Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by extremely high levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), due to defective LDL receptor-Apolipoprotein B (APOB) binding. Current therapies such as statins or LDL apheresis for homozygous FH are insufficiently efficacious at lowering LDL cholesterol or are expensive. Treatments that target APOB100, the structural protein of LDL particles, are potential therapies for FH. We have developed a series of APOB-directed splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) that cause the expression of APOB87, a truncated isoform of APOB100. APOB87, like similarly truncated isoforms expressed in patients with a different condition, familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, lowers LDL cholesterol by inhibiting VLDL assembly and increasing LDL clearance. We demonstrate that these “APO-skip” SSOs induce high levels of exon skipping and expression of the APOB87 isoform, but do not substantially inhibit APOB48 expression in cell lines. A single injection of an optimized APO-skip SSO into mice transgenic for human APOB resulted in abundant exon skipping that persists for more than 6 d. Weekly treatments generated a sustained reduction in LDL cholesterol levels of 34-51% in these mice, superior to Pravastatin in a head-to-head comparison. These results validate APO-skip SSOs as a candidate therapy for FH.
apolipoprotein B; exon skipping; familial hypercholesterolemia; oligoribonucleotides; quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; splice-switching oligonucleotides
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins, i.e. VLDL, LDL and Lp(a), are consequently lowered by ACTH treatment in humans. This is also seen as reduced plasma apoB by 20-30% and total cholesterol by 30-40%, mostly accounted for by a decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Studies in hepatic cell line (HepG2) cells showed that apoB mRNA expression is reduced in response to ACTH incubation and is followed by a reduced apoB secretion, which may hypothesize that ACTH lowering apoB containing lipoproteins in humans may be mediated by the inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis. This was recently confirmed in vivo in a human postprandial study, where ACTH reduced transient apoB48 elevation from the small intestine, however, the exogenic lipid turnover seemed unimpaired. In the present study we investigated if lipid synthesis and/or secretion in HepG2 cells were also affected by pharmacological levels of ACTH to accompany the reduced apoB output. HepG2 cells were incubated with radiolabelled precursors ([14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol) either before or during ACTH stimuli. Cellular and secreted lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol and separated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC), and [14C]labelled cholesterol and cholesteryl ester and [3H]labelled triglycerides and phospholipids were quantitated by the liquid scintillation counting. It demonstrated that ACTH administration did not result in any significant change in neither synthesis nor secretion of the studied lipids, this regardless of presence or absence of oleic acid, which is known to stabilize apoB and enhance apoB production. The present study suggests that ACTH lowers plasma lipids in humans mainly mediated by the inhibition of apoB synthesis and did not via the reduced lipid synthesis.
We aimed to identify mechanisms by which apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) could have an atherogenic role by simultaneously studying the metabolism of postprandial apoB-48 and apoB-100 lipoproteins. The kinetics of apoB-48 and apoB-100, each in four density subfractions of VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), were studied by stable isotope labeling in a constantly fed state with half-hourly administration of almond oil in five postmenopausal women. A non-steady-state, multicompartmental model was used. Despite a much lower production rate, VLDL and IDL apoB-48 shared a similar secretion pattern with apoB-100: both were directly secreted into all fractions with similar percentage mass distributions. Fractional catabolic rates (FCRs) of apoB-48 and apoB-100 were similar in VLDL and IDL. We identified a fast turnover compartment of light VLDL that had a residence time of <30 min for apoB-48 and apoB-100. Finally, a high secretion rate of apoB-48 was associated with a slow FCR of VLDL and IDL apoB-100. In conclusion, the intestine secretes a spectrum of apoB lipoproteins, similar to what the liver secretes, albeit with a much lower secretion rate. Once in plasma, intestinal and hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have similar rates of clearance and participate interactively in similar metabolic pathways, with high apoB-48 production inhibiting the clearance of apoB-100.
kinetics; stable isotopes; triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; apolipoprotein B-48; apolipoprotein B-100
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are a major secretory product of the liver. They serve to transport endogenously synthesized lipids, mainly triglycerides (but also some cholesterol and cholesteryl esters) to peripheral tissues. VLDL is also the precursor of LDL. ApoB100 is absolutely required for VLDL assembly and secretion. The amount of VLDL triglycerides secreted by the liver depends on the amount loaded onto each lipoprotein particle, as well as the number of particles. Each VLDL has one apoB100 molecule, making apoB100 availability a key determinant of the number of VLDL particles, and hence, triglycerides, that can be secreted by hepatic cells. Surprisingly, the pool of apoB100 in the liver is typically regulated not by its level of synthesis, which is relatively constant, but by its level of degradation. It is now recognized that there are multiple opportunities for the hepatic cell to intercept apoB100 molecules and to direct them to distinct degradative processes. This mini-review will summarize progress in understanding these processes, with an emphasis on autophagy, the most recently described pathway of apoB100 degradation, and the one with possibly the most physiologic relevance to common metabolic perturbations affecting VLDL production.
Apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoB are the major apolipoproteins of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. ApoB assembles the precursor of LDL, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), in the liver. The assembly starts with the formation of a primordial particle, which is converted to VLDL2. The VLDL2 particle is then transferred to the Golgi apparatus and can either be secreted or converted to triglyceride-rich VLDL1. We have reviewed this assembly process, the process involved in the storage of triglycerides in cytosolic lipid droplets, and the relationship between these two processes. We also briefly discuss the formation of HDL. ApoB mediates the interaction between LDL and the arterial wall. Two regions in apoB are involved in this binding. This interaction and its role in the development of atherosclerosis are reviewed. ApoB can be used to measure the number of LDL or VLDL particles present in plasma, as there is one molecule of apoB on each particle. By contrast, the amount of cholesterol and other lipids on each particle varies under different conditions. We address the possibility of using apoAI and apoB levels to estimate the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases and to monitor intervention to treat these diseases.
Apolipoprotein AI; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease
Apolipoprotein (apo) B is essential for the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins made by the liver. As the sole protein component in LDL, apoB is an important determinant of atherosclerosis susceptibility and a potential pharmaceutical target. Single-chain antibodies (sFvs) are the smallest fragment of an IgG molecule capable of maintaining the antigen binding specificity of the parental antibody. In the present study, we describe the cloning and construction of two intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) to human apoB. We targeted these intrabodies to the endoplasmic reticulum for the purpose of retaining nascent apoB within the ER, thereby preventing its secretion. Expression of the 1D1 intrabody in the apoB-secreting human hepatoma cell line HepG2 resulted in marked reduction of apoB secretion. This study demonstrates the utility of an intrabody to specifically block the secretion of a protein determinant of plasma LDL as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Single-chain antibodies; apoB; lipoproteins; HepG2 cells
We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human apolipoprotein B (ApoB). The assay measures not only the ApoB content of β-lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins [LDL]) but also that contained in the other lipoproteins in plasma.
Purified lymph and plasma chylomicrons and plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) produced displacement curves in the assay system which paralleled those produced by pure LDL. Thus, the ApoB found in chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL were immunologically identical. ApoB accounted for about 25 and 35%, respectively, of the total protein of chylomicrons and VLDL by RIA. VLDL and LDL preparations from normal and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects also produced parallel displacement curves, suggesting that the ApoB of normal and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects were immunologically identical. High density lipoproteins and abetalipoproteinemic plasma displaced no counts, nor did the sera of several animal species produce any useful displacement curves in this system.
The fasting total plasma ApoB concentration of normal subjects was 83±16 mg/dl (mean±SD). ApoB levels were high in Type II (162±16), and less so in Type IV (112±24) and Type V (105±17).
When plasma ApoB concentration in Type IV patients was graphed against plasma glycerides, two subpopulations, which may represent different genetic or biochemical subgroups, were apparent.
ApoB concentration in individuals on constant diet and drug regimen was stable over weeks to months. Greater than 90% of ApoB of normal and Type II subjects was in the d > 1.006 plasma fraction. By contrast, only 50-80% of ApoB was in the d > 1.006 fraction in Types IV and V. Thus, hypertriglyceridemia was associated primarily with a redistribution of ApoB to the lighter density fractions; by contrast, in hypercholesterolemia absolute ApoB concentration was markedly increased.
A unique kindred with premature cardiovascular disease, tubo-eruptive xanthomas, and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) associated with familial apolipoprotein (apo) E deficiency was examined. Homozygotes (n = 4) had marked increases in cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), which could be effectively lowered with diet and medication (niacin, clofibrate). Homozygotes had only trace amounts of plasma apoE, and accumulations of apoB-48 and apoA-IV in VLDL, IDL, and low density lipoproteins. Radioiodinated VLDL apoB and apoE kinetic studies revealed that the homozygous proband had markedly retarded fractional catabolism of VLDL apoB-100, apoB-48 and plasma apoE, as well as an extremely low apoE synthesis rate as compared to normals. Obligate heterozygotes (n = 10) generally had normal plasma lipids and mean plasma apoE concentrations that were 42% of normal. The data indicate that homozygous familial apoE deficiency is a cause of type III HLP, is associated with markedly decreased apoE production, and that apoE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents.
