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1.  Secular changes in cognitive predictors of dementia and mortality in 70-year-olds 
Neurology  2010;75(9):779-785.
Background:
Successive elderly birth cohorts improved in cognitive performance during the 20th century. It is not clear whether this influences cognitive predictors of dementia and mortality.
Objective:
In 2 longitudinal population studies, representing 2 cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 30 years apart, we investigated the relation between baseline cognitive function and 5-year occurrence of dementia and mortality.
Methods:
Two representative cohorts of 70-year-olds initially free from dementia born in 1901–1902 (cohort 1901–1902: n = 381) and 1930 (cohort 1930: n = 551) from Gothenburg, Sweden, were examined in 1971–1972 and 2000–2001 and after 5 years for the outcome of dementia and death. Recent memory was evaluated during psychiatric examinations, and nonmemory domains using psychometric tests.
Results:
At age 70, cohort 1930 performed better on psychometric tests, and had fewer recent memory problems compared to cohort 1901–1902. During 5-year follow-up, 5.0% in cohort 1901–1902 and 4.4% in cohort 1930 (p = 0.742) developed dementia, and 15.7% in cohort 1901–1902 and 4.4% in cohort 1930 died (p < 0.001). Recent memory was associated with incident dementia in both cohorts. Low scores in nonmemory tests were associated with incident dementia in cohort 1901–1902, but not in cohort 1930. Recent memory problems and lower scores in nonmemory tests were associated with 5-year mortality in cohort 1901–1902, but not in cohort 1930.
Conclusions:
Secular changes in cognitive performance may influence cognitive predictors of dementia and mortality, despite similar incidence of dementia. The findings should be taken cautiously due to differences between cohorts in refusal rates, quality of education, and dementia recognition in medical records.
GLOSSARY
= confidence interval;
= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised;
= odds ratio.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f0737c
PMCID: PMC2938967  PMID: 20805523
2.  Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera 
Journal of Insect Science  2016;16(1):101.
Based on the recent revised generic classification of the tribe Epilachnini (Szawaryn et al. 2015), all 27 genera are re-described, diagnosed, illustrated, and included in an identification key. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850, Epilachna (Cleta) Mulsant 1850, Solanophila Weise 1898, Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993, and Epilachna (Uniparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993 are removed from synonymy of Epilachna Chervolat 1837. The subgenus Cleta of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Cleta Mulsant 1850 stat. nov.; the subgenus Uniparodentata of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 stat. nov. Chazeauiana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna sahlbergi Mulsant 1850), and Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna nigrolimbata Thomson 1875) are synonymized here under the name Cleta Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna eckloni Mulsant 1850)—new synonyms; Fuerschia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781) is synonymized with Solanophila Weise 1898 (type species, Epilachna gibbosa Crotch 1874)—new synonym; Ryszardia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna decipiens Crotch 1874) and Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao, 1993 (type species, Epilachna yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984) are synonymized under the name Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (type species, Epilachna paramagna Pang and Mao 1979)—new synonyms. Henosepilachna (Elateria) Fürsch 1964 (type species: Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794) is removed from synomyms of Henosepilachna Li 1961 [type species, Coccinella sparsa Herbst 1786 (=Coccinella vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 1775)] and is synonymized here with Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (type species: Coccinella similis Thunberg 1781)—new synonym. Coccinella flavofasciata Laporte 1840, Epilachna aequatorialis Gordon 1975, E. bizonata Crotch 1874, E. convergens Crotch 1874, E. cruciata Mulsant 1850, E. dubia Crotch 1874, E. monovittata Gordon 1975, E. orthostriata Gordon 1975, E. paracuta Gordon 1975, E. patricia Mulsant 1850, E. satipensis Gordon 1975, and E. univittata Crotch 1874 are transferred to Toxotoma Weise 1900 (comb. nov.); Afissa chapini Dieke 1947, A. complicata Dieke 1947, A. convexa Dieke 1947, A. magna Dieke 1947, A. militaris Dieke 1947, A. quadricollis Dieke 1947, A. subacuta Dieke 1947, A. szechuana Dieke 1947, Epilachna boymi Jadwiszczak and Węgrzynowicz 2003, E. crepida Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. decipiens Crotch 1874, E. dorotae Bielawski 1979, E. hamulifera Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. malleforma Peng, Pang and Ren 2002, E. siphodenticulata Hoàng 1983, E. angusta Li 1961, E. bifibra Li 1961, E. chingjing Yu and Wang 1999, E. circumdata Hoàng 1978, E. circummaculata Pang and Mao 1977, E. clematicola Cao and Xiao 1984, E. exornata Bielawski 1965, E. folifera Pang and Mao 1979, E. fugongensis Cao and Xiao 1984, E. glochisifoliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. gressiti Li 1961, E. lata Li 1961, E. madanensis Zeng 2002, E. media Li 1961, E. mobliteratiae Li 1961, E. yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984, Solanophila acuta Weise 1900, and S. saginata Weise 1902 are transferred to Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (comb. nov.); Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781, Epilachna dregei Mulsant 1850, E. infirma Mulsant 1850, E. murrayi Crotch 1874 and E. paykullii Mulsant 1850 are transferred to Solanophila Weise 1898 (comb. nov.); Afissula antennata Bielawski 1967, A. rana Kapur 1958, A. uniformis Pang and Mao 1979, Epilachna ampliata Pang and Mao 