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1.  Protein A gold identification of ureaplasmas on the bovine zona pellucida. 
The object of this study was to develop a prefixation protein A gold labelling technique for Ureaplasma diversum and to apply this to bovine embryos. Sixteen hour cultures of Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 were incubated with either specific antiserum or nonimmune serum, followed by exposure to protein A gold and negative staining. The ureaplasmas which were incubated with specific antiserum were labelled with gold particles while those ureaplasmas which were incubated with nonimmune serum were not labelled. Twenty-three unhatched, day 7 bovine embryos were then incubated in either embryo culture medium (ECM) alone, ECM with sterile ureaplasma broth added or ECM with 1.7 X 10(6) colony forming units of Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 per embryo. After 16 hours, the embryos were washed twice and incubated with either specific antiserum or nonimmune serum. The embryos were then incubated with medium containing protein A gold and examined by electron microscopy. No ureaplasmas were identified on the zona pellucida of the control embryos. Ureaplasmas were identified on the outer surface of the zona pellucida of 13 of the 17 embryos which had been exposed to the organism. Of these, the embryos which were incubated with specific antiserum had labelled ureaplasmas while the embryos which were incubated with nonimmune serum had unlabelled ureaplasmas on the zona pellucida. It was concluded that the protein A gold method was a suitable technique for the identification of ureaplasmas in EM preparations. The presence of ureaplasmas on the outer surface of the bovine zona pellucida following in vitro exposure to the organism was confirmed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1255543  PMID: 2469532
2.  Effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants: quantitative measurement using a calmodulin assay. 
Calmodulin (CAM) acts as an intracellular regulator of calcium, an important mediator of many cell processes. We used the CAM assay and electron microscopy to investigate the effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants obtained aseptically from slaughtered cows. A stock suspension of U. diversum (treated specimens) and sterile broth (controls) was added to replicates of cultured explants and incubated at 38 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 for 48 hours. Explants were examined for ciliary activity, extracellular CAM loss, and for histological and ultrastructural changes. Explants and their culture media were examined for changes in CAM concentration. All experiments were replicated three times. In addition, U. diversum, medium and broth were assayed for CAM content. The concentrations of CAM in explants and media changed significantly (p < 0.05) in samples which were inoculated with U. diversum when compared to controls. The controls and infected specimens did not differ histologically or ultrastructurally, but U. diversum was seen to be closely associated with infected explant tissue. In view of this close affinity it is assumed the loss of CAM from the oviductal cells was causally related, but this was not proven. The failure to show cell membrane injury on light and electron microscopic examination was probably related to the short duration of the experiment and may only point out the sensitivity of the CAM assay in detecting early cell membrane injury. Compromise in characteristics of the medium to support both, the viability of oviductal cells and U. diversum limited the experimental time to 48 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1263676  PMID: 8004536
3.  The effect of intrauterine inoculation with Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility. 
To determine the influence of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility 11 uninfected virgin heifers with normal ovarian cyclic activity were randomly allocated to test or control groups. At a synchronized estrus, five test heifers were given an intrauterine broth inoculum containing 1.09 x 10(8) to 1.4 x 10(9) colony forming units of U. diversum and six control animals were infused with sterile ureaplasma broth medium. All animals were artificially inseminated within one hour of infusion. Pregnancy was diagnosed in one of five test heifers and all of six controls by serum progesterone concentrations measured to 25 days postinsemination. The difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0152). It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment U. diversum is capable of causing infertility in cattle.
PMCID: PMC1255361  PMID: 3453263
4.  Ureaplasma diversum infection in vitro alters prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a production by bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(5):1528-1533.