We used wild-type (WT) mice and mice engineered to express either apoB-100 only (B100 mice) or apoB-48 only (B48 mice) to examine the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM) on apoB-100– and apoB-48–containing lipoproteins. Plasma lipids increased with DM in WT mice, and fat tolerance was markedly impaired. Lipoprotein profiles showed increased levels and cholesterol enrichment of VLDL in diabetic B48 mice but not in B100 mice. C apolipoproteins, in particular apoC-I in VLDL, were increased. To investigate the basis of the increase in apoB-48 lipoproteins in streptozotocin-treated animals, we characterized several parameters of lipoprotein metabolism. Triglyceride and apoB production rates were normal, as were plasma lipase activity, VLDL glycosaminoglycan binding, and VLDL lipolysis. However, β-VLDL clearance decreased due to decreased trapping by the liver. Whereas LRP activity was normal, livers from treated mice incorporated significantly less sulfate into heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) than did controls. Hepatoma (HepG2) cells and endothelial cells cultured in high glucose also showed decreased sulfate and glucosamine incorporation into HSPG. Western blots of livers from diabetic mice showed a decrease in the HSPG core protein, perlecan. Delayed clearance of postprandial apoB-48–containing lipoproteins in DM appears to be due to decreased hepatic perlecan HSPG.
Familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia (FHBL) is a codominant disorder characterised by fatty liver and reduced plasma levels of low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) and its protein constituent apolipoprotein B (apoB). FHBL is linked to the APOB gene in some but not all known cases. In a group of 59 patients with FHBL genotyped for APOB gene mutations, we found three novel splice‐site mutations: c.904+4A→G in intron 8, c.3843−2A→G in intron 24 and c.4217−1G→T in intron 25.
To assess the effects of these mutations on apoB pre‐mRNA splicing.
ApoB mRNA was analysed in the liver of one proband and in cells expressing APOB minigenes harbouring the mutations found in the other probands.
In the liver of the c.3843−2A→G carrier, an apoB mRNA devoid of exon 25 was identified, predicted to encode a truncated peptide of 1260 amino acids. The analysis of minigene transcripts in COS‐1 cells showed that the c.904+4A→G mutation caused the formation of an mRNA devoid of exon 8, predicted to encode a short apoB of 247 amino acids. The minigene harbouring the c.4217−1G→T mutation in intron 25 generated an mRNA in which exon 25 joined to a partially deleted exon 26, resulting from the activation of an acceptor site in exon 26; this mRNA is predicted to encode a truncated protein of 1380 amino acids. All these truncated apoBs were not secreted as constituents of plasma lipoproteins.
These findings demonstrate the pathogenic effect of rare splice‐site mutations of the APOB gene found in FHBL.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant condition with a population prevalence of one in 300–500 (heterozygous) that is characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, tendon xanthomata, and premature atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). FH is caused mainly by mutations in the LDLR gene. However, mutations in other genes including APOB and PCSK9, can give rise to a similar phenotype. Homozygous FH with an estimated prevalence of one in a million is associated with severe hypercholesterolemia with accelerated atherosclerotic CHD in childhood and without treatment, death usually occurs before the age of 30 years. Current approaches for the treatment of homozygous FH include statin-based lipid-lowering therapies and LDL apheresis. Mipomersen is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeted to human apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology and current treatment options for familial hypercholesterolemia and describes novel therapeutic strategies focusing on mipomersen, an antisense apoB synthesis inhibitor. Mipomersen is distributed mainly to the liver where it silences apoB mRNA, thereby reducing hepatic apoB-100 and giving rise to reductions in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apoB concentrations in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Mipomersen has been shown to decrease apoB, LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) in patients with heterozygous and homozygous FH on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. The short-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen has been established, however, injection site reactions are common and concern exists regarding the long-term potential for hepatic steatosis with this ASO. In summary, mipomersen given alone or in combination with standard lipid-lowering medications shows promise as an adjunct therapy in patients with homozygous or refractory heterozygous FH at high risk of atherosclerotic CHD, who are not at target or are intolerant of statins.
antisense oligonucleotide; apolipoprotein B; familial hypercholesterolemia; LDL-cholesterol; metabolism; mipomersen
Liver dominates the production and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and evidence shows that liver malfunction induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could lead to apolipoprotein metabolism disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of HBV on apoB expression.