1979, E. flavimarginalis Hoàng 1978, E. max Pang and Ślipiński 2012, E. parvula Crotch, E. plicata Weise 1889, and E. sanscrita Crotch 1874 are transferred to Afissa Dieke 1947 (comb. nov.); Epilachna papuensis Crotch 1874 and Subafissa brittoni Bielawski 1963 are transferred to Henosepilachna Li 1961 (comb. nov.); Epilachna admirabilis Crotch 1874, E. alternans Mulsant 1850, E. glochinosa Pang and Mao 1979, E. hopeiana Miyatake 1985, E. insignis Gorham 1892, E. macularis Mulsant 1850, E. parainsignis Pang and Mao 1979, and Solanophila maxima Weise 1898 are transferred to Diekeana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (comb. nov.); Epilachna fulvohirta Weise 1895, E. nigrolimbata Thomson 1875, Henosepilachna griveaudi Chazeau 1975, H. vadoni Chazeau 1976, Solanophila consignata Weise 1909, S. coquereli Sicard 1907, and S. gyldenstolpei Weise 1924 are transferred to Cleta Mulsant 1850 (comb. nov.); Afidenta janczyki Fürsch 1986, Epilachna capicola Mulsant 1850, E. godarti Mulsant 1850, E. scitula Weise 1898, Henospeilachna acervata Chazeau 1975, and Solanophila blaesa Weise 1905 are transferred to Afidentula Kapur 1958 (com. nov.); Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794, C. hirta Thunberg 1781, C. pavonia Olivier 1808, Epilachna annulata Kolbe 1897, E. biplagiata Kolbe 1897, E. cinerascens Weise 1907, E. connectens Weise 1912, E. erichi Weise, 1897, E. occellata Bertoloni, 1849, E. pauli Weise, 1897, E. tetracycla Gerstaecker, 1871, E. umbratilis Weise 1909, E. vulgaris Weise 1901, Henosepilachna bigemmata Fürsch 1991, Solanophila guttifera Weise 1899, S. hova Weise 1905, and S. kaffaeensis Weise 1906 are transferred to Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (com. nov.); Coccinella guttatopustulata Fabricius 1775, Epilachna aruensis Crotch 1874, E. biroi Weise 1902, E. buqueti Montrouzier 1861, E. fulvimana Weise 1903, E. immaculata Bielawski 1963, E. karapensis Bielawski 1963, E. orrori Bielawski 1963, E. samuelsoni Jadwiszczak 1991, and E. slipinskii Jadwiszczak 1987 are transferred to Papuaepilachna Tomaszewska and Szawaryn, 2013 (comb. nov.). The history of classification, the known aspects of the biology and distributional data of the tribe are summarized.
doi:10.1093/jisesa/iew082
PMCID: PMC5030074  PMID: 27651424
Coccinelloidea; Epilachnini; world genera; review
3.  Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(4):e0153761.
HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869–1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867–1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153761
PMCID: PMC4839596  PMID: 27100294
4.  CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPORT TECHNIQUES: Whole blood viscosity assessment issues I: Extrapolation chart and reference values 
Background:
There are many different methods for the assessment of whole blood viscosity, but not every pathology unit has equipment for any of the methods. However, a validated arithmetic method exists whereby whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated from haematocrit and total serum proteins.
Aims:
The objective of this work is to develop an algorithm in the form of a chart by which clinicians can easily extrapolate whole blood viscosity values in their consulting rooms or on the ward. Another objective is to suggest normal, subnormal and critical reference ranges applicable to this method.
Materials and Methods:
Whole blood viscosity at high shear stress was determined, from various possible pairs of haematocrit and total proteins. A chart was formulated so that whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated. After determination of two standard deviations from the mean and ascertainment of symmetric distribution, normal and abnormal reference ranges were defined.
Results:
The clinicians’ user-friendly chart is presented. Considering presumptive lower and upper limits, the continuum of ≤14.28, 14.29 – 15.00, 15.01 – 19.01, 19.02 – 19.39 and ≥19.40 (208 Sec-1) is obtained as reference ranges for critically low, subnormal low, normal, subnormal high and critically high whole blood viscosity levels respectively.
Conclusion:
This article advances a validated method to provide a user-friendly chart that would enable clinicians to assess whole blood viscosity for any patients who has results for full blood count and total proteins. It would make the assessment of whole blood viscosity costless and the neglect of a known cardiovascular risk factor less excusable.
doi:10.4297/najms.2010.2165
PMCID: PMC3354404  PMID: 22624134
Assessment chart; reference values; whole blood viscosity
5.  A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(8):e0160963.
The historical May–October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831–1889, 1894–1901, 1908–1934 and 1950–1952, and the warm periods were 1890–1893, 1902–1907, 1935–1949 and 1953–2011. During the instrumental period (1951–2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3–2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4–3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160963
PMCID: PMC4979898  PMID: 27509206
6.  Task-Sharing of HIV Care and ART Initiation: Evaluation of a Mixed-Care Non-Physician Provider Model for ART Delivery in Rural Malawi 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74090.
Background
Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa requires implementation of alternative care delivery models to traditional physician-centered approaches. This longitudinal analysis compares outcomes of patients initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by non-physician and physician providers.
Methods
Adults (≥15 years) initiating ART between September 2007 and March 2010, and with >1 follow-up visit were included and classified according to the proportion of clinical visits performed by nurses or by clinical officers (≥80% of visits). Multivariable Poisson models were used to compare 2-year program attrition (mortality and lost to follow-up) and mortality by type of provider. In sensitivity analyses only patients with less severe disease were included.
