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1.  Conditionally Replicating Adenoviruses for Cancer Treatment 
Current Cancer Drug Targets  2007;7(3):285-301.
Replication-conditional, oncolytic adenoviruses are emerging as powerful tools in the warfare on cancer. The ability to modify cell-specific infectivity or tissue-specific replication machinery, as well as the possibility of modifying viral-cellular protein interactions with cellular checkpoint regulators are emerging as new trends in the design of safer and more effective adenoviruses. The integration of oncolytic adenoviruses with mainstream cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, continues to yield significant therapeutic benefits. Adenoviruses can be armed with prodrug-activating enzymes as well as tumor suppressor genes or anti-angiogenic factors, thus providing for enhanced anti-tumor therapy and reduced host toxicity. Thus far, encouraging results have been obtained from extensive preclinical and human clinical studies. However, there is a need to improve adenoviral vectors to overcome unresolved problems facing this promising anti-cancer agent, chief among these issues is the adenovirus-triggered immune response threatening its efficacy. The continued expansion of the knowledge base of adenovirus biology will likely lead to further improvements in the design of the ideal oncolytic adenoviruses for cancer treatment.
PMCID: PMC3354698  PMID: 17504125
conditionally-replicating adenoviruses; prodrug activating enzymes; cancer gene therapy; oncolytic viruses
2.  Coronary restenosis and gene therapy. 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1994;21(1):104-111.
Restenosis continues to limit the efficacy of coronary angioplasty, despite the various mechanical and pharmaceutical interventions that have been employed. The migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production by vascular smooth muscle cells are processes integral to restenosis, and sustained local delivery of drugs at high concentration should curtail these vascular responses to balloon angioplasty. Our laboratory and others are exploring the potential of using somatic cell gene therapy to provide such treatment and thereby prevent restenosis. However, conventional methods of gene transfer fail to produce physiologic levels of recombinant protein in vivo. This obstacle might be overcome by using adenoviral vectors to mediate efficient direct gene transfer. Herein we summarize these developments and focus upon our laboratory's progress towards evaluating adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in porcine coronary arteries. Recombinant adenoviruses directing the expression of the beta-galactosidase and luciferase reporter genes were evaluated in cultured coronary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in porcine coronary arteries in vivo. Following percutaneous transluminal gene transfer in vivo, recombinant adenoviruses were shown to produce 70- to 240-fold more reporter protein than that produced by Lipofectin-DNA complexes. Furthermore, the high levels of adenovirus-mediated gene expression were shown to persist for at least 14 days following catheterization. Additional histologic studies will be required to determine the cellular distribution of gene expression and to elucidate potential interactions between adenovirus and the host's immune system, but recombinant adenovirus appears to be a promising vector for evaluating gene therapy against coronary restenosis.
PMCID: PMC325139  PMID: 8180504
3.  The Challenge for Gene Therapy: Innate Immune Response to Adenoviruses 
Oncotarget  2011;2(3):113-121.
Adenoviruses are the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy. Despite the promising safety profile demonstrated in clinical trials, the efficacy of using adenoviruses for gene therapy is poor. A major hurdle to adenoviral-mediated gene therapy is the innate immune system. Cell-mediated recognition of viruses via capsid components or nucleic acids has received significant attention, principally thought to be regulated by the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Antiviral innate immune responses are initiated by the infected cell, which activates the interferon (IFN) response to block viral replication, while simultaneously releasing chemokines to attract neutrophils, mononuclear- and natural killer-cells. While the IFN and cellular recruitment pathways are activated and regulated independently of each other, both are required to overcome immune escape mechanisms by adenoviruses. Recent work has shown that the generation of adenoviral vectors lacking specific transcriptionally-active regions decreases immune system activation and increases the chance for immune escape. In this review, we elucidate how adenoviral vector modifications alter the IFN and innate inflammatory pathway response and propose future targets with clinically-translational relevance.
