characterization as antimalarials. It is now clear from sequencing efforts that the malaria genome contains more than one cysteine protease and that falcipain-1 is not the most important contributor to hemoglobin degradation. Rather, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 appear to account for the majority of cysteine hemoglobinase activity in the plasmodium trophozoite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have modeled the falcipain-2 cysteine protease from one of the major human malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum and compared it to our original work on falcipain-1. As with falcipain-1, computa-tional screening of the falcipain-2 active site was conducted using DOCK. Using structural superpositions within the protease family and evolutionary analysis of substrate specificity sites, we focused on the commonalities and the protein specific features to direct our drug discovery effort. RESULTS: Since 1993, the size of the Available Chemicals Directory had increased from 55313 to 195419 unique chemical structures. For falcipain-2, eight inhibitors were identified with IC50's against the enzyme between 1 and 7 microM. Application of three of these inhibitors to infected erythrocytes cured malaria in culture, but parasite death did not correlate with food vacuole abnormalities associated with the activity of mechanistic inhibitors of cysteine proteases like the epoxide E64. CONCLUSIONS: Using plasmodial falcipain proteases, we show how a protein family perspective can influence target discovery and inhibitor design. We suspect that parallel drug discovery programs where a family of targets is considered, rather than serial programs built on a single therapeutic focus, will become the dominant industrial paradigm. Economies of scale in assay development and in compound synthesis are expected owing to the functional and structural features of individual family members. One of the remaining challenges in post-genomic drug discovery is that inhibitors of one target are likely to show some activity against other family members. This lack of specificity may lead to difficulties in functional assignments and target validation as well as a complex side effect profile.
PMCID: PMC1949995  PMID: 11713369
5.  Cathepsin-L Can Resist Lysis by Human Serum in Trypanosoma brucei brucei 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(5):e1004130.
Closely related African trypanosomes cause lethal diseases but display distinct host ranges. Specifically, Trypanosoma brucei brucei causes nagana in livestock but fails to infect humans, while Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense cause sleeping sickness in humans. T. b. brucei fails to infect humans because it is sensitive to innate immune complexes found in normal human serum known as trypanolytic factor (TLF) 1 and 2; the lytic component is apolipoprotein-L1 in both TLFs. TLF resistance mechanisms of T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are now known to arise through either gain or loss-of-function, but our understanding of factors that render T. b. brucei susceptible to lysis by human serum remains incomplete. We conducted a genome-scale RNA interference (RNAi) library screen for reduced sensitivity to human serum. Among only four high-confidence ‘hits’ were all three genes previously shown to sensitize T. b. brucei to human serum, the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR), inhibitor of cysteine peptidase (ICP) and the lysosomal protein, p67, thereby demonstrating the pivotal roles these factors play. The fourth gene identified encodes a predicted protein with eleven trans-membrane domains. Using chemical and genetic approaches, we show that ICP sensitizes T. b. brucei to human serum by modulating the essential cathepsin, CATL, a lysosomal cysteine peptidase. A second cathepsin, CATB, likely to be dispensable for growth in in vitro culture, has little or no impact on human-serum sensitivity. Our findings reveal major and novel determinants of human-serum sensitivity in T. b. brucei. They also shed light on the lysosomal protein-protein interactions that render T. b. brucei exquisitely sensitive to lytic factors in human serum, and indicate that CATL, an important potential drug target, has the capacity to resist these factors.
Author Summary
The interplay among host innate immunity and resistance mechanisms in African trypanosomes has a major impact on the host range of these tsetse-fly transmitted parasites, defining their ability to cause disease in humans. A genome-scale RNAi screen identified a highly restricted set of four genes that sensitise trypanosomes to human serum: those encoding the haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor, a predicted trans-membrane channel, a lysosomal membrane-protein and the cysteine peptidase inhibitor. An analysis of the cysteine peptidases revealed cathepsin-L as the protease regulated by the inhibitor – and with the capacity to render the parasite resistant to lysis by human serum. These findings emphasise the importance of parasite factors for the delivery and stability of host toxins. They also shed light on the control of proteolysis by parasites and potential unanticipated consequences of therapies that target the parasite proteases.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004130
PMCID: PMC4022737  PMID: 24830321
6.  Cysteine Protease Inhibitor (AcStefin) Is Required for Complete Cyst Formation of Acanthamoeba 
Eukaryotic Cell  2013;12(4):567-574.
The encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the formation of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for parasite survival under unfavorable conditions, such as those associated with starvation, low temperatures, and biocides. Furthermore, cysteine proteases have been implicated in the massive turnover of intracellular components required for encystation. Thus, strict modulation of the activities of cysteine proteases is required to protect Acanthamoeba from intracellular damage. However, mechanisms underlying the control of protease activity during encystation have not been established in Acanthamoeba. In the present study, we identified and characterized Acanthamoeba cysteine protease inhibitor (AcStefin), which was found to be highly expressed during encystation and to be associated with lysosomes by fluorescence microscopy. Recombinant AcStefin inhibited various cysteine proteases, including human cathepsin B, human cathepsin L, and papain. Transfection with small interfering RNA against AcStefin increased cysteine protease activity during encystation and resulted in incomplete cyst formation, reduced excystation efficiency, and a significant reduction in cytoplasmic area. Taken together, these results indicate that AcStefin is involved in the modulation of cysteine proteases and that it plays an essential role during the encystation of Acanthamoeba.
doi:10.1128/EC.00308-12
PMCID: PMC3623446  PMID: 23397569
7.  A Parasite Cysteine Protease Is Key to Host Protein Degradation and Iron Acquisition*S⃞ 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2008;283(43):28934-28943.
Cysteine proteases of the Clan CA (papain) family are the predominant protease group in primitive invertebrates. Cysteine protease inhibitors arrest infection by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. RNA interference studies implicated a cathepsin B-like protease, tbcatB, as a key inhibitor target. Utilizing parasites in which one of the two alleles of tbcatb has been deleted, the key role of this protease in degradation of endocytosed host proteins is delineated. TbcatB deficiency results in a decreased growth rate and dysmorphism of the flagellar pocket and the subjacent endocytic compartment. Western blot and microscopic analysis indicate that deficiency in tbcatB results in accumulation of both host and parasite proteins, including the lysosomal marker p67. A critical function for parasitism is the degradation of host transferrin, which is necessary for iron acquisition. Substrate specificity analysis of recombinant tbcatB revealed the optimal peptide cleavage sequences for the enzyme and these were confirmed experimentally using FRET-based substrates. Degradation of transferrin was validated by SDS-PAGE and the specific cleavage sites identified by N-terminal sequencing. Because even a modest deficiency in tbcatB is lethal for the parasite, tbcatB is a logical target for the development of new anti-trypanosomal chemotherapy.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M805824200
PMCID: PMC2570886  PMID: 18701454
8.  Design, Synthesis, Evaluation and Thermodynamics of 1-Substituted Pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]Pyridine Derivatives as Cysteine Protease Inhibitors 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e69982.
Targeting papain family cysteine proteases is one of the novel strategies in the development of chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Novel cysteine protease inhibitors derived from 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine representing pharmacologically important class of compounds are being reported here for the first time. The derivatives were initially designed and screened in silico by molecular docking studies against papain to explore the possible mode of action. The molecular interaction between the compounds and cysteine protease (papain) was found to be very similar to the interactions observed with the respective epoxide inhibitor (E-64c) of papain. Subsequently, compounds were synthesized to validate their efficacy in wet lab experiments. When characterized kinetically, these compounds show their Ki and IC50 values in the range of 13.75 to 99.30 µM and 13.40 to 96.50 µM, respectively. The thermodynamics studies suggest their binding with papain hydrophobically and entropically driven. These inhibitors also inhibit the growth of clinically important different types of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria having MIC50 values in the range of 0.6–1.4 µg/ml. Based on Lipinski’s rule of Five, we also propose these compounds as potent antibacterial prodrugs. The most active antibacterial compound was found to be 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (3a).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069982
PMCID: PMC3734177  PMID: 23940536
9.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the cysteine protease ervatamin A from Ervatamia coronaria  
Ervatamin A is a papain-family cysteine protease with high activity and stability. It has been isolated and purified from the latex of the medicinal flowering plant E. coronaria and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. Crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å and the structure was solved by molecular replacement.