Results
A total of 10,112 patients contributed 14,012 person-years to the analysis: 3386 (33.5%) in the clinical officer group, 1901 (18.8%) in the nurse care group and 4825 (47.7%) in the mixed care group. Overall 2-year program retention was 81.8%. Attrition was lower in the mixed care and higher in the clinical officer group, compared to the nurse group (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]=0.54, 95%CI 0.45-0.65; and aIRR=3.03, 95%CI 2.56-3.59, respectively). While patients initiated on ART by clinical officers in the mixed care group had lower attrition (aIRR=0.36, 95%CI 0.29-0.44) than those in the overall nurse care group; no differences in attrition were found between patients initiated on ART by nurses in the mixed care group and those included in the nurse group (aIRR=1.18, 95%CI 0.95-1.47). Two-year mortality estimates were aIRR=0.72, 95%CI 0.49-1.09 and aIRR=5.04, 95%CI 3.56-7.15, respectively. Slightly higher estimates were observed when analyses were restricted to patients with less severe disease.
Conclusion
The findings of this study support the use of a mixed care model with well trained and regularly supervised nurses and medical assistants to provide HIV care in countries with high HIV prevalence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074090
PMCID: PMC3774791  PMID: 24066099
7.  The Hospital for Special Surgery 1955 to 1972: T. Campbell Thompson Serves as Sixth Surgeon-in-Chief 1955–1963 Followed by Robert Lee Patterson, Jr. the Seventh Surgeon-in-Chief 1963–1972 
HSS Journal  2009;6(1):1-13.
After two decades as the fifth Surgeon-in-Chief (1935–1955) of The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS), Philip Duncan Wilson, MD (1886–1969) retired, having implemented, during his administration, major changes in the hospital. The first most important accomplishment was finalizing a formal affiliation with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in 1955 and moving adjacent to the medical campus at 535 East 70th Street. The second was changing the name of the Hospital in 1940 from The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled to The Hospital for Special Surgery. During the two decades as Surgeon-in-Chief, Dr. Wilson was able to reestablish the hospital as a foremost hospital in the orthopedic world. The Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed T. Campbell Thompson, MD (1902–1986), as the sixth Surgeon-in-Chief of The Hospital for Special Surgery. He assumed that office on July 1, 1955. During the previous year, Dr. Thompson served as President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Philip D. Wilson, upon his retirement as Surgeon-in-Chief, took on a newly created role as Director of Research at HSS. In 1962, adverse relations between The Hospital for Special Surgery and New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center seriously threatened the continued affiliation agreement between the two hospitals. Because of difficulties over a faculty and staff appointment, Dr. Thompson resigned from the office of Surgeon-in-Chief. He was replaced in1963 by Robert Lee Patterson, Jr., MD (1907–1994), who had first joined the staff of The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in 1936 as a Visiting Surgeon.
doi:10.1007/s11420-009-9136-5
PMCID: PMC2821498  PMID: 19885704
Philip D. Wilson; T. Campbell Thompson; Robert Lee Patterson Jr.; Preston Wade; Philip D. Wilson Jr.; John R. Cobb; Robert H. Freiberger; Goran C. H. Bauer; Lee Ramsay Straub; Allan E. Inglis; Harlan Amstutz; David B. Levine; Thomas P. Sculco; Leon Root; Peter Bullough
8.  Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950 
Born in 1902 to the earliest chiropractor known to practice in Canada, Joshua Norman Haldeman would develop national and international stature as a political economist, provincial and national professional leader, and sportsman/adventurer. A 1926 graduate of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, he would maintain a lifelong friendship with B.J. Palmer, and served in the late 1940s as Canada’s representative to the Board of Control of the International Chiropractors’ Association. Yet, he would also maintain strong alliances with broad-scope leaders in Canada and the United States, including the administrators of the National and Lincoln chiropractic schools. Haldeman, who would practice chiropractic in Regina for at least 15 years, was instrumental in obtaining, and is credited with composing the wording of, Saskatchewan’s 1943 Chiropractic Act. He served on the province’s first board of examiners and the provincial society’s first executive board. The following year Dr. Haldeman represented Saskatchewan in the deliberations organized by Walter Sturdy, D.C. that gave rise to the Dominion Council of Canadian Chiropractors, forerunner of today’s Canadian Chiropractic Association. As a member of the Dominion Council he fought for inclusion of chiropractors as commissioned officers during World War II, and participated in the formation of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, which he subsequently served as a member of the first board of directors. Dr. Haldeman also earned a place in the political history of Canada, owing to his service as research director for Technocracy, Inc. of Canada, his national chairmanship of the Social Credit Party during the second world war, and his unsuccessful bid for the national parliament. His vocal opposition to Communism during the war briefly landed him in jail. His 1950 relocation of his family and practice to Pretoria, South Africa would open a new page in his career: once again as professional pioneer, but also as aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession.
Images
PMCID: PMC2485067
chiropractic; manipulation; Canada
9.  RAD1901: a novel, orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor degrader that demonstrates antitumor activity in breast cancer xenograft models 
Anti-Cancer Drugs  2015;26(9):948-956.
Agents that inhibit estrogen production, such as aromatase inhibitors or those that directly block estrogen receptor (ER) activity, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators and selective estrogen receptor degraders, are routinely used in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancers. However, although initial treatment with these agents is often successful, many women eventually relapse with drug-resistant breast cancers. To overcome some of the challenges associated with current endocrine therapies and to combat the development of resistance, there is a need for more durable and more effective ER-targeted therapies. Here we describe and characterize a novel, orally bioavailable small-molecule selective estrogen receptor degrader, RAD1901, and evaluate its therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast cancer. RAD1901 selectively binds to and degrades the ER and is a potent antagonist of ER-positive breast cancer cell proliferation. Importantly, RAD1901 produced a robust and profound inhibition of tumor growth in MCF-7 xenograft models. In an intracranial MCF-7 model, RAD1901-treated animals survived longer than those treated with either control or fulvestrant, suggesting the potential benefit of RAD1901 in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain. Finally, RAD1901 preserved ovariectomy-induced bone loss and prevented the uterotropic effects of E2, suggesting that it may act selectively as an agonist in bone but as an antagonist in breast and uterine tissues. RAD1901 is currently under clinical study in postmenopausal women with ER-positive advanced breast cancer.