PMCID: PMC3092742  PMID: 21399236
Adenovirus; interferon; interleukin-1; innate immune response
4.  The Challenge for Gene Therapy: Innate Immune Response to Adenoviruses 
Oncotarget  2011;2(3):113-121.
Adenoviruses are the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy. Despite the promising safety profile demonstrated in clinical trials, the efficacy of using adenoviruses for gene therapy is poor. A major hurdle to adenoviral-mediated gene therapy is the innate immune system. Cell-mediated recognition of viruses via capsid components or nucleic acids has received significant attention, principally thought to be regulated by the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Antiviral innate immune responses are initiated by the infected cell, which activates the interferon (IFN) response to block viral replication, while simultaneously releasing chemokines to attract neutrophils, mononuclear- and natural killer-cells. While the IFN and cellular recruitment pathways are activated and regulated independently of each other, both are required to overcome immune escape mechanisms by adenoviruses. Recent work has shown that the generation of adenoviral vectors lacking specific transcriptionally-active regions decreases immune system activation and increases the chance for immune escape. In this review, we elucidate how adenoviral vector modifications alter the IFN and innate inflammatory pathway response and propose future targets with clinically-translational relevance.
PMCID: PMC3092742  PMID: 21399236
Adenovirus; interferon; interleukin-1; innate immune response
5.  Gene Transfer into Rat Brain Using Adenoviral Vectors 
Viral vector–mediated gene delivery is an attractive procedure for introducing genes into the brain, both for purposes of basic neuroscience research and to develop gene therapy for neurological diseases. Replication-defective adenoviruses possess many features which make them ideal vectors for this purpose—efficiently transducing terminally differentiated cells such as neurons and glial cells, resulting in high levels of transgene expression in vivo. Also, in the absence of anti-adenovirus immunity, these vectors can sustain very long-term transgene expression within the brain parenchyma. This unit provides protocols for the stereotactic injection of adenoviral vectors into the brain, followed by protocols to detect transgene expression or infiltrates of immune cells by immunocytochemistry or immunofluorescence. ELISPOT and neutralizing antibody assay methodologies are provided to quantitate the levels of cellular and humoral immune responses against adenoviruses. Quantitation of adenoviral vector genomes within the rat brain using qPCR is also described. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 50:4.24.1–4.24.49. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PMCID: PMC2883311  PMID: 20066657
viral vectors; gene therapy; immune response; T cells; B cells; brain inflammation; macrophages; gene transfer; immunocytochemistry; qPCR; ELISPOT assay; adenovirus
6.  Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors in experimental gene therapy* 
Acta biochimica Polonica  2005;52(3):589-599.
In the majority of potential applications gene therapy will require an effective transfer of a transgene in vivo resulting in high-level and long-term transgene expression, all in the absence of significant toxicity or inflammatory responses. The most efficient vehicles for delivery of foreign genes to the target tissues are modified adenoviruses. Adenoviral vectors of the first generation, despite the high infection efficacy, have an essential drawback: they induce strong immune response, which leads to short term expression of the transgene, and limits their usefulness in clinical trials. In contrast, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HdAd) lacking all viral coding sequences display only minimal immunogenicity and negligible side-effects, allowing for long-term transgene expression. Thus, HdAd vehicles have become the carrier of choice for adenoviral vector-mediated experimental gene therapy, effectively used in animal models for delivery of transgenes into the liver, skeletal muscle, myocardium or brain. Strong and long-lasting expression of therapeutic genes has allowed for successful treatment of dyslipidemias, muscular dystrophy, obesity, hemophilia, and diabetes. Additionally, the large cloning capacity of HdAd, up to 37 kb, facilitates the use of physiologically regulated, endogenous promoters, instead of artificial viral promoter sequences. This enables also generation of the single vectors expressing multiple genes, which can be potentially useful for treatment of polygenic diseases. In this review we characterize the basic features of HdAd vectors and describe some of their experimental and potential clinical applications.