Clinical examination: serum apoB levels in patients with chronic HBV infection and in healthy individuals were measured by immunoturbidimetry using biochemical analyzer Olympus 5400. Cell study: mRNA and protein expression levels of apoB in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Alternatively, HBV infectious clone pHBV1.3 or control plasmid pBlue-ks were tranfected into HepG2 cells, and mRNA and protein expression levels of apoB, as well as the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in tranfected HepG2 cells were also measured by RT-PCR and western blot.
Serum apoB level was much lower in chronic HBV patients as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Expression of apoB mRNA and protein was lower in HepG2.2.15 cells than in HepG2 cells. Similarly, expression of apoB mRNA and protein was lower in pHBV1.3 transfected HepG2 cells than in pBlue-ks transfected HepG2 cells. Expression of MTP mRNA and protein in pHBV1.3 transfected HepG2 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent fashion.
HBV infection plays an inhibitory effect on apoB expression.
hepatitisB virus; chronic HBV infection;lipid metabolism; apolipoprotein B; microsomal triglyceride transfer protein
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is an essential component of chylomicrons,
very low density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins. ApoB is a
palmitoylated protein. To investigate the role of palmitoylation in
lipoprotein function, a palmitoylation site was mapped to Cys-1085 and
removed by mutagenesis. Secreted lipoprotein particles formed by
nonpalmitoylated apoB were smaller and denser and failed to assemble a
proper hydrophobic core. Indeed, the relative concentrations of
nonpolar lipids were three to four times lower in lipoprotein particles
containing mutant apoB compared with those containing wild-type apoB,
whereas levels of polar lipids isolated from wild-type or mutant apoB
lipoprotein particles appeared identical. Palmitoylation localized apoB
to large vesicular structures corresponding to a subcompartment of the
endoplasmic reticulum, where addition of neutral lipids was postulated
to occur. In contrast, nonpalmitoylated apoB was concentrated in a
dense perinuclear area corresponding to the Golgi compartment. The
involvement of palmitoylation as a structural requirement for proper
assembly of the hydrophobic core of the lipoprotein particle and its
intracellular sorting represent novel roles for this posttranslational
The synthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB) dictates the formation of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), two major lipoprotein precursors in the human plasma. Despite its biological significance, the mechanism of the assembly of these apoB-containing lipoproteins remains elusive. An essential obstacle is the lack of systems that allow fine dissection of key components during assembly, including nascent apoB peptide, lipids in defined forms, chaperones, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). In this study, we use a prokaryotic cell-free expression system to reconstitute early events in the assembly of apoB-containing lipoprotein that involve the N-terminal domains of apoB. Our study shows that the N-terminal domains larger than 20.5% of apoB (B20.5) have an intrinsic ability to remodel vesicular phospholipid bilayers into discrete protein-lipid complexes. The presence of appropriate lipid substrates during apoB translation plays a pivotal role for successful lipid recruitment, and similar lipid recruitment fails to occur if the lipids are added posttranslationally. Cotranslational presence of MTP can dramatically promote the folding of B6.4–20.5 and B6.4–22. Furthermore, apoB translated in the presence of MTP retains its phospholipid recruitment capability posttranslationally. Our data suggest that during the synthesis of apoB, the N-terminal domain has a short window for intrinsic phospholipid recruitment, the timeframe of which is predetermined by the environment where apoB synthesis occurs. The presence of MTP prolongs this window of time by acting as a chaperone. The absence of either proper lipid substrate or MTP may result in the improper folding of apoB and consequently its degradation.
apolipoprotein B; microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; cell free; cotranslational; low density lipoprotein
Animal studies investigating the beneficial effects of Puerariae radix on cardiovascular disease have suggested this plant possesses anti-diabetic and lipid lowering properties. However, the exact mechanism by which Puerariae radix affects lipid metabolism is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water extract of Puerariae radix on the secretion of VLDL and chylomicrons from HepG2 liver cells and CaCo2 cells, respectively, in humans.