The ervatamins are highly stable cysteine proteases that are present in the latex of the medicinal plant Ervatamia coronaria and belong to the papain family, members of which share similar amino-acid sequences and also a similar fold comprising two domains. Ervatamin A from this family, a highly active protease compared with others from the same source, has been purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. Needle-shaped crystals of ervatamin A diffract to 2.1 Å resolution and belong to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.10, b = 144.17, c = 108.61 Å. The solvent content using an ervatamin A molecular weight of 27.6 kDa is 43.9%, with a V M value of 2.19 Å3 Da−1 assuming one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of ervatamin C as a search model.
doi:10.1107/S174430910501657X
PMCID: PMC1952322  PMID: 16511096
ervatamins; cysteine proteases; papain family
10.  Structural and functional analysis of the pro-domain of human cathelicidin, LL-37 
Biochemistry  2013;52(9):1547-1558.
Cathelicidins form a family of small host defense peptides distinct from another class of cationic antimicrobial peptides, the defensins. They are expressed as large precursor molecules with a highly conserved pro-domain known as the cathelin-like domain (CLD). CLDs have high degrees of sequence homology to cathelin, a protein isolated from pig leukocytes and belonging to the cystatin family of cysteine protease inhibitors. In this report, we describe for the first time the X-ray crystal structure of the human CLD (hCLD) of the sole human cathelicidin, LL-37. The structure of hCLD, determined at 1.93 Å resolution, shows the cystatin-like fold and is highly similar to the structure of the CLD of the pig cathelicidin, protegrin-3. We assayed the in vitro antibacterial activities of hCLD, LL-37 and the precursor form, pro-cathelicidin (also known as hCAP18), and we found that the unprocessed protein inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria with efficiencies comparable to the mature peptide, LL-37. In addition, the antibacterial activity of LL-37 was not inhibited by hCLD intermolecularly, since exogenously added hCLD had no effect on the bactericidal activity of the mature peptide. hCLD itself lacked antimicrobial function and did not inhibit the cysteine protease, cathepsin L. Our results contrast with previous reports of hCLD activity. A comparative structural analysis between hCLD and the cysteine protease inhibitor stefin A showed why hCLD is unable to function as an inhibitor of cysteine proteases. In this respect, the cystatin scaffold represents an ancestral structural platform from which proteins evolved divergently, with some losing inhibitory functions.
doi:10.1021/bi301008r
PMCID: PMC3634326  PMID: 23406372
cathelin-like domain; cathelicidin; LL-37; antimicrobial peptide; precursor form; x-ray crystallography; cystatin scaffold
11.  Challenging a Paradigm: Theoretical Calculations of the Protonation State of the Cys25-His159 Catalytic Diad in Free Papain 
Proteins  2009;77(4):916-926.
A central mechanistic paradigm of cysteine proteases is that the His – Cys catalytic diad forms an ion-pair NH(+)/S(−) already in the catalytically active free enzyme. Most molecular modeling studies of cysteine proteases refer to this paradigm as their starting point. Nevertheless, several recent kinetics and X-ray crystallography studies of viral and bacterial cysteine proteases depart from the ion-pair mechanism, suggesting general base catalysis. We challenge the postulate of the ion-pair formation in free papain. Applying our QM/SCRF(VS) molecular modeling approach, we analyzed all protonation states of the catalytic diad in free papain and its SMe derivative, comparing the predicted and experimental pKa data. We conclude that the His – Cys catalytic diad in free papain is fully protonated, NH(+)/SH. The experimental pKa=8.62 of His159 imidazole in free papain, obtained by NMR controlled titratin and originally interpreated as the NH(+)/S(−) ⇌ N/S(−) equilibrium, is now assigned to the NH(+)/SH ⇌ N/SH equilibrium.