doi:10.1097/CAD.0000000000000271
PMCID: PMC4560273  PMID: 26164151
anticancer activity; blood–brain barrier; breast cancer; estrogen receptor inhibition; selective estrogen receptor degraders; selective estrogen receptor modulators; tissue selectivity
10.  Cell-Associated Flagella Enhance the Protection Conferred by Mucosally-Administered Attenuated Salmonella Paratyphi A Vaccines 
Background
Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, the agent of paratyphoid A fever, poses an emerging public health dilemma in endemic areas of Asia and among travelers, as there is no licensed vaccine. Integral to our efforts to develop a S. Paratyphi A vaccine, we addressed the role of flagella as a potential protective antigen by comparing cell-associated flagella with exported flagellin subunits expressed by attenuated strains.
Methodology
S. Paratyphi A strain ATCC 9150 was first deleted for the chromosomal guaBA locus, creating CVD 1901. Further chromosomal deletions in fliD (CVD 1901D) or flgK (CVD 1901K) were then engineered, resulting in the export of unpolymerized FliC, without impairing its overall expression. The virulence of the resulting isogenic strains was examined using a novel mouse LD50 model to accommodate the human-host restricted S. Paratyphi A. The immunogenicity of the attenuated strains was then tested using a mouse intranasal model, followed by intraperitoneal challenge with wildtype ATCC 9150.
Results
Mucosal (intranasal) immunization of mice with strain CVD 1901 expressing cell-associated flagella conferred superior protection (vaccine efficacy [VE], 90%) against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge, compared with the flagellin monomer-exporting mutants CVD 1901K (30% VE) or CVD 1901D (47% VE). The superior protection induced by CVD 1901 with its cell-attached flagella was associated with an increased IgG2a∶IgG1 ratio of FliC-specific antibodies with enhanced opsonophagocytic capacity.
Conclusions
Our results clearly suggest that enhanced anti-FliC antibody-mediated clearance of S. Paratyphi A by phagocytic cells, induced by vaccines expressing cell-associated rather than exported FliC, might be contributing to the vaccine-induced protection from S. Paratyphi A challenge in vivo. We speculate that an excess of IgG1 anti-FliC antibodies induced by the exported FliC may compete with the IgG2a subtype and block binding to specific phagocyte Fc receptors that are critical for clearing an S. Paratyphi A infection.
Author Summary
Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is a pathogen that causes a systemic disease that is marked by serious complications and, if untreated, high mortality. The study of S. Paratyphi A pathogenesis and vaccine development has been extremely challenging since S. Paratyphi A is human host-restricted and no appropriate animal model exists. Since there is currently no licensed vaccine to prevent paratyphoid fever caused by this organism, our study represents a pioneering attempt to develop and refine a vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. We employed live attenuated strains which allow in vivo presentation of bacterial antigens via the natural route of infection, without the complications associated with antigen production and purification for subunit vaccines. For determining protective immunity against infection, we developed a mouse model that allowed evaluation of vaccine efficacy. We used our system to examine the protective capacity of a major Salmonella antigen, the flagellum. Due to its unique immunogenic properties, the flagellum is considered a major immune mediator, but its role in protection is controversial. We clearly show that cell-associated flagellar protein, presented by mucosally administered attenuated bacterial live vaccines, provides superior protection when compared to strains exporting FliC monomers, and we discuss possible mechanisms of immunity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001373
PMCID: PMC3206010  PMID: 22069504
11.  Early Active Motion in Joint Pain and Stiffness 
E. Bishop (“Bish”) Mumford was born in 1879 in Indiana [2] (most likely in or near New Harmony, the birthplace of both of his parents, who were committed to Robert Owen’s concept of that socialistic community established by Owen in 1826 [4]). He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1901 and Johns Hopkins in 1905. He obtained postgraduate training at Boston Children’s Hospital and Gouverneur’s Hospital (a hospital originally established to provide care for low income patients of color) in New York. He returned to Indiana to establish a practice in children’s orthopaedics. His practice was interrupted by WW I, where he served as a captain in a base hospital in France. He returned after the war and in 1920 opened the Indianapolis Industrial Clinic with Dr. Jay Reed. He later was appointed to the faculty at the Medical College of Indiana and was one of the first surgeons appointed to the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Crippled Children and the first surgeon appointed to the Veteran’s Administration Hospital of Indiana. He continued his appointments at these and other hospitals until his death.
Dr. Mumford was one of the founding members of the AAOS, and was one of eight members listed as attending the business meeting of the Clinical Orthopaedic Society, October 30, 1931, where the concept of a new national organization was discussed [1]. While the record is not entirely clear, Mumford apparently served on the Executive Committee of the AAOS from 1931 (when according to Heck the AAOS was chartered [3]) until 1944, then as President-Elect, President from 1945–1946, and continued on the Executive Committee until 1950 [2]; that being the case, he would have served on the Executive longer than any of the original founders (and perhaps longer than anyone since). He is the only AAOS President to have served two terms: at the written request of the Office of Defense Transportation in 1944, the January, 1945 meeting was canceled, and he remained President during the subsequent year, presiding over the 1946 meeting. He was active in the AOA and the Clinical Orthopaedic Society (he served as Secretary-Treasurer, Vice-President, and President in 1933, the year of the first meeting of the AAOS), as well as the Indianapolis Board of Health, the American College of Surgeons and other organizations. Among all of his many clinical responsibilities and activities in the 1930s, he found time to assume from his father the management of his family’s 5800 acre farm in Indiana.