PMCID: PMC1383728  PMID: 16082408
gene therapy; adenoviruses; helper-dependent adenoviral vectors; AAV, adeno-associated viruses; apo, apolipoprotein; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DMD, Duchenne muscular dystrophy; HdAd, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors; ITR, inverted terminal repeat
7.  Adenovirus-Mediated Efficient Gene Transfer into Cultured Three-Dimensional Organoids 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93608.
Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell–based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured “mini-gut” organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D “mini-gut” organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids.
PMCID: PMC3973564  PMID: 24695466
8.  Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors 
Viruses  2010;2(10):2290-2355.
Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad) have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX), or alternatively, through the use of polymer-coated “stealth” vectors which avoid these interactions. Simultaneous retargeting and detargeting can be achieved by combining multiple genetic and/or chemical modifications.
PMCID: PMC3185574  PMID: 21994621
adenovirus; retargeting; detargeting; tropism; ligand; capsid protein
9.  Current Strategies and Future Directions for Eluding Adenoviral Vector Immunity 
Current gene therapy  2006;6(2):215-226.
Adenoviral (Ad) vectors can efficiently transduce a broad range of cell types and have been used extensively in preclinical and clinical studies for gene delivery applications. The presence of preexisting Ad immunity in the majority of human population and a rapid development of immune response against the Ad vector backbone following the first inoculation with the vector have impeded clinical use of these vectors. In addition, a number of animal inoculation studies have demonstrated that high systemic doses of Ad vectors invariably lead to initiation of acute inflammatory responses. This is mainly due to activation of innate immunity by vector particles. In general, vector and innate immune responses drastically limit the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. In order to have a predictable response with Ad vectors for gene therapy applications, the above limitations must be overcome. Strategies that are being examined to circumvent these drawbacks of Ad vectors include immunosuppression, immunomodulation, serotype switching, use of targeted Ad vectors, microencapsulation of Ad vectors, use of helper-dependent (HD) Ad vectors, and development of nonhuman Ad vectors. Here we review the current understanding of immune responses to Ad vectors, and recent advances in the strategies for immune evasion to improve the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. Development of novel strategies for targeting specific cell types would further boost the utility of Ad vectors by enhancing the safety, efficacy and duration of transgene expression.
PMCID: PMC1455550  PMID: 16611043
10.  Retargeting Adenoviral Vectors to Improve Gene Transfer into Tumors 
Cancer gene therapy  2010;18(4):275-287.
Gene targeting to tumors using adenoviral vectors holds great potential for cancer imaging and therapy, but the limited efficacy of current methods used to improve delivery to target tissues and reduce unwanted interactions remain substantial barriers to further development. Progress in characterizing the set of molecular interactions used by adenoviral vectors to infect particular tissues has aided the development of novel strategies for retargeting vectors to tumor cells. One method is chemical retargeting of adenovirus using bispecific antibodies against both viral capsid proteins and tumor-specific cell surface molecules. This approach can be combined either with competitive inhibitors designed to reduce viral tropism in undesired tissues, or with traditional therapeutics to increase the expression of surface molecules for improved tumor targeting. Ablating liver cell-specific interactions through mutation of capsid proteins or chemical means are promising strategies for reducing adenovirus-induced liver toxicity. The nature of tumor neovasculature also influences adenoviral delivery, and the use of vascular disrupting agents such as combretastatin can help elucidate these contributions. In this investigation, we evaluate a variety of these methods for retargeting adenoviral vectors to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, and assess the contributions of specific molecular and tissue interactions that affect adenoviral transgene delivery.
PMCID: PMC3060954  PMID: 21183946
adenovirus; Bavituximab; bispecific antibody; fiber; targeting
11.  A novel and simple method for construction of recombinant adenoviruses 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(12):e89.