doi:10.1002/prot.22516
PMCID: PMC2767454  PMID: 19688822
cysteine proteases; enzyme mechanism; solvation; pKa in proteins; molecular modeling; quantum mechanics
12.  Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants 
Journal of Proteomics  2012;75(11):3191-3198.
Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.
doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.03.021
PMCID: PMC3381983  PMID: 22465191
Carica papaya; Label-free quantitative proteomics; Latex; Mass spectrometry; Plant proteomics
13.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya  
The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å.
A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106046367
PMCID: PMC2225369  PMID: 17142906
protease inhibitors; detwinning
14.  Functional Expression of Recombinant Human Stefin A in Mammalian and Bacterial Cells 
Recombinant human cysteine protease inhibitor, stefin A, was expressed in both E. coli and BSC-1 monkey kidney cells utilizing pET and recombinant Vaccinia virus systems, respectively. The expressed protein was purified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis utilizing a polyclonal antibody against rat cystatin α. In both cases the purified protein appeared as a single band corresponding to the molecular weight of stefin A (~10 kDa). Viability of the expressed stefin A was determined by the inhibition of the plant cysteine protease, papain. Recombinant human stefin A expressed in both E. coli and BSC-1 cells was shown to almost completely inhibit papain. The expression of a fully functional recombinant human stefin A in the bacterial system provides a highly efficient tool for the production of large quantities of the protein. This can be an important tool in kinetic studies as well as in production of antibodies for other analytical studies (immunoblot, immunohistochemical studies, etc.). Expression in the mammalian cells on the other hand, can provide a significant research tool to study the functional roles of stefin A in the mammalian systems such as the regulation of cysteine proteases.
doi:10.1016/j.pep.2006.11.020
PMCID: PMC1892908  PMID: 17208452
15.  THE REMOVAL OF CARTILAGE MATRIX BY PAPAIN  
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1960;112(6):1173-1194.
In rabbits, the depletion of cartilage matrix which occurs following intravenous administration of papain treated with iodacetamide is attributable to a portion of the enzyme in the disulfide form which has not undergone alkylation. It is this portion that is reactivated in cartilage in vivo and initiates the enzymatic breakdown of the protein-polysaccharide complex which forms a major component of the matrix. Evidence presented in support of these conclusions indicates that, contrary to an earlier hypothesis, papain acetamide is not reactivated in vivo. Following intravenous injection in amounts up to 4 mg./kg., active and inactive papain leaves the circulation at a rate proportional to the concentration, and it is likely that the initial rate of disappearance represents equilibration with the extracellular space. Following injection in the active or inactive form, a high proportion of papain in serum is bound to protein in the alpha globulin fraction. It is believed that in the case of fully active papain, the proportion which is not bound to alpha globulin becomes attached to other proteins of serum in extracellular fluid, such as albumin, by a process of enzyme substrate combination, and is thus prevented from diffusing into cartilage. In the case of inactive papain, a comparable excess remains free to enter cartilage, where it initiates depletion of matrix following reactivation within the tissue. These conclusions provide an explanation for the failure of fully active papain to cause depletion of cartilage matrix in vivo; the widespread changes seen after the injection of papain inactivated by iodoacetamide or by simple reversible oxidation are attributable to a small proportion of the injected material which enters cartilage in the disulfide form in a concentration of approximately 2 micrograms/gm. wet weight. The possibility that such a small amount of protease, when reactivated, can produce changes in cartilage matrix has been confirmed by studies on the effects of papain on isolated cartilage and chondromucoprotein in vitro. It has been shown that severe local injury results when active papain is injected into the skin of a rabbit in low concentrations. Since a much higher concentration of papain can be attained in the circulation without obvious adverse effects, it is evident that binding of the protease by alpha globulin and possibly other serum proteins may exemplify a mechanism whereby the tissues are protected from injury following entry into the circulation of other potentially harmful agents, such as proteolytic enzymes derived from cells or bacteria.