The article we reproduce here expresses Mumford’s belief in early mobilization of injured joints. “The motion you gain through early mobilization of the joint,” he maintained, “you do not lose. The motion you lose through long fixation of the joint may be permanent.” This article, published in 1960, undoubtedly reflected concepts he developed through his long experience with industrial injuries.Dr. E. Bishop Mumford is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
References
Brown T. The American Orthopaedic Association: A Centennial History. Chicago, IL: The American Orthopaedic Association; 1987.E. Bishop Mumford. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1962;44:579–581.Heck CV. Fifty Years of Progress: In Recognition of the 50th Anniversary of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1983.Robert Owen. Wikipedia Web site. Available at: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Owen. Accessed August 29, 2007.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0022-5
PMCID: PMC2505291  PMID: 18196380
12.  The Hospital for Special Surgery 1972–1989; Philip D. Wilson, Jr., Eighth Surgeon-in-Chief 
HSS Journal  2010;6(2):119-133.
After nearly a decade as the seventh Surgeon-in-Chief (1963–1972) of The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS), Robert Lee Patterson, Jr., MD (1907–1994) retired, having repaired adverse relations between HSS and the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Patterson, who had first joined the staff of The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in 1936 as a Visiting Surgeon, was able to accomplish this very challenging task mainly through his close relationship with Preston Wade, MD (1901–1982), a general surgeon who had served with Patterson as Co-Chief of the combined New York Hospital-HSS Fracture service. The Board of Trustees of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled appointed Philip D. Wilson, Jr. MD, as the eighth Surgeon-in-Chief of The Hospital for Special Surgery. He assumed that office on July 1, 1972. Wilson, who had joined the staff as an Orthopaedic Surgeon to the Out-Patient Department in 1951, had trained as an orthopaedic resident at HSS from 1948 to 1950 and in 1951, finished his residency at the University of California Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco. During his 17 years as Surgeon-in-Chief, he led the hospital into the advanced field of implant research and development and building a world-class center for patient care. Additionally, many other orthopaedic services such as Sports Medicine, Scoliosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases became the leaders in their fields. Supporting Departments of Rheumatology, Anesthesia and others were likewise recognized foremost in the country.
doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9162-3
PMCID: PMC2926356  PMID: 21886524
Robert Lee Patterson, Jr.; Preston Wade; Philip D. Wilson, Jr.; Harlan Amstutz; Philip D. Wilson; John Marshall; Russell F. Warren; David B. Levine; David Clayson; Charles L. Christian; Robert C. Mellors; Chitranjan S. Ranawat; John Insall; Allan E. Inglis; G. Dean Mac Ewen; Joseph M. Lane; Stephen W. Burke; Charles N. Cornell; Thomas P. Sculco; Eduardo Salvati
13.  NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements 
The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program.
doi:10.6028/jres.106.012
PMCID: PMC4865286  PMID: 27500025
calibrations; certified reference materials; critically evaluated data; commerce and trade; legal metrology; measurement systems; SRM®; standard reference data; traceability; weights and measures
14.  Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora) 
ZooKeys  2015;1-118.
Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.473.8659
PMCID: PMC4304041  PMID: 25632253
Anatomy; revision; taxonomy; new species; Plectopylidae; Corillidae; mating behaviour; Vietnam; China
15.  Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)  
ZooKeys  2012;1-94.
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., Typhochlaena costae sp. n., Typhochlaena curumim sp. n., Typhochlaena paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. and Iridopelma vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.230.3500
PMCID: PMC3494022  PMID: 23166476
Brazilian Atlantic rainforest; bromeliads; campo rupestre; cerrado; endemism; new species; restinga; systematics; tarantula
16.  Evaluation of the pharmacological activities of RAD1901, a selective estrogen receptor degrader 
Endocrine-related cancer  2015;22(5):713-724.
Endocrine therapy, using tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, remains first-line treatment for estrogen receptor (ESR1) positive breast cancer. However, tumor resistance limits the duration of response. The clinical efficacy of fulvestrant, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Degrader (SERD) that triggers receptor degradation, has confirmed that ESR1 often remains engaged in endocrine therapy resistant cancers. Recently developed Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERM)/SERD hybrids (SSHs) that facilitate ESR1 degradation in breast cancer cells and reproductive tissues have been advanced as an alternative treatment for advanced breast cancer, particularly in the metastatic setting. RAD1901 is one SSH currently being evaluated clinically that is unique among ESR1 modulators in that it readily enters the brain, a common site of breast cancer metastasis. In this study, RAD1901 inhibited estrogen activation of ESR1 in vitro and in vivo, inhibited estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth, and mediated dose-dependent downregulation of ESR1 protein. However, doses of RAD1901 insufficient to induce ESR1 degradation were shown to result in activation of ESR1 target genes and in stimulation of xenograft tumor growth. RAD1901 is an SSH that exhibits complex pharmacology in breast cancer models, having dose-dependent agonist/antagonist activity displayed in a tissue-selective manner. It remains unclear how this unique pharmacology will impact the utility of RAD1901 for breast cancer treatment. However, being the only SERD currently known to access the brain, RAD1901 merits evaluation as a targeted therapy for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases.
doi:10.1530/ERC-15-0287
PMCID: PMC4545300  PMID: 26162914
Selective estrogen receptor degrader; SERM; endocrine-resistant breast cancer; RAD1901
17.  New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada 
ZooKeys  2013;13-48.