Recombinant adenoviruses have been widely used for various applications, including protein expression and gene therapy. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach to an efficient and robust construction of recombinant adenoviral genomes based on the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy. The production of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5-based vectors was greatly facilitated by the use of the MAGIC procedure and the development of the Adeasy™ adenoviral vector system. The recombinant adenoviral plasmid can be generated by a direct and seamless substitution, which replaces the stuff fragment in a full-length adenoviral genome with the gene of interest in a small plasmid in Escherichia coli. Recombinant adenoviral plasmids can be rapidly constructed in vivo by using the new method, without manipulations of the large adenoviral genome. In contrast to other traditional systems, it reduces the need for multiple in vitro manipulations, such as endonuclease cleavage, ligation and transformation, thus achieving a higher efficiency with negligible background. This strategy has been proven to be suitable for constructing an adenoviral cDNA expression library. In summary, the new method is highly efficient, technically less demanding and less labor-intensive for constructing recombinant adenoviruses, which will be beneficial for functional genomic and proteomic researches in mammalian cells.
PMCID: PMC1524918  PMID: 16855284
12.  Rescue of chimeric adenoviral vectors to expand the serotype repertoire 
Journal of virological methods  2007;141(1):14-21.
The successful use of any adenoviral vectors is predicated upon the use of a serotype that is not neutralized by circulating antibodies. However, efforts to develop a diverse repertoire of serologically distinct adenovirus vectors may be hindered by the necessity to generate cell lines to allow for the successful propagation of vectors deleted of essential genes. A strategy to construct chimeric adenoviruses whereby the rescue and propagation of an E1 deleted HAdV-B – derived adenoviral vector can be achieved using existing cell lines such as HEK 293 is reported. It is further shown that this strategy may be more widely applicable.
PMCID: PMC1868475  PMID: 17197043
Adenovirus; Adenovirus serotypes; adenovirus vector
13.  Adenoviral vector-based strategies for cancer therapy 
Current drug therapy  2009;4(2):117-138.
Definitive treatment of cancer has eluded scientists for decades. Current therapeutic modalities like surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and receptor-targeted antibodies have varied degree of success and generally have moderate to severe side effects. Gene therapy is one of the novel and promising approaches for therapeutic intervention of cancer. Viral vectors in general and adenoviral (Ad) vectors in particular are efficient natural gene delivery systems and are one of the obvious choices for cancer gene therapy. Clinical and preclinical findings with a wide variety of approaches like tumor suppressor and suicide gene therapy, oncolysis, immunotherapy, anti-angiogenesis and RNA interference using Ad vectors have been quite promising, but there are still many hurdles to overcome. Shortcomings like increased immunogenicity, prevalence of preexisting anti-Ad immunity in human population and lack of specific targeting limit the clinical usefulness of Ad vectors. In recent years, extensive research efforts have been made to overcome these limitations through a variety of approaches including the use of conditionally-replicating Ad and specific targeting of tumor cells. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of Ad vectors for cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC2771947  PMID: 20160875
14.  Preclinical evaluation of transcriptional targeting strategies for carcinoma of the breast in a tissue slice model system 
Breast Cancer Research  2005;7(6):R1141-R1152.
In view of the limited success of available treatment modalities for metastatic breast cancer, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. Adenoviral vector mediated strategies for breast cancer gene therapy and virotherapy are a promising novel therapeutic platform for the treatment of breast cancer. However, the promiscuous tropism of adenoviruses (Ads) is a major concern. Employing tissue specific promoters (TSPs) to restrict transgene expression or viral replication is an effective way to increase specificity towards tumor tissues and to reduce adverse effects in non-target tissues such as the liver. In this regard, candidate breast cancer TSPs include promoters of the genes for the epithelial glycoprotein 2 (EGP-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), α-chemokine SDF-1 receptor (stromal-cell-derived factor, CXCR4), secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) and survivin.
We employed E1-deleted Ads that express the reporter gene luciferase under the control of the promoters of interest. We evaluated this class of vectors in various established breast cancer cell lines, primary breast cancer cells and finally in the most stringent preclinical available substrate system, constituted by precision cut tissue slices of human breast cancer and liver.
Overall, the CXCR4 promoter exhibited the highest luciferase activity in breast cancer cell lines, primary breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue slices. Importantly, the CXCR4 promoter displayed a very low activity in human primary fibroblasts and human liver tissue slices. Interestingly, gene expression profiles correlated with the promoter activities both in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancer cells.