PMCID: PMC2137314  PMID: 13737507
16.  PROTEASES INDUCE PRODUCTION OF THYMIC STROMAL LYMPHOPOIETIN BY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS THROUGH PROTEASE-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-2i 
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is produced by epithelial cells and triggers dendritic cell-mediated Th2-type inflammation. While TSLP is upregulated in epithelium of patients with asthma, the factors that control TSLP production have not been studied extensively. Because mouse models suggest roles for protease(s) in Th2-type immune responses, we hypothesized that proteases from airborne allergens may induce TSLP production in a human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. TSLP mRNA and protein were induced when BEAS-2B cells were exposed to prototypic proteases, namely trypsin and papain. TSLP induction by trypsin required intact protease activity and also a protease-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2; TSLP induction by papain was partially dependent on PAR-2. In humans, exposure to ubiquitous airborne fungi, such as Alternaria, is implicated in the development and exacerbation of asthma. When BEAS-2B cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to Alternaria extract, TSLP was potently induced. The TSLP-inducing activity of Alternaria was partially blocked by treating the extract with a cysteine protease inhibitor, E64, or by infecting BEAS-2B cells with small interfering RNA for PAR-2. Protease-induced TSLP production by BEAS-2B cells was enhanced synergistically by IL-4 and abolished by IFN-γ. These findings demonstrate that TSLP expression is induced in airway epithelial cells by exposure to allergen-derived proteases and that PAR-2 is involved in the process. By promoting TSLP production in the airways, proteases associated with airborne allergens may facilitate the development and/or exacerbation of Th2-type airway inflammation, particularly in allergic individuals.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0900904
PMCID: PMC2706924  PMID: 19561109
Humans; cytokines; allergy; inflammation; lung
17.  Cross-Talk between Malarial Cysteine Proteases and Falstatin: The BC Loop as a Hot-Spot Target 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93008.
Cysteine proteases play a crucial role in the development of the human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Our earlier studies demonstrated that these enzymes are equipped with specific domains for defined functions and further suggested the mechanism of activation of cysteine proteases. The activities of these proteases are regulated by a new class of endogenous inhibitors of cysteine proteases (ICPs). Structural studies of the ICPs of Trypanosoma cruzi (chagasin) and Plasmodium berghei (PbICP) indicated that three loops (termed BC, DE, and FG) are crucial for binding to target proteases. Falstatin, an ICP of P. falciparum, appears to play a crucial role in invasion of erythrocytes and hepatocytes. However, the mechanism of inhibition of cysteine proteases by falstatin has not been established. Our study suggests that falstatin is the first known ICP to function as a multimeric protein. Using site-directed mutagenesis, hemoglobin hydrolysis assays and peptide inhibition studies, we demonstrate that the BC loop, but not the DE or FG loops, inhibits cysteine proteases of P. falciparum and P. vivax via hydrogen bonds. These results suggest that the BC loop of falstatin acts as a hot-spot target for inhibiting malarial cysteine proteases. This finding suggests new strategies for the development of anti-malarial agents based on protease-inhibitor interactions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093008
PMCID: PMC3974720  PMID: 24699522
18.  The macromolecular complex of ICP and falcipain-2 from Plasmodium: preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis 
The macromolecular complex of ICP (inhibitor of cysteine proteases) from P. berghei and falcipain-2 from P. falciparum has been prepared and crystallized, and a diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium depends on the tight control of cysteine-protease activity throughout its life cycle. Recently, the characterization of a new class of potent inhibitors of cysteine proteases (ICPs) secreted by Plasmodium has been reported. Here, the recombinant production, purification and crystallization of the inhibitory C-terminal domain of ICP from P. berghei in complex with the P. falciparum haemoglobinase falcipain-2 is described. The 1:1 complex was crystallized in space group P43, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.15, c = 120.09 Å. A complete diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å.
doi:10.1107/S1744309111034592
PMCID: PMC3212462  PMID: 22102243
malaria; inhibitor of cysteine proteases; ICP; falcipain; chagasin
19.  Falstatin, a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum, Facilitates Erythrocyte Invasion 
PLoS Pathogens  2006;2(11):e117.