Bovine epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium were inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum, pathogenic strain 2312, at 10(6) or 10(3) color-changing units (ccu)/ml in the presence of 1% fetal bovine serum (depleted of steroids by dextran-charcoal treatment) to assess the effect of infection on prostaglandin biosynthesis. When the inoculum of U. diversum was 10(6) ccu/ml, the concentration of U. diversum in the culture medium decreased with time. U. diversum was found on the epithelial and stromal cell monolayers, increasing in titer 100-fold, indicating that attachment and eventually growth occurred. When the inoculum was 10(3) ccu/ml, the titer of U. diversum remained the same or increased in the supernatant and increased on epithelial and stromal cells. The effect of infection was evaluated by measurement of the primary prostaglandin produced by each cell type, prostaglandin F2a for epithelial cells and prostaglandin E2 for stromal cells. Infection with U. diversum significantly decreased prostaglandin F2a accumulation, by 44.7% +/- 6.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005) and 15.8% +/- 5.3% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.05) in epithelial cells. Prostaglandin E2 accumulation by stromal cells was decreased by 34.0% +/- 4.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.001) and by 13.5% +/- 2.7% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005). Infection with 10(6) ccu/ml did not alter endometrial cell viability, as shown by protein measurement, trypan blue dye exclusion, and cell plating efficiency tests. Thus, alterations in prostaglandin production were not due to cell deterioration. These observations suggest that U. diversum can alter prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a patterns in primary cultures of bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability.
PMCID: PMC186347  PMID: 8168914
5.  Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:455.
Background
Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay.
Findings
U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids.
Conclusions
The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-455
PMCID: PMC3219583  PMID: 22032232
Ureaplasma diversum; bovine spermatozoid; invasion; confocal microscopy
6.  Immune response of heifers to vaginal submucosal or subcutaneous vaccination and intravaginal challenge with Ureaplasma diversum. 
Twenty beef heifers were randomly assigned to five equal groups and vaccinated: Group 1--in vaginal submucosa (VM) with Ureaplasma diversum ultrasonicated whole cells (WC) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA); Group 2--in VM with U. diversum cell membranes (CM) in CFA; Group 3--subcutaneously (SC) with CM in CFA; Group 4--in VM with CM alone; and Group 5--in VM with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in CFA. A second vaccination with the same antigens in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was given after four weeks, and three weeks later, all heifers were challenged intravaginally with 3.6 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of U. diversum strain 2312. Immunoglobulins that reacted with U. diversum were measured in serum and cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. In groups 1 and 2, vaccination by the VM route with WC or CM antigens, stimulated high levels of U. diversum-reactive IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies in serum as well as CVM, but a low IgA response only in CVM. In group 4, VM vaccination with CM (no adjuvant) elicited a minimal IgG1 and IgG2 response in serum and CVM. In group 3, SC vaccination with CM antigen stimulated high IgG1 and IgG2 reactivity in both serum and CVM, but no IgA reactivity. Very little IgM reactivity was detected in the four vaccinated groups. Intravaginal challenge resulted in characteristic granular vulvitis in all vaccinated and control heifers, with all animals remaining culture-positive for the 35 day observation period. The infection stimulated a marked increase in the specific IgA response in CVM of the three groups vaccinated with either, adjuvanted antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1263675  PMID: 8004535
7.  Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan 
We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.
Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.
PMCID: PMC1481172  PMID: 17423929
8.  Mycoplasmas and bovine respiratory disease: studies related to pathogenicity and the immune response--a selective review. 
Three species of mycoplasma have been established as being of importance as causes of pneumonia in housed calves, based on pathogenicity studies and frequency of association with the disease. These three species are Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum. M. bovis is the most pathogenic of these species but the disease outbreaks with which it is associated are sporadic. M. dispar is regularly isolated from pneumonic calves but is also found causing mild superficial and asymptomatic infections of the respiratory mucosa. The bovine ureaplasmas are serologically complex. They are distinct from ureaplasmas isolated from other non-ruminants by PAGE analysis, G + C content of DNA, and serology. A second species within the genus ureaplasma has been proposed to accommodate the bovine ureaplasmas, U. diversum. Control of mycoplasma respiratory infections of cattle based on immunization might be possible. Calves have been immunized against M. bovis and immunity has been related to antibody in the lung. M. dispar appears less immunogenic in calves than M. bovis and this may contribute to its pathogenicity.