The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Tyloderma foveolatum (Say, 1832); (all Curculionidae); Ontario – Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (both Brentidae); Asperosoma echinatum (Fall, 1917); Micracis suturalis LeConte, 1868; Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Phloeosinus pini Swaine, 1915; Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Quebec – Trigonorhinus alternatus (Say, 1826); Trigonorhinus tomentosus tomentosus (Say, 1826) (both Anthribidae); Trichapion nigrum (Herbst, 1797); Trichapion porcatum (Boheman, 1839); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze, 1777) (all Brentidae); Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, 1952 (Brachyceridae); Acalles carinatus LeConte, 1876; Ampeloglypter ampelopsis (Riley, 1869); Anthonomus rufipes LeConte, 1876; Anthonomus suturalis LeConte, 1824; Ceutorhynchus hamiltoni Dietz, 1896; Curculio pardalis (Chittenden, 1908); Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs, 1873); Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792); Mecinus janthinus (Germar, 1821); Microhyus setiger LeConte, 1876; Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal, 1837); Orchestes alni (Linnaeus, 1758); Otiorhynchus ligustici (Linnaeus, 1758); Rhinusa neta (Germar, 1821); Trichobaris trinotata (Say, 1832); Tychius liljebladi Blatchley, 1916; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894); Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 (all Curculionidae); Sphenophorus incongruus Chittenden, 1905 (Dryophthoridae); New Brunswick – Euparius paganus Gyllenhal, 1833; Allandrus populi Pierce, 1930; Gonotropis dorsalis (Thunberg, 1796); Euxenus punctatus LeConte, 1876 (all Anthribidae); Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Pseudanthonomus seriesetosus Dietz, 1891; Curculio sulcatulus (Casey, 1897); Lignyodes bischoffi (Blatchley, 1916); Lignyodes horridulus (Casey, 1892); Dietzella zimmermanni (Gyllenhal, 1837); Parenthis vestitus Dietz, 1896; Pelenomus squamosus LeConte, 1876; Psomus armatus Dietz, 1891; Rhyncolus macrops Buchanan, 1946; Magdalis inconspicua Horn, 1873; Magdalis salicis Horn, 1873 (all Curculionidae); Nova Scotia – Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg, 1837); Ips perroti Swaine, 1915; Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford, 1894) (all Curculionidae); Prince Edward Island – Dryocoetes caryi Hopkins, 1915 (Curculionidae); Newfoundland – Scolytus piceae (Swaine, 1910) (Curculionidae).
Published records of Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 from Northwest Territories should be reassigned to Nunavut, leaving no documented record for NWT. Collection data are provided for eight provincial and national records published without further information previously.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.309.4667
PMCID: PMC3689125  PMID: 23794927
Anthribidae; Brachyceridae; Brentidae; Curculionidae; Dyophthoridae; weevils; bark beetles; pests
18.  Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London 
ZooKeys  2014;1-367.
The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.
The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898.
The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.
New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863); Kuschelenia (K.) gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857); Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) aquilus (Reeve, 1848); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) caliginosus (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) ochracea (Morelet, 1863); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) purpuratus (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) quechuarum (Crawford, 1939); Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849); Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863); Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838); Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846); Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871); Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889).
Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.392.6328
PMCID: PMC3974435  PMID: 24715782
Bulimulidae; types
19.  Novel erm(T)-Carrying Multiresistance Plasmids from Porcine and Human Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 That Also Harbor Cadmium and Copper Resistance Determinants 
This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00171-13
PMCID: PMC3697343  PMID: 23629701
20.  Emergence and evolution of internationally disseminated cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae clones from 1995 to 2005 in Japan 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:378.
Background
Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), last options for first-line monotherapy of gonorrhoea, likely emerged and initially disseminated in Japan, followed by international transmission. In recent years, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) ST1901 and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) ST1407 isolates with the mosaic penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 XXXIV have accounted for most ESC resistance globally. Our aim was to elucidate the initial emergence and transmission of ESC-resistant strains by detailed examination of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 1995 to 2005 in Kanagawa, Japan.
Methods
N. gonorrhoeae isolates were examined phenotypically (n = 690) and genetically (n = 372) by agar dilution method (cefixime, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin), penA gene sequencing, MLST and NG-MAST.
Results
Already in 1995, one cefixime-resistant (CFM-R) isolate was found, which is the first CFM-R isolate described globally. After 1996, the prevalence of CFM-R and CFM-decreased susceptibility (CFM-DS) isolates significantly increased, with the peak resistance level in 2002 (57.1 % CFM-R). In 1997–2002, the CFM-R MLST ST7363 strain type with the mosaic PBP 2 X was predominant among CFM-R/DS isolates. The first CFM-R/DS MLST ST1901 clone(s), which became the predominant CFM-R/DS strain type(s) already in 2003–2005, possessed the mosaic PBP 2 X, which was possibly originally transferred from the MLST ST7363 strains, and subsequently acquired the mosaic PBP 2 XXXIV. The first MLST ST1901 and NG-MAST ST1407 isolate was identified in Kanagawa already in 2003.
Conclusions
The two main internationally spread cefixime-resistant gonococcal clones, MLST ST7363 and ST1901 (NG-MAST ST1407 most frequent internationally) that also have shown their capacity to develop high-level ceftriaxone resistance (superbugs H041 and F89), likely emerged, evolved and started to disseminate in the metropolitan area, including Kanagawa, in Japan, which was followed by global transmission.
doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1110-x
PMCID: PMC4574456  PMID: 26381611
21.  The millipede family Polydesmidae in Taiwan, with descriptions of five new species (Polydesmida, Diplopoda)  
ZooKeys  2011;9-42.