Erythrocytic malaria parasites utilize proteases for a number of cellular processes, including hydrolysis of hemoglobin, rupture of erythrocytes by mature schizonts, and subsequent invasion of erythrocytes by free merozoites. However, mechanisms used by malaria parasites to control protease activity have not been established. We report here the identification of an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum, falstatin, based on modest homology with the Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine protease inhibitor chagasin. Falstatin, expressed in Escherichia coli, was a potent reversible inhibitor of the P. falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3, as well as other parasite- and nonparasite-derived cysteine proteases, but it was a relatively weak inhibitor of the P. falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-1 and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1. Falstatin is present in schizonts, merozoites, and rings, but not in trophozoites, the stage at which the cysteine protease activity of P. falciparum is maximal. Falstatin localizes to the periphery of rings and early schizonts, is diffusely expressed in late schizonts and merozoites, and is released upon the rupture of mature schizonts. Treatment of late schizionts with antibodies that blocked the inhibitory activity of falstatin against native and recombinant falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 dose-dependently decreased the subsequent invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. These results suggest that P. falciparum requires expression of falstatin to limit proteolysis by certain host or parasite cysteine proteases during erythrocyte invasion. This mechanism of regulation of proteolysis suggests new strategies for the development of antimalarial agents that specifically disrupt erythrocyte invasion.
Synopsis
Malaria causes hundreds of millions of illnesses and more than a million deaths each year. Illness is caused by infection of red blood cells, with repeated rounds of red cell invasion, parasite development, and red cell rupture. Among enzymes with important roles in malaria parasites are proteases, which break down other proteins. Functions of proteases include the breakdown of red cell hemoglobin, the release of parasites from red cells, and the invasion of red cells by free parasites. This work concerns the identification and characterization of a protease inhibitor of malaria parasites termed falstatin. Falstatin inhibits one class of proteases, cysteine proteases, from both malaria parasites and humans. It is produced from soon before until soon after the processes of red cell rupture and invasion. Incubation of malaria parasites with an antibody that prevents the effects of falstatin markedly inhibited red cell invasion. Thus, falstatin appears to facilitate red cell invasion, presumably by preventing the action of proteases that hinder this process. Falstatin may therefore be a potential new target for vaccines or drugs to control malaria.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020117
PMCID: PMC1630708  PMID: 17083274
20.  Identification and Optimization of Inhibitors of Trypanosomal Cysteine Proteases: Cruzain, Rhodesain, and TbCatB 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2010;53(1):52-60.
Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei are parasites that cause Chagas’ disease and African sleeping sickness, respectively. Both parasites rely on essential cysteine proteases for survival, cruzain for T. cruzi and TbCatB/rhodesain for T. brucei. A recent quantitative high-throughput screen of cruzain identified triazine nitriles, which are known inhibitors of other cysteine proteases, as reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. Structural modifications detailed herein, including core scaffold modification from triazine to purine, improved the in vitro potency against both cruzain and rhodesain by 350-fold, while also gaining activity against T. brucei parasites. Selected compounds were screened against a panel of human cysteine and serine proteases to determine selectivity, and a co-crystal was obtained of our most potent analog bound to Cruzain.
doi:10.1021/jm901069a
PMCID: PMC2804034  PMID: 19908842
21.  Mapping Inhibitor Binding Modes on an Active Cysteine Protease via NMR Spectroscopy 
Biochemistry  2012;51(50):10087-10098.