The amount of apoB100 (a protein marker for VLDL) and apoB48 (a protein marker for chylomicrons) in cells and media were quantified by Western Blotting and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL). Total, free and esterified cholesterol concentrations were measured by gas liquid chromatography.
Treatment of cells with water extract of Puerariae radix significantly decreased apoB100 production and secretion from HepG2 cells up to 66% in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular total cholesterol and free cholesterol concentration in HepG2 cells also decreased with increasing concentration of the Puerariae radix. In contrast, water extract of Puerariae radix attenuated apoB48 concentrations in cells, but not apoB48 secretion from CaCo2 enterocytes.
Collectively, our findings suggest that the water extract of Puerariae radix attenuates the hepatic lipoprotein production and secretion. Our present cell culture findings may explain why circulating VLDL and LDL levels were attenuated in animals supplemented with Puerariae radix. Since decreasing the production and secretion of atherogenic lipoproteins decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular disease, diets supplemented with radix may provide a safe and effective beneficial cardioprotective effects in humans.
Puerariae radix; ApoB100; ApoB48; HepG2 cells; CaCo2 cells; cholesterol
Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100)-containing plasma lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) supply tissues and cells with cholesterol and fat. During lipolytic conversion from VLDL to LDL the size and chemical composition of the particles change, but the apoB100 molecule remains bound to the lipids and regulates the receptor mediated uptake. The molecular physical parameters which control lipoprotein remodeling and enable particle stabilization by apoB100 are largely unknown. Here, we have compared the molecular dynamics and elasticities of VLDL and LDL derived by elastic neutron scattering temperature scans. We have determined thermal motions, dynamical transitions, and molecular fluctuations, which reflect the temperature-dependent motional coupling between lipid and protein. Our results revealed that lipoprotein particles are extremely soft and flexible. We found substantial differences in the molecular resiliences of lipoproteins, especially at higher temperatures. These discrepancies not only can be explained in terms of lipid composition and mobility but also suggest that apoB100 displays different dynamics dependent on the lipoprotein it is bound to. Hence, we suppose that the inherent conformational flexibility of apoB100 permits particle stabilization upon lipid exchange, whereas the dynamic coupling between protein and lipids might be a key determinant for lipoprotein conversion and atherogenicity.
Lipid esters stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) of hepatocytes are used to synthesize very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), into which apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is integrated cotranslationally. In the present study, by using Huh7 cells, derived from human hepatoma and competent for VLDL secretion, we found that ApoB is highly concentrated around CLDs to make “ApoB-crescents.” ApoB-crescents were seen in <10% of Huh7 cells under normal conditions, but the ratio increased to nearly 50% after 12 h of proteasomal inhibition by N-acetyl-l-leucinyl-l-leucinyl-l-norleucinal. Electron microscopy showed ApoB to be localized to a cluster of electron-lucent particles 50–100 nm in diameter adhering to CLDs. ApoB, proteasome subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins were detected in the CLD fraction, and this ApoB was ubiquitinated. Interestingly, proteasome inhibition also caused increases in autophagic vacuoles and ApoB in lysosomes. ApoB-crescents began to decrease after 12–24 h of proteasomal inhibition, but the decrease was blocked by an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine. Inhibition of autophagy alone caused an increase in ApoB-crescents. These observations indicate that both proteasomal and autophagy/lysosomal degradation of ApoB occur around CLDs and that the CLD surface functions as a unique platform for convergence of the two pathways.
Apo-E–deficient apo-B100–only mice (Apoe–/–Apob100/100) and LDL receptor–deficient apo-B100–only mice (Ldlr–/–Apob100/100) have similar total plasma cholesterol levels, but nearly all of the plasma cholesterol in the former animals is packaged in VLDL particles, whereas, in the latter, plasma cholesterol is found in smaller LDL particles. We compared the apo-B100–containing lipoprotein populations in these mice to determine their relation to susceptibility to atherosclerosis. The median size of the apo-B100–containing lipoprotein particles in Apoe–/–Apob100/100 plasma was 53.4 nm versus only 22.1 nm in Ldlr–/–Apob100/100 plasma. The plasma levels of apo-B100 were three- to fourfold higher in Ldlr–/–Apob100/100 mice than in Apoe–/–Apob100/100 mice. After 40 weeks on a chow diet, the Ldlr–/–Apob100/100 mice had more extensive atherosclerotic lesions than Apoe–/–Apob100/100 mice. The aortic DNA synthesis rate and the aortic free and esterified cholesterol contents were also higher in the Ldlr–/–Apob100/100 mice. These findings challenge the notion that all non-HDL lipoproteins are equally atherogenic and suggest that at a given cholesterol level, large numbers of small apo-B100–containing lipoproteins are more atherogenic than lower numbers of large apo-B100–containing lipoproteins.
Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) determination is superior to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to establish cardiovascular (CV) risk, and does not require prior fasting. ApoB100 is rarely measured alongside standard lipids, which precludes comprehensive assessment of dyslipidemia.
To evaluate two simple algorithms for apoB100 as regards their performance, equivalence and discrimination with reference apoB100 laboratory measurement.
Two apoB100-predicting equations were compared in 87 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using the Discriminant ratio (DR). Equation 1: apoB100 = 0.65*non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol + 6.3; and Equation 2: apoB100 = −33.12 + 0.675*LDL-C + 11.95*ln[triglycerides]. The underlying between-subject standard deviation (SDU) was defined as SDU = √ (SD2B - SD2W/2); the within-subject variance (Vw) was calculated for m (2) repeat tests as (Vw) = Σ(xj -xi)2/(m-1)), the within-subject SD (SDw) being its square root; the DR being the ratio SDU/SDW.
All SDu, SDw and DR’s values were nearly similar, and the observed differences in discriminatory power between all three determinations, i.e. measured and calculated apoB100 levels, did not reach statistical significance. Measured Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients between all apoB100 determinations were very high, respectively at 0.94 (measured vs. equation 1); 0.92 (measured vs. equation 2); and 0.97 (equation 1 vs. equation 2), each measurement reaching unity after adjustment for attenuation.
Both apoB100 algorithms showed biometrical equivalence, and were as effective in estimating apoB100 from routine lipids. Their use should contribute to better characterize residual cardiometabolic risk linked to the number of atherogenic particles, when direct apoB100 determination is not available.
ApoB100; LDL-C; Non-HDL-C; Discriminant ratio; Type 2 diabetes; Cardiovascular risk
Background: Familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia (FHBL) is an autosomal co-dominant hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterised by decreased low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (APOB) plasma levels. High levels of plasma APOB and LDL cholesterol are strong predictors for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), while individuals with low APOB and LDL cholesterol levels are thought to have lower than average risk for CVD, and in fact, heterozygous FHBL patients appear to be asymptomatic.
Methods: Rather than identifying truncated APOB proteins in plasma fractions separated by gel electrophoresis, which will miss any mutations in proteins smaller than 30 kb, we analysed the APOB gene directly, using PCR.
Results: We identified nine different mutations, six of which are novel. Each mutation showed complete co-segregation with the FHBL phenotype in the families, and statistically significant differences between carriers and non-carriers were found for plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesteroll, triglycerides, and APOB levels, but not for APOA1 levels. All carriers of an APOB mutation were completely free from CVD.
Conclusions: Prolonged low levels of LDL cholesterol and elevated levels of HDL cholesterol may reduce the progression of atherosclerotic disease, but this has not been unequivocally shown that this is indeed the case in individuals with FHBL, and is the subject of a current study.
Apolipoprotein B mRNA is edited at cytidine 6666 in the enterocytes lining the small intestine of all mammals; converting a CAA codon to a UAA stop codon. The conversion is ~80% efficient in this tissue and leads to the expression of the truncated protein, ApoB48, essential for secretion of dietary lipid as chylomicrons. Caco-2 cell raft cultures have been used as an in vitro model for the induction of editing activity during human small intestinal cell differentiation. This induction of apoB mRNA editing has been ascribed to the expression of APOBEC-1. In agreement our data demonstrated differentiation-dependent induction of expression of the editing enzyme APOBEC-1 and in addition we show alternative splicing of the essential auxiliary factor ACF. However transfection of these editing factors in undifferentiated proliferating Caco-2 cells was not sufficient to induce robust apoB mRNA editing activity. Only differentiation of Caco-2 cells could induce more physiological like levels of apoB mRNA editing. The data suggested that additional regulatory mechanism(s) were induced by differentiation that controlled the functional activity of editing factors.