PMCID: PMC2590553  PMID: 6382831
9.  Ureaplasma infection of cell cultures. 
Infection and Immunity  1986;52(2):437-444.
Studies were performed to characterize the effects of ureaplasmas in HeLa, 3T6, and CV-1 cell cultures. The ureaplasmas studied were human Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 (serotype VIII), bovine U. diversum T95, simian strain T167-2, ovine strain 1202, canine strain D1M-C, and feline strains 382 and FT2-B. FT2-B was the only ureaplasma to grow in the cell free culture medium, Dulbecco modified Eagle-Earle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The growth pattern of the ureaplasmas varied in the different cell cultures, but each strain grew in at least two of the cell cultures, suggesting a requirement for a product of the cell culture and for low concentrations of urea. When growth occurred, organisms grew to concentrations that approached, but did not equal, those observed in 10B broth. Most, but not all, ureaplasmas grew quickly, reaching peak titers 2 days after infection. Canine strain D1M-C did not grow in 3T6, but showed rapid growth in HeLa and CV-1 cells, killing both cultures, In some systems, e.g., U. urealyticum T960 and simian strain T167-2, the infection persisted, and ureaplasmas could be recovered from cell cultures four passages after infection, when studies were terminated. The cell culture ureaplasmas grew on T agar, but not on mycoplasma agar medium.
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PMCID: PMC261018  PMID: 3699891
10.  Activation of murine macrophages and lymphocytes by Ureaplasma diversum. 
Ureaplasma diversum is a pathogen in the bovine reproductive tract. The objective of the research was to study interactions with macrophages and lymphocytes which might elucidate aspects of pathogenetic mechanisms of this organism. We studied the activation of murine macrophages of C3H/HeN (LPS-responder) and C3H/HeJ (LPS-low-responder) genotype for TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 and nitric oxide production and blastogenic response of C3H/HeJ splenocytes after Ureaplasma diversum stimulation. Live and heat-killed U. diversum induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 in peritoneal macrophage cultures of both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice in a dose dependent manner. Interferon-gamma modulated the cytokine production, by increasing the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide, but IL-1 secretion was only enhanced in C3H/HeJ macrophages stimulated by live ureaplasmas. Supernatant of U. diversum sonicate was mitogenic for murine spleen lymphocytes. The blastogenic response was dose dependent, and stimulation with both U. diversum and Concanavalin A seemed to have an additive effect. These results suggest that U. diversum, similar to other mycoplasmas, activates murine macrophages and lymphoid cells. The studies should be repeated with bovine cells in order to elucidate pathogenetic aspects of inflammation in cattle caused by U. diversum.
PMCID: PMC1263712  PMID: 7889459
11.  Rapid identification of mycoplasmas by indirect immunoperoxidase test using small square filter paper. 
The indirect immunoperoxidase test using small, square filter paper was used for rapid identification of mycoplasmas. Colonies of type strains of 22 mycoplasma species, 3 acholeplasma species, and three Ureaplasma diversum serogroups were stained by this test with high sensitivity and specificity. All of 49 isolates from bovine materials and cell cultures were easily identified by this test, and the results agreed with those obtained by growth inhibition test. Use of filter paper made it possible to add different kinds of antisera or conjugates to the same agar plate simultaneously and also to save antiserum and conjugate. This test proved to be a simple and useful technique for rapid identification of many mycoplasma species grown on agar medium.