These data suggest that the CXCR4 promoter has an ideal 'breast cancer-on/liver-off' profile, and could, therefore, be a powerful tool in Ad vector based gene therapy or virotherapy of the carcinoma of the breast.
PMCID: PMC1410735  PMID: 16457694
15.  Recombinant Influenza Vaccines  
Acta Naturae  2012;4(4):17-27.
This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains.
PMCID: PMC3548171  PMID: 23346377
Recombinant vaccine; influenza; immunization
16.  Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Gene Delivery for Application in Periodontal Tissue Engineering 
Journal of periodontology  2001;72(6):815-823.
A challenge in the reconstruction of periodontal structures is the targeted delivery of growth-promoting molecules to the tooth root surface. Polypeptide growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulate both cementogenesis and osteogenesis. Recent advances in gene therapy offer the advantage of delivering recombinant proteins to tissues for extended periods of time in vivo.
Recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding for the PDGF-A gene were constructed to allow delivery of PDGF transgenes to cells. The recombinant adenoviruses were assembled using the viral backbone of Ad2/CMV/EGFP and replacing GFP (reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter [CMV] within adenovirus type 2) with the PDGF-A gene. Root lining cells (cloned cementoblasts) were transduced with Ad2/PDGF-A and evaluated for gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. PDGF-inducible genes, c-myc and osteopontin, were also evaluated following gene delivery of Ad2/PDGF-A.
The results revealed high level transduction of cementoblasts by gene transfer for 7 days as evidenced by flow cytometry and Northern blotting. Cementoblast DNA synthesis and subsequent proliferation were stimulated by Ad2/PDGF-A at levels equal to or greater than continuous rhPDGF-AA application. Strong message for the PDGF-A gene and protein as evidenced by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry was noted. Furthermore, the potent induction of c-myc and osteopontin mRNA was found after PDGF gene delivery to cementoblasts.
These findings demonstrate that gene delivery of platelet-derived growth factor stimulates cementoblast activity that is sustained above that of rhPDGF-AA application. The use of gene therapy as a mode of growth factor delivery offers a novel approach to periodontal tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC2602862  PMID: 11453245
Growth factors, platelet-derived; periodontium/growth; osteogenesis, dental cementum/growth and development; gene therapy
17.  Enhanced Transduction and Replication of RGD-Fiber Modified Adenovirus in Primary T Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e18091.
Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR). T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD).
Methodology/Principal Finding
A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35–45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD.
Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin.
PMCID: PMC3065494  PMID: 21464908
18.  Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e13103.
Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important.
We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly.
In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline.
PMCID: PMC2948038  PMID: 20927353
19.  Tumor Antigen LRRC15 Impedes Adenoviral Infection: Implications for Virus-Based Cancer Therapy▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(12):5933-5939.
Adenoviruses for gene or oncolytic therapy are under development. Notable among these strategies is adenoviral delivery of the tumor suppressor p53. Since all therapeutics have limitations in certain settings, we have undertaken retroviral suppressor screens to identify genes conferring resistance to adenovirus-delivered p53. These studies identified the tumor antigen LRRC15, which is frequently overexpressed in multiple tumor types, as a repressor of cell death due to adenoviral p53. LRRC15, however, does not impede p53 function per se but impedes adenoviral infection. Specifically, LRRC15 causes redistribution of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor away from the cell surface. This effect is manifested in less adenoviral binding to the surfaces of LRRC15-expressing cells. This discovery, therefore, not only is important for understanding adenoviral biology but also has potentially important implications for adenovirus-based anticancer therapeutics.