Polydesmidae are represented in Taiwan by seven species in two genera. Neither of the genera is endemic to Taiwan, but six of the species are, including five new: Nipponesmus minor sp. n., Epanerchodus bispinosus sp. n., Epanerchodus curtigonopus sp. n., Epanerchodus flagellifer sp. n. and Epanerchodus pinguis sp. n. In addition, the diagnosis of the hitherto enigmatic genus Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is refined vis-à-vis the especially similar, Central Asian, Siberian and Eastern European genus Schizoturanius Verhoeff, 1931, chiefly based on new material of the type-species Nipponesmus shirinensis Chamberlin & Wang, 1953; this species is adequately redescribed and represents still another Taiwanese endemic. A key to all three currently known species of Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is given. The highly speciose Central to East Asian genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 is represented in Taiwan by five species, all keyed, including Epanerchodus orientalis Attems, 1901, which is long known to be highly variable in Japan and found particularly polymorphous and apparently allochthonous in Taiwan. The following synonymy is formalized: Epanerchodus orientalis orientalis Attems, 1901 = Epanerchodus orientalis takakuwai Verhoeff, 1913, syn. n. The genus Usbekodesmus Lohmander, 1932 is formally synonymized with Epanerchodus Attems, 1901, syn. n., resulting in the following new formal transfers: Epanerchodus redikorzevi (Lohmander, 1932), Epanerchodus swatensis (Golovatch, 1991), Epanerchodus varius (Geoffroy & Golovatch, 2004), Epanerchodus anachoretus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus buddhis (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus occultus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus sacer (Golovatch, 1987), Epanerchodus theocraticus (Golovatch, 1990) and Epanerchodus theosophicus (Golovatch, 1986), all comb. n. ex Usbekodesmus. The distributions of all seven species of Polydesmidae occurring in Taiwan are mapped and discussed.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.93.1167
PMCID: PMC3095181  PMID: 21594077
millipede; Polydesmidae; taxonomy; new species; new synonymy; key; Taiwan
22.  Analysis of Emergence of Quinolone-Resistant Gonococci in Greece by Combined Use of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multiantigen Sequence Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing▿†§ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(4):1196-1201.
The prevalence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) in Greece remained low from 1997 to 2003 but increased dramatically from 11% to 56% between 2004 and 2007. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to investigate trends in quinolone resistance from 1997 to 2007 and explore the origins of the recent increase in QRNG. We characterized 295 QRNG isolates from the study period and 233 quinolone-susceptible (QS) gonococci from 2004 and 2005, when the rapid increase in QRNG occurred. From 1997 to 1999, an outbreak of QRNG was due to the dissemination of isolates of serovar Arst that belonged to two closely related genotypes. Few QRNG isolates, of diverse genotypes, were present between 2001 and 2003, whereas the sharp increase in QRNG from 2004 onwards was due to the appearance of serovar Bropyst isolates of several major NG-MAST sequence type (STs) that previously had not been identified in Greece. These isolates were shown by MLST to be variants of a single multiply antibiotic-resistant QRNG strain (ST1901) that appeared in Greece and rapidly diversified into 31 NG-MAST STs. There were no isolates of MLST ST1901 or any of the 31 NG-MAST STs among QS isolates from 2004 and 2005 or among 8 representatives of multiresistant but quinolone-susceptible serovar Bropyst isolates circulating in Greece during the 1990s, supporting the view that the recent increase in QRNG was due to importation of a QRNG strain(s) of MLST ST1901 into Greece. Recently, multiresistant QRNG isolates of ST1901 with reduced susceptibility to the newer cephalosporins have appeared in Greece.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02233-10
PMCID: PMC3122876  PMID: 21248096
23.  Low frequency haplotypes of E-selectin polymorphisms G2692A and C1901T give increased protection from coronary artery disease 
Summary
Background
E-selectin polymorphisms are an independent atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the link between the C1901T and G2692A E-selectin tagging SNPs and their haplotypes and the extent of coronary artery disease in Polish patients.
Material/Methods
For this study 321 patients were recruited CAD extent by coronary angiography and E selectin gene variant were investigated using HapMap, PCR/RFLP, multivariate logistic regression and haplotype analysis.
Results
Frequency distributions of the C1901T and G2692A polymorphisms were significantly different in CAD patients as compared to control subjects (p=0.037 and p=0.025, respectively). The C1901T polymorphism was found to be an independent genetic predictor of risk of CAD (OR=3.01) in a multivariate model adjusted for classic, environmental risk factors. The A-C and G-T haplotypes showed the strongest significant associations with CAD. The A-C haplotype proved to be significantly more common in controls (haplotype frequency 9.2%) than in CAD (5.7%, p=0.048); the G-T haplotype was not found among control subjects (0.0%) but was found in CAD (1.3%, p=0.0099).
Conclusions
Associations between the C1901T and G2692A E-selectin polymorphisms and CAD in the Polish population were found. Investigated variants correlated with the risk of coronary artery disease development but not with the extent of coronary artery vascular changes. In the haplotype analysis, 2 haplotypes influenced CAD – the A-C haplotype (7%) proved to exert a protective effect against CAD, while the effect of the less frequent G-T haplotype (1%) was associated with significant increase in CAD risk.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881806
PMCID: PMC3539538  PMID: 21629188
coronary artery disease; E-selectin; gene polymorphism; arteriosclerosis
24.  A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini) 
ZooKeys  2013;1-297.
Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.), with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887a), Baconia jubaris (Lewis, 1901), Baconia festiva (Lewis, 1891), Baconia foliosoma sp. n., Baconia sapphirina sp. n., Baconia furtiva sp. n., Baconia pernix sp. n., Baconia applanatis sp. n., Baconia disciformis sp. n., Baconia nebulosa sp. n., Baconia brunnea sp. n.], Baconia godmani group [Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888), Baconia venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845), Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n., Baconia scintillans sp. n., Baconia isthmia sp. n., Baconia rossi sp. n., Baconia navarretei sp. n., Baconia maculata sp. n., Baconia deliberata sp. n., Baconia excelsa sp. n., Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853), Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia dives (Marseul, 1862), Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888), Baconia splendida sp. n., Baconia jacinta sp. n., Baconia prasina sp. n., Baconia opulenta sp. n., Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900), Baconia choaspites (Lewis, 1901), Baconia lewisi Mazur, 1984], Baconia salobrus group [Baconia salobrus (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia turgifrons sp. n., Baconia crassa sp. n., Baconia anthracina sp. n., Baconia emarginata sp. n., Baconia obsoleta sp. n.], Baconia ruficauda group [Baconia ruficauda sp. n., Baconia repens sp. n.], Baconia angusta group [Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Baconia incognita sp. n., Baconia guartela sp. n., Baconia bullifrons sp. n., Baconia cavei sp. n., Baconia subtilis sp. n., Baconia dentipes sp. n., Baconia rubripennis sp. n., Baconia lunatifrons sp. n.], Baconia aeneomicans group [Baconia aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), Baconia pulchella sp. n., Baconia quercea sp. n., Baconia stephani sp. n., Baconia irinae sp. n., Baconia fornix sp. n., Baconia slipinskii Mazur, 1981, Baconia submetallica sp. n., Baconia diminua sp. n., Baconia rufescens sp. n., Baconia punctiventer sp. n., Baconia aulaea sp. n., Baconia mustax sp. n., Baconia plebeia sp. n., Baconia castanea sp. n., Baconia lescheni sp. n., Baconia oblonga sp. n., Baconia animata sp. n., Baconia teredina sp. n., Baconia chujoi (Cooman, 1941), Baconia barbarus (Cooman, 1934), Baconia reposita sp. n., Baconia kubani sp. n., Baconia wallacea sp. n., Baconia bigemina sp. n., Baconia adebratti sp. n., Baconia silvestris sp. n.], Baconia cylindrica group [Baconia cylindrica sp. n., Baconia chatzimanolisi sp. n.], Baconia gibbifer group [Baconia gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., Baconia maquipucunae sp. n., Baconia tenuipes sp. n., Baconia tuberculifer sp. n., Baconia globosa sp. n.], Baconia insolita group [Baconia insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., Baconia burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), Baconia tricolor sp. n., Baconia pilicauda sp. n.], Baconia riouka group [Baconia riouka (Marseul, 1861), Baconia azuripennis sp. n.], Baconia famelica group [Baconia famelica sp. n., Baconia grossii sp. n., Baconia redemptor sp. n., Baconia fortis sp. n., Baconia longipes sp. n., Baconia katieae sp. n., Baconia cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., Baconia haeterioides sp. n.], Baconia micans group [Baconia micans (Schmidt, 1889a), Baconia carinifrons sp. n., Baconia fulgida (Schmidt, 1889c)], Baconia incertae sedis [Baconia chilense (Redtenbacher, 1867), Baconia glauca (Marseul, 1884), Baconia coerulea (Bickhardt, 1917), Baconia angulifrons sp. n., Baconia sanguinea sp. n., Baconia viridimicans (Schmidt, 1893b), Baconia nayarita sp. n., Baconia viridis sp. n., Baconia purpurata sp. n., Baconia aenea sp. n., Baconia clemens sp. n., Baconia leivasi sp. n., Baconia atricolor sp. n.]. We designate lectotypes for the following species: Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885,Phelister gounellei Marseul, 1887, Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901, Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891, Platysoma venustum J.E. LeConte, 1845, Phelister riehli Marseul, 1862, Phelister violaceus Marseul, 1853, Phelister varicolor Marseul, 1887b, Phelister illustris Lewis, 1900, Baconia choaspites Lewis, 1901, Epierus festivus Lewis, 1898, Phelister salobrus Marseul, 1887, Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Phelister insolitus Schmidt, 1893a, Pachycraerus burmeisteri Marseul, 1870, Phelister riouka Marseul, 1861, Homalopygus cavifrons Lewis, 1893, Phelister micans Schmidt, 1889a, Phelister coeruleus Bickhardt, 1917, and Phelister viridimicans Schmidt, 1893b. We designate neotypes for Baconia patula Lewis, 1885 and Hister aeneomicans Horn, 1873, whose type specimens are lost.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.343.5744
PMCID: PMC3817432  PMID: 24194656
Histeridae; Histerinae; Exosternini; taxonomy; subcortical; Neotropical region; Nearctic region; Palaearctic region; Oriental region
25.  Progressive massive fibrosis and simple pneumoconiosis in ex-miners. 
A group of 17 738 working miners, medically examined during 1953-8, were followed up from 1974 to 1980. Of the 7118 men re-examined, 2547 were still working miners and 4526 had left the industry (45 were of unrecorded status). The incidence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) over an average follow up period of 22 years among men who had remained in the industry was 27 per 1000, but 94 per 1000 among men who had left. This difference was only partly related to the difference in age between the groups; for men without simple pneumoconiosis at the start of the period, and for similar age groups (45-64), the attack rate in miners was 20 per 1000 and in the ex-miners 41 per 1000. In a group of 1902 leavers who did not have PMF at a medical examination conducted at most four years before leaving, 172 had developed PMF by the time of the follow up examination. Of these, 116 had had simple pneumoconiosis at the earlier examination. Cumulative exposure to respirable dust, category of simple pneumoconiosis, and age were each found to influence the probability of developing PMF in a subgroup of the 1902 men. Among the 1902 leavers, there was no overall progression or regression of simple pneumoconiosis.
PMCID: PMC1007568  PMID: 4063216

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