PMCID: PMC265805  PMID: 3539989
12.  The effects of two Ureaplasma diversum strains on early pregnancy in heifers. 
Two field isolates of Ureaplasma diversum spp. were used to infect heifers at the time of insemination in a preliminary study to observe the effect of infection on early pregnancy. M84-14c-1 was a field isolate from a bull's prepuce typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-44 (Group C). M84-477c-4 was a field isolate from bovine semen typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-288 (Group A). All three heifers infected with M84-477c-4 had a mild granular vulvitis at some time during the trial. None was pregnant when slaughtered 27 days after infection. The result of infection with M84-14c-1, a preputial isolate, was not consistent. One heifer had no infection and a normal pregnancy, one heifer was infected with an abnormal pregnancy, and one heifer was open but ureaplasmas were not detected until day 17 of the trial.
PMCID: PMC1255382  PMID: 3453276
13.  Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro. 
The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.
PMCID: PMC187660  PMID: 8452363
14.  Humoral and secretory antibodies to Ureaplasma diversum in heifers following subcutaneous vaccination and vaginal infection. 
We measured antibody levels in serum and cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) of four heifers vaccinated with two inoculations of killed Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) two weeks apart, and six heifers given a placebo. Two weeks later, the vaccinates and four placebo heifers, were challenged by intravaginal inoculation with 6.4 x 10(8) colony-forming units of the homologous U. diversum strain. The remaining two placebo heifers served as unvaccinated, unchallenged controls. Antibody levels in serum and CVM of all heifers were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaccination stimulated specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses in serum and CVM but only a slight IgM and no IgA response. In both vaccinate and placebo heifers, subsequent intravaginal challenge resulted in a granular vulvitis (GV) with a predominant IgA response in the CVM. The GV gradually subsided during the 35 day observation period but ureaplasmas were consistently demonstrated by culture. We concluded that subcutaneous vaccination stimulated a specific, albeit nonprotective, IgG response in serum and CVM. In contrast, vaginal infection primarily induced a mucosal IgA response.
PMCID: PMC1263674  PMID: 8004534
15.  Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in Hep-2 cells 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:83.
Background
Understanding mollicutes is challenging due to their variety and relationship with host cells. Invasion has explained issues related to their opportunistic role. Few studies have been done on the Ureaplasma diversum mollicute, which is detected in healthy or diseased bovine. The invasion in Hep-2 cells of four clinical isolates and two reference strains of their ureaplasma was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay.
Results
The isolates and strains used were detected inside the cells after infection of one minute without difference in the arrangement for adhesion and invasion. The adhesion was scattered throughout the cells, and after three hours, the invasion of the ureaplasmas surrounded the nuclear region but were not observed inside the nuclei. The gentamicin invasion assay detected that 1% of the ATCC strains were inside the infected Hep-2 cells in contrast to 10% to the clinical isolates. A high level of phospholipase C activity was also detected in all studied ureaplasma.
Conclusions
The results presented herein will help better understand U. diversum infections, aswell as cellular attachment and virulence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-83
PMCID: PMC2907839  PMID: 20236540
16.  Evaluation of the developmental competence and chromosomal compliment of mouse oocytes derived from in-vitro growth and maturation of preantral follicles 
Purpose
To evaluate the developmental potential and aneuploidy rates of in-vitro versus in-vivo grown and matured mouse oocytes.
Methods
Mice were superovulated to obtain in-vivo matured oocytes. Mouse preantral follicles were also mechanically isolated and cultured in-vitro. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed and fertilization, cleavage, and morula/blastocyst formation rates were compared between groups. Cytogenetic analysis was used to compare oocyte aneuploidy rates and aneuploidy characteristics in the developing embryos.