Cruzain is a member of the papain/cathepsin-L family of cysteine proteases, and the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. We report an auto-induction methodology that provides soluble-cruzain at high yields (> 30 mg per liter in minimal media). These increased yields provide sufficient quantities of active enzyme for use in NMR-based ligand mapping. Using CD and NMR spectroscopy, we also examined the solution-state structural dynamics of the enzyme in complex with a covalently bound vinyl sulfone inhibitor (K777). We report the backbone amide and side chain carbon chemical shift assignments of cruzain in complex with K777. These resonance assignments were used to identify and map residues located in the substrate binding pocket, including the catalytic Cys25 and His162. Selective 15N-Cys, 15N-His, and 13C-Met labeling was performed to quickly assess cruzain-ligand interactions for a set of eight low molecular weight compounds exhibiting micromolar binding or inhibition. Chemical shift perturbation mapping verifies that six of the eight compounds bind to cruzain at the active site. Three different binding modes were delineated for the compounds, namely covalent, non-covalent, and non-interacting. These results provide examples of how NMR spectroscopy can be used to screen compounds for fast evaluation of enzyme-inhibitor interactions in order to facilitate lead compound identification and subsequent structural studies.
doi:10.1021/bi301305k
PMCID: PMC3566641  PMID: 23181936
22.  Exoerythrocytic Plasmodium Parasites Secrete a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Sporozoite Invasion and Capable of Blocking Cell Death of Host Hepatocytes 
PLoS Pathogens  2010;6(3):e1000825.
Plasmodium parasites must control cysteine protease activity that is critical for hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites, liver stage development, host cell survival and merozoite liberation. Here we show that exoerythrocytic P. berghei parasites express a potent cysteine protease inhibitor (PbICP, P. berghei inhibitor of cysteine proteases). We provide evidence that it has an important function in sporozoite invasion and is capable of blocking hepatocyte cell death. Pre-incubation with specific anti-PbICP antiserum significantly decreased the ability of sporozoites to infect hepatocytes and expression of PbICP in mammalian cells protects them against peroxide- and camptothecin-induced cell death. PbICP is secreted by sporozoites prior to and after hepatocyte invasion, localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole as well as to the parasite cytoplasm in the schizont stage and is released into the host cell cytoplasm at the end of the liver stage. Like its homolog falstatin/PfICP in P. falciparum, PbICP consists of a classical N-terminal signal peptide, a long N-terminal extension region and a chagasin-like C-terminal domain. In exoerythrocytic parasites, PbICP is posttranslationally processed, leading to liberation of the C-terminal chagasin-like domain. Biochemical analysis has revealed that both full-length PbICP and the truncated C-terminal domain are very potent inhibitors of cathepsin L-like host and parasite cysteine proteases. The results presented in this study suggest that the inhibitor plays an important role in sporozoite invasion of host cells and in parasite survival during liver stage development by inhibiting host cell proteases involved in programmed cell death.
Author Summary
Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes to the vertebrate host. They migrate through the skin before entering blood vessels and being transported with the bloodstream to liver sinusoids. There the sporozoites transmigrate through Kupffer cells and several hepatocytes before they invade a final hepatocyte and develop into thousands of merozoites. These daughter parasites are transported inside host cell-derived vesicles (merosomes) back to the bloodstream where they are finally released and infect red blood cells. Most of these processes depend on the activity of proteases, which must be tightly controlled to avoid proteolytic destruction of the parasite. We have identified a potent cysteine protease inhibitor of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, which is expressed throughout the life cycle of the parasite. The inhibitor appears to play a role in sporozoite invasion of host cells and in parasite survival during liver stage development by inhibiting host cell proteases involved in programmed cell death.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000825
PMCID: PMC2845656  PMID: 20361051
23.  Plant proteolytic enzyme papain abrogates angiogenic activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro 
Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiologic and pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. It is known that cysteine proteases from plants, like bromelain and papain are capable to suppress inflammatory activation. Recent studies have demonstrated that they may interfere with angiogenesis related pathways as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of papain on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro.