PMCID: PMC2395123  PMID: 18385238
20.  Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenoviral Serotypes 5 and 35 in the Adult Populations of The Gambia, South Africa, and the United States 
One of the major limitations of the use of adenoviruses as gene therapy vectors is the existence of preformed immunity in various populations. Recent studies have linked failure of adenoviral gene therapy trials to the presence of antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies (NAb). Understanding the distribution and specificity of such antibodies will assist in the design of successful recombinant adenoviral gene therapies and vaccines. To assess the prevalence of NAb to adenovirus serotypes 5 and 35 (Ad5 and Ad35), we analyzed serum samples from adult immunocompetent individuals living in The Gambia, South Africa, and the United States by using a neutralization assay. Serum samples were incubated with A549 lung carcinoma cells and adenoviruses encoding enhanced green or yellow fluorescent proteins; results were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Using this technique, we found a high prevalence of NAb against Ad5 in Gambian, South African, and U.S. subjects at both low and high titers. Conversely, all subjects displayed a low prevalence of NAb to Ad35; when present, anti-Ad35 NAb were seen at low titers. Because of the ability of adenoviruses to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, Ad35 with its low NAb prevalence appears to be an attractive candidate vector for gene therapy applications.
PMCID: PMC371218  PMID: 15013987
21.  A Novel Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector with Low Human Seroprevalence: Improved Systems for Vector Derivation and Comparative Immunogenicity 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40385.
Recombinant adenoviruses are among the most promising tools for vaccine antigen delivery. Recently, the development of new vectors has focused on serotypes to which the human population is less exposed in order to circumvent pre-existing anti vector immunity. This study describes the derivation of a new vaccine vector based on a chimpanzee adenovirus, Y25, together with a comparative assessment of its potential to elicit transgene product specific immune responses in mice. The vector was constructed in a bacterial artificial chromosome to facilitate genetic manipulation of genomic clones. In order to conduct a fair head-to-head immunological comparison of multiple adenoviral vectors, we optimised a method for accurate determination of infectious titre, since this parameter exhibits profound natural variability and can confound immunogenicity studies when doses are based on viral particle estimation. Cellular immunogenicity of recombinant E1 E3-deleted vector ChAdY25 was comparable to that of other species E derived chimpanzee adenovirus vectors including ChAd63, the first simian adenovirus vector to enter clinical trials in humans. Furthermore, the prevalence of virus neutralizing antibodies (titre >1∶200) against ChAdY25 in serum samples collected from two human populations in the UK and Gambia was particularly low compared to published data for other chimpanzee adenoviruses. These findings support the continued development of new chimpanzee adenovirus vectors, including ChAdY25, for clinical use.
PMCID: PMC3396660  PMID: 22808149
22.  Improved Gene Delivery to Intestinal Mucosa by Adenoviral Vectors Bearing Subgroup B and D Fibers 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(6):2747-2759.
A major obstacle to successful oral vaccination is the lack of antigen delivery systems that are both safe and highly efficient. Conventional replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors, derived from human adenoviruses of subgroup C, are poorly efficient in delivering genetic material to differentiated intestinal epithelia. To date, 51 human adenovirus serotypes have been identified and shown to recognize different cellular receptors with different tissue distributions. This natural diversity was exploited in the present study to identify suitable adenoviral vectors for efficient gene delivery to the human intestinal epithelium. In particular, we compared the capacities of a library of adenovirus type 5-based vectors pseudotyped with fibers of several human serotypes for transduction, binding, and translocation toward the basolateral pole in human and murine tissue culture models of differentiated intestinal epithelia. In addition, antibody-based inhibition was used to gain insight into the molecular interactions needed for efficient attachment. We found that vectors differing merely in their fiber proteins displayed vastly different capacities for gene transfer to differentiated human intestinal epithelium. Notably, vectors bearing fibers derived from subgroup B and subgroup D serotypes transduced the apical pole of human epithelium with considerably greater efficiency than a subgroup C vector. Such efficiency was correlated with the capacity to use CD46 or sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as opposed to CAR as attachment receptors. These results suggest that substantial gains could be made in gene transfer to digestive epithelium by exploiting the tropism of existing serotypes of human adenoviruses.
PMCID: PMC1395461  PMID: 16501084
23.  New Candidate Vaccines against Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Prime-Boost Immunization Regimens Incorporating Human and Simian Adenoviral Vectors and Poxviral Vectors Expressing an Optimized Antigen Based on Merozoite Surface Protein 1▿ †  
Infection and Immunity  2010;78(11):4601-4612.