Results
In-vivo oocyte maturation resulted in higher IVF fertilization, cleavage, and morula/blastocyst formation rates versus in-vitro follicle culture (96.4% versus 78.5%, p < 0.001; 95.3% versus 77.4%, p < 0.001; 94.1% versus 76.9%, p < 0.001). Total aneuploidy rates were higher in embryos derived from in-vitro matured oocytes versus those grown in-vivo (4.0% versus 1.3%, p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Results indicate a reduced developmental competency of in-vitro matured oocytes. The data also highlight an increased susceptibility to meiotic errors in early stage follicles undergoing in vitro culture.
doi:10.1007/s10815-008-9201-x
PMCID: PMC2582109  PMID: 18253824
Aneuploidy; Follicle; In-vitro; Maturation; Mosaicism; Oocyte
17.  ANIMAL EXPERIENCE: Development of a Well-Defined Medium for the In Vitro Maturation of Immature Bovine Cumulus–Oocyte Complexes 
Purpose: Our purpose was to develop a well-defined medium for the in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COC).
Methods: The COC were cultured in the presence of three protein supplementations: fetal bovine serum (FBS), bovine serum albumin, and Synthetic Serum Substitute. The embryos obtained after in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes were cocultured with Vero cells and their development to the morula and blastocyst stages was studied.
Results: When FBS was absent from the IVM medium, a significantly lower fertilization rate was observed, followed by a decrease in the percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. When FBS was replaced by a defined protein supplementation, the best results were obtained with Synthetic Serum Substitute.
Conclusions: Adequate protein supplementation of the IVM medium optimizes the fertilization rate and the development of bovine IVM oocytes. The implication of these results in the human field is discussed.
doi:10.1023/A:1026534725483
PMCID: PMC3455556  PMID: 11285988
In vitro maturation; oocyte; follicle; ovary; bovine
18.  Long-distance transportation of primate embryos developing in culture: a preliminary study 
Reproductive biomedicine online  2009;20(3):365-370.
Non-human primate embryos are invaluable for conducting research relevant to human infertility and stem cells, but their availability is restricted. In this preliminary study, rhesus monkey embryos were produced by IVF at the Caribbean Primate Research Centre and shipped in tubes of gassed culture medium within a battery-powered transport incubator by overnight courier to Wayne State University in Michigan. Upon arrival, the embryos were incubated in fresh culture medium to evaluate further development. In 11 shipments comprising 98 cleavage-stage embryos developing from oocytes that were mature (MII) upon collection, 51 (52%) reached advanced preimplantation stages (morula to hatched blastocyst) during prolonged culture following transportation. However, most embryos produced from oocytes that were immature (MI) at collection arrested and only 5/51 (10%) reached advanced stages of development. This study demonstrates that non-cryopreserved primate embryos can be routinely transported between distant sites without loss of developmental ability. In this way, the processes of production and study of non-cryopreserved primate embryos need not be restricted to the same or nearby laboratories. This will expand the use of these embryos for research and facilitate generation of translationally relevant information.
doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.11.026
PMCID: PMC2829350  PMID: 20093089
blastocyst; embryo culture; embryo transportation; in-vitro fertilization; rhesus monkey
19.  Amniotic fluid and maternal race influence responsiveness of fetal membranes to bacteria☆ 
Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM) occur more frequently in African-American women than in other racial groups. This may be due to an enhanced inflammatory response to pathogens associated with the condition. It is also possible that amniotic fluid (AF) has different immunomodulatory properties in African-American women that increase their risk of PTB and pPROM. To test this, we cultured fetal membranes from European-American and African-American women with sterile medium (control), Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Group B streptococci (GBS), Polyporphorans gingivalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum in the presence and absence of 50% autologous AF. Cytokine concentrations were quantified in the conditioned medium. All bacterial species increased IL-8 production. IL-1β and TNF-α production were stimulated by LPS, E. coli, and G. vaginalis compared with control, but responses to Group B streptococci and P. gingivalis were limited to IL-1β and TNF-α respectively. Genital mycoplasmas stimulated TNF-α and IL-10 but had no effect on IL-1β production. African-Americans had twice the IL-1β response to E. coli as European-Americans (P = 0.031). Conversely, European-Americans produced more IL-8 in response to LPS than African-Americans (P = 0.026). AF had both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that varied between races and pathogens. These results suggest that the host response to fetal membrane infections is complex and not generalizable. Interventions to prevent PTB and pPROM may need to be customized based on a patient’s race, type of bacterial infection and factors in her AF.