Methods
Cell viability after prolonged treatment with papain was investigated by life cell staining and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Angiogenic activation was assessed by ELISA against phosphorylated proteins AKT, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and p38-MAPK. Growth inhibition was determined by means of an MTT-assay and cell migration by means of a scratch assay. Capability to form a capillary network was investigated using a tube formation assay.
Results
Papain did not induce proteolysis or cell detachment of HUVEC in a concentration range between 0 and 25 μg/mL. Four hours treatment with 10 μg/mL papain resulted in a reduced susceptibility of endothelial cells to activation by VEGF as determined by phosphorylation levels of Akt, MEK1/2, SAPK/JNK. Papain exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on cell growth, cell migration and tube formation with inhibition of tube formation detectable at concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. Bromelain and ficin displayed similar effects with regard to cell growth and tube formation.
Conclusion
Papain showed a strong anti-angiogenic effect in VEGF activated HUVEC. This effect may be due to interference with AKT, MEK1/2 and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Two other plant derived cysteine proteases displayed similar inhibition of HUVEC cell growth and tube formation. These findings indicate that plant proteolytic enzymes may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis related human diseases.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-231
PMCID: PMC3849051  PMID: 24053149
Bromelain; Papain; Ficin; Angiogenesis; Endothelial cells; VEGF; Plant proteolytic enzymes
24.  Expression and deletion analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense cysteine protease in Escherichia coli. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(3):1074-1078.
Trypanosoma brucei, the cause of African sleeping sickness, differentiates in the mammalian bloodstream from a long, slender trypanosome into a short, stumpy trypanosome. This event is necessary for infection of the tsetse fly and maintenance of the life cycle. We have previously shown that the stumpy form contains 10- to 15-fold-greater cysteine protease activity than either the slender form or the insect midgut procyclic, and we have isolated a cDNA encoding the protease. In order to determine whether the cDNA encodes the developmentally regulated cysteine protease, we have purified the protease from trypanosomes and have made a polyclonal antiserum against it. The trypanosomal protease gene was then expressed in Escherichia coli with three different methionines within the pre- and propeptides acting as initiation sites. In each case, a protein was synthesized that was recognized by an antiserum specific for the developmentally regulated trypanosomal cysteine protease. The protein synthesized from the more upstream initiation site within the propeptide was proteolytically active. The recombinant protease and the trypanosomal enzyme were identical with respect to peptide substrates and protease inhibitors. The protein remained active when synthesized in a truncated form lacking the nine consecutive prolines and carboxy-terminus extension, indicating that the terminal 108 amino acids are not necessary for proteolytic activity.
Images
PMCID: PMC258369  PMID: 1997411
25.  Partial Purification and Characterization of a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from the Plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei 
Helminthic cysteine proteases are well known to play critical roles in tissue invasion, nutrient uptake, and immune evasion of the parasites. In the same manner, the sparganum, the plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni, is also known to secrete a large amount of cysteine proteases. However, cysteine protease inhibitors regulating the proteolytic activities of the cysteine protease are poorly illustrated. In this regard, we partially purified an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor from spargana and characterized its biochemical properties. The cysteine protease inhibitor was purified by sequential chromatographies using Resource Q anion exchanger and Superdex 200 HR gel filtration from crude extracts of spargana. The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated to be about 11 kD on SDS-PAGE. It was able to inhibit papain and 27 kDa cysteine protease of spargana with the ratio of 25.7% and 49.1%, respectively, while did not inhibit chymotrypsin. This finding suggests that the cysteine protease inhibitor of spargana may be involved in regulation of endogenous cysteine proteases of the parasite, rather than interact with cysteine proteases from their hosts.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2008.46.3.183
PMCID: PMC2553344  PMID: 18830060
Spirometra mansoni; plerocercoid; sparganum; cysteine protease; inhibitor

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