ACF; alternative splicing; apolipoprotein B; APOBEC-1; differentiation; Caco-2 cells; mRNA editing
Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene (Ldlr). Elevated plasma LDL levels result from slower LDL catabolism and a paradoxical lipoprotein overproduction. We explored the relationship between the presence of the LDL receptor and lipoprotein secretion in hepatocytes from both wild-type and LDL receptor–deficient mice. Ldlr–/– hepatocytes secreted apoB100 at a 3.5-fold higher rate than did wild-type hepatocytes. ApoB mRNA abundance, initial apoB synthetic rate, and abundance of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein 97-kDa subunit did not differ between wild-type and Ldlr–/– cells. Pulse-chase analysis and multicompartmental modeling revealed that in wild-type hepatocytes, approximately 55% of newly synthesized apoB100 was degraded. However, in Ldlr–/– cells, less than 20% of apoB was degraded. In wild-type hepatocytes, approximately equal amounts of LDL receptor–dependent apoB100 degradation occured via reuptake and presecretory mechanisms. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the LDL receptor in Ldlr–/– cells resulted in degradation of approximately 90% of newly synthesized apoB100. These studies show that the LDL receptor alters the proportion of apoB that escapes co- or post-translational presecretory degradation and mediates the reuptake of newly secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.
The apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) gene in leukocytes and the apoB-100 messenger RNA (mRNA) and translated apolipoprotein in the livers from normal and abetalipoproteinemic individuals were evaluated. Four complementary DNA probes for apoB-100 covering the 5', middle, and 3' regions of the apoB-100 mRNA were utilized and Southern blot analysis indicated that the apoB-100 gene is present in abetalipoproteinemia without major insertions or deletions. Polyadenylated hepatic apoB-100 mRNA from two abetalipoproteinemic patients was normal in size, and the concentration of apoB-100 mRNA was increased sixfold compared with control hepatic apoB-100 mRNA levels. ApoB-100 was detected in hepatocytes of abetalipoproteinemic patients by immunohistochemical techniques. These results indicate that the biochemical defect in abetalipoproteinemic patients studied is most consistent with a posttranslational defect in apoB-100 processing or secretion with an up-regulation of the apoB-100 mRNA.
Substitutional RNA editing represents an important posttranscriptional enzymatic pathway for increasing genetic plasticity by permitting production of different translation products from a single genomically encoded template. One of the best-characterized examples in mammals is C to U deamination of the nuclear apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA. ApoB mRNA undergoes a single, site-specific cytidine deamination event yielding an edited transcript that results in tissue-specific translation of two distinct isoforms, referred to as apoB100 and apoB48. Tissue- and site-specific cytidine deamination of apoB mRNA is mediated by an incompletely characterized holoenzyme containing a minimal core complex consisting of an RNA-specific cytidine deaminase, Apobec-1 and a requisite cofactor, apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF). The underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms regulating tissue-specific apoB mRNA editing have been accelerated through development and characterization of physiological rodent models as well as knockout and transgenic animal strains.
Lipid metabolism; RNA editing; Apobec-1; Hepatocytes; Hormonal regulation; Diet; Primer extension; Subcellular distribution
A 7-yr-old girl with high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency and xanthomas has been identified in a Turkish kindred with repetitive consanguinity. She has severely reduced HDL-cholesterol and no apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. ApoA-II is reduced, whereas apoA-IV and apoC-III are normal. ApoB and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol are increased. This is reflected in hypercholesterolemia. VLDL and IDL particles are low, and serum triglycerides are normal. The genetic defect could be identified as a base insertion into the third exon of the apoA-I gene. This leads to a nonsense peptide sequence beginning at amino acid 5 of the mature plasma protein and early termination of translation. The patient is homozygous for this mutation. Pedigree analysis indicated an autosomal dominant inheritance with no evidence of another genetic defect of lipoprotein metabolism in the kindred. In HDL deficiency, HDL binding to leukocytes was increased compared to normal. In the postprandial state, binding of labeled HDL3 to leukocytes is unchanged. This is in contrast to results with postprandially isolated leukocytes from controls or Tangier patients, which have a reduced binding capacity for HDL3. These results indicate that postprandial HDL precursors may compete the binding of labeled HDL3. The metabolic consequences of HDL deficiency were analyzed. There is only a small number of HDL-like particles containing apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoE, and lecithin/cholesteryl acyl transferase. The C-apolipoproteins were normal in the proband. Due to the lack of HDL they can only associate with apoB-containing particles, where they may interfere with cellular uptake. Thus, pure apoA-I deficiency leads to a complex metabolic derangement.