doi:10.1016/j.jri.2012.07.006
PMCID: PMC3596009  PMID: 23021257
Preterm birth; Race; Amniotic fluid; Infection; Genital mycoplasma
20.  Isolation of Ureaplasma from bovine granular vulvitis. 
Cultures for mycoplasmatales, viruses and bacteria were made from bovine vulvar swabs to determine whether ureaplasma was associated with a clinical granular vulvitis observed in 16 Ontario dairy herds. Ureaplasma was isolated from 23.5% of 34 clinically normal cows, 74% of 27 cows with mild to moderate vulvar hyperemia but no discharge and 100% of 20 cows with acute vulvar hyperemia accompanied by purulent discharge. There were statistically significant differences in rates of isolation among clinical groups. Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 7.7% and 20% of cows with moderate or acute vulvitis respectively but not from normal cows. Haemophilus somnus was isolated from 25% of cows with acute vulvitis. There were no significant differences in isolations of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium pyogenes and alpha-hemolytic streptococcus between normal and clinically affected animals. Cultures of 135 repeat samples from 33 cows revealed that ureaplasma persisted in some animals for at least three months. No viruses were isolated from any of the animals in this study.
PMCID: PMC1277608  PMID: 352491
21.  Experimental Bovine Genital Ureaplasmosis II. Granular Vulvitis, Endometritis and Salpingitis Following Uterine Inoculation 
Twenty-three virgin Holstein heifers received uterine inoculations with ureaplasma and were necropsied one to thirteen days later. Three heifers inoculated intracervically were necropsied on days 3, 5 and 11.
Granular vulvitis was produced on average by 3.6 days in fourteen of sixteen uterine inoculated heifers monitored for four or more days. Two cervically inoculated heifers monitored for over four days also developed granular vulvitis by the fourth day.
At necropsy, ureaplasma was recovered from 94% of uterine horn cultures for the first four days postinoculation and 50% during days 5 to 7. Thereafter all uterine cultures were negative. The percentage of positive ureaplasma recoveries from uterine tube flushings was lower than for uterine horns but remained positive for a longer period. By day 7, three of four uterine tube flushings were still positive. No bacterial pathogens were isolated from the uterine horns or uterine tube flushings.
On histopathology 50% of uterine inoculated heifers had endometritis up to six days postinoculation and a slightly higher percentage (58%) had salpingitis. Endometritis was not found in any heifers after day 6. Residual salpingitis was present in one heifer on day 7. Endometritis was present in cervically inoculated heifers necropsied on days 3 and 5 but not on day 11. Salpingitis was not found in any of the three cervically inoculated animals.
The study concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic for the upper reproductive tract of the cow and should be considered significant when isolated from cases of granular vulvitis, endometritis or salpingitis.
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PMCID: PMC1320071  PMID: 7427773
22.  Effect of Ovarian Cyclic Status on In Vitro Embryo Production in Cattle 
Background
The relationship between cyclic status of cattle ovaries on in vitro embryo development up to the blastocyst stage was investigated.
Materials and Methods
Cattle ovaries were collected immediately after slaughter and divided into three categories based on their cyclic status, which included: 1. the presence of a large follicle (LF), 2. the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) and 3. ovaries without LF or CL (WLCF). Oocytes of these ovaries were obtained and used for in vitro maturation and fertilization. Presumptive zygotes were then cultured up to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal fluid culture medium.
Results
There were no significant differences between cleavage rates of the three groups. The rate of embryos in the compact morula stage for the CL group was 48.2% which was significantly higher than the related rate of the LF group (36.6%), but non-significantly higher than that of the ST group (45.7%). The highest blastocyst rate belonged to the CL group (54.6%) which was significantly greater than the WLCF group (32.9%) and non-significantly higher than the LF group (52.4%). There was no significant difference in blastocyst rates in the CL and LF groups.