Although merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is a leading candidate vaccine antigen for blood-stage malaria, its efficacy in clinical trials has been limited in part by antigenic polymorphism and potentially by the inability of protein-in-adjuvant vaccines to induce strong cellular immunity. Here we report the design of novel vectored Plasmodium falciparum vaccines capable of overcoming such limitations. We optimized an antigenic insert comprising the four conserved blocks of MSP-1 fused to tandemly arranged sequences that represent both allelic forms of the dimorphic 42-kDa C-terminal region. Inserts were expressed by adenoviral and poxviral vectors and employed in heterologous prime-boost regimens. Simian adenoviral vectors were used in an effort to circumvent preexisting immunity to human adenoviruses. In preclinical studies these vaccines induced potent cellular immune responses and high-titer antibodies directed against MSP-1. The antibodies induced were found to have growth-inhibitory activity against dimorphic allelic families of P. falciparum. These vectored vaccines should allow assessment in humans of the safety and efficacy of inducing strong cellular as well as cross-strain humoral immunity to P. falciparum MSP-1.
PMCID: PMC2976338  PMID: 20713623
24.  Adenoviruses in Lymphocytes of the Human Gastro-Intestinal Tract 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24859.
Persistent adenoviral shedding in stools is known to occur past convalescence following acute adenoviral infections. We wished to establish the frequency with which adenoviruses may colonize the gut in normal human subjects.
The presence of adenoviral DNA in intestinal specimens obtained at surgery or autopsy was tested using a nested PCR method. The amplified adenoviral DNA sequences were compared to each other and to known adenoviral species. Lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) were isolated from the specimens and the adenoviral copy numbers in the CD4+ and CD8+ fractions were determined by quantitative PCR. Adenoviral gene expression was tested by amplification of adenoviral mRNA.
Intestinal tissue from 21 of 58 donors and LPLs from 21 of 24 donors were positive for the presence of adenoviral DNA. The majority of the sequences could be assigned to adenoviral species E, although species B and C sequences were also common. Multiple sequences were often present in the same sample. Forty-one non-identical sequences were identified from 39 different tissue donors. Quantitative PCR for adenoviral DNA in CD4+ and CD8+ fractions of LPLs showed adenoviral DNA to be present in both cell types and ranged from a few hundred to several million copies per million cells on average. Active adenoviral gene expression as evidenced by the presence of adenoviral messenger RNA in intestinal lymphocytes was demonstrated in 9 of the 11 donors tested.
Adenoviral DNA is highly prevalent in lymphocytes from the gastro-intestinal tract indicating that adenoviruses may be part of the normal gut flora.
PMCID: PMC3184098  PMID: 21980361
25.  Adenoviral Producer Cells 
Viruses  2010;2(8):1681-1703.
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors, in particular those of the serotype 5, are highly attractive for a wide range of gene therapy, vaccine and virotherapy applications (as discussed in further detail in this issue). Wild type Ad5 virus can replicate in numerous tissue types but to use Ad vectors for therapeutic purposes the viral genome requires modification. In particular, if the viral genome is modified in such a way that the viral life cycle is interfered with, a specific producer cell line is required to provide trans-complementation to overcome the modification and allow viral production. This can occur in two ways; use of a producer cell line that contains specific adenoviral sequences incorporated into the cell genome to trans-complement, or use of a producer cell line that naturally complements for the modified Ad vector genome. This review concentrates on producer cell lines that complement non-replicating adenoviral vectors, starting with the historical HEK293 cell line developed in 1977 for first generation Ad vectors. In addition the problem of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) contamination in viral preparations from HEK293 cells is addressed leading to the development of alternate cell lines. Furthermore novel cell lines for more complex Ad vectors and alternate serotype Ad vectors are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3185730  PMID: 21994701
producer cell lines; adenovirus; Ad vectors; RCA

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