Conclusion
Preselection of oocyte donor ovaries containing a CL or LF can be used as a feasible and non- invasive criterion to obtain the most competent oocytes capable of development to the blastocyst stage.
PMCID: PMC4023504  PMID: 24851178
Embryo; Estrous Cycle; Cattle; Ovary
23.  Effect of chilling on the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos at various cleavage stages 
Purpose: Bovine embryos and zygotes are known to be sensitive to “temperature shock” when cooled to temperatures near 0°C. The effect of chilling on in vitro derived embryos at various cleavage stages was investigated.
Methods: Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium with serum. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in serum free in vitro culture (IVC) medium. Embryos were used as chilled or control samples at the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. Embryos in 0.2 mL PBS in plastic straws were cooled rapidly in ethanol baths at 0°C for 30 min. Embryo viability was assessed by in vitro development.
Results: The percentage of control embryos that hatched as blastocysts increased the later stage at which they were selected. Relative proportion of embryos increased from 28% to 48% to 68% when chilled at the 8-cell, morula or blastocyst stages.
Conclusions: IVF-produced embryos are differentially susceptible to cooling injury. Cell counts made of those blastocysts formed from chilled embryos indicated subtle effects of chilling.
doi:10.1007/s10815-005-9018-9
PMCID: PMC3454902  PMID: 16496207
Bovine; cell number; chilling; IVF embryos; viability
24.  Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. I. Granular vulvitis following vulvar inoculation. 
Granular vulvitis was reproduced in ten virgin heifers following vulvar inoculation with strains of ureaplasma previously isolated from natural cases. The disease appeared one to three days postinoculation and was characterized by vulvar swabs but not from the upper mucopurulent discharge. At necropsy 13 to 41 days later, ureaplasmas were recovered consistently from vulvar swabs but not from the upper reproductive tract. It was concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic and should be viewed as a cause of bovine granular vulvitis.
PMCID: PMC1320070  PMID: 7427772
25.  Characterization of a Murine Model of Ureaplasma urealyticum Pneumonia  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(10):5721-5729.
Ureaplasma urealyticum respiratory tract colonization in preterm infants has been associated with a high incidence of pneumonia and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, study of this human pathogen has been hampered by the absence of animal models. We have developed the first juvenile mouse model of Ureaplasma pneumonia and characterized the histopathology during the month following inoculation. C3H/HeN mice were inoculated intratracheally with a mouse-adapted clinical Ureaplasma isolate (biovar 2) or sham inoculated with 10B broth. Culture of lung homogenates and PCR of DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) confirmed the presence of Ureaplasma in 100% of inoculated animals at 1 day, 60% at 2 days, 50% at 3 days, and 25% at 7 and 14 days. Ureaplasma was undetectable 28 days postinoculation. There were marked changes in BAL and interstitial-cell composition with increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes 1 to 2 days and 14 days postinoculation and macrophages at 2 and 14 days postinoculation. The Ureaplasma infection caused a persistent focal loss of airway ciliated epithelium and a mild increase in interstitial cellularity. There were no differences in BAL protein concentration during the first 28 days, suggesting that pulmonary vascular endothelial barrier integrity remained intact. Comparison of BAL cytokine and chemokine concentrations revealed low levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at 3 days and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 at 7 days in Ureaplasma-infected mice but a trend toward increased TNF-α at 14 days and increased granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 at 28 days. These data suggest that Ureaplasma alone may cause limited inflammation and minimal tissue injury in the early phase of infection but may promote a mild chronic inflammatory response in the later phase of infection (days 14 to 28), similar to the process that occurs in human newborns.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.10.5721-5729.2002
PMCID: PMC128302  PMID: 12228302

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