Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in the cow experimentally and in naturally occurring cases. However, the pathogenic mechanism is undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ureaplasmas are pathogenic for bovine morulae in vitro. Twenty-one morulae were recovered from three superovulated, mature, Holstein cows six or seven days postestrus. The embryos were divided into three groups (A,B,C) and incubated for 16 hours at 37 degrees C in humidified air with 10% CO2. Group A was incubated in embryo culture medium alone, Group B was incubated in culture medium with sterile ureaplasma broth added and Group C was incubated in culture medium containing 1.7 X 10(6) colony forming units Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312. After incubation, the morulae were examined using an electron microscope. Structures morphologically identical to U. diversum were present on the outer surface of the zonae pellucidae of all the morulae exposed to the organism and none were present on the unexposed control embryos. No other morphological differences were observed in either the ureaplasma-exposed embryos or the two groups of control embryos. Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from three of the five embryos incubated in culture medium with sterile ureaplasma broth added. These three embryos were recovered from one donor cow which cultured positive for U. diversum from the vulva and flush fluid. This finding suggests that the contaminating organisms entered the embryo culture wells either in the embryo collection medium or attached to the embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bovine epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium were inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum, pathogenic strain 2312, at 10(6) or 10(3) color-changing units (ccu)/ml in the presence of 1% fetal bovine serum (depleted of steroids by dextran-charcoal treatment) to assess the effect of infection on prostaglandin biosynthesis. When the inoculum of U. diversum was 10(6) ccu/ml, the concentration of U. diversum in the culture medium decreased with time. U. diversum was found on the epithelial and stromal cell monolayers, increasing in titer 100-fold, indicating that attachment and eventually growth occurred. When the inoculum was 10(3) ccu/ml, the titer of U. diversum remained the same or increased in the supernatant and increased on epithelial and stromal cells. The effect of infection was evaluated by measurement of the primary prostaglandin produced by each cell type, prostaglandin F2a for epithelial cells and prostaglandin E2 for stromal cells. Infection with U. diversum significantly decreased prostaglandin F2a accumulation, by 44.7% +/- 6.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005) and 15.8% +/- 5.3% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.05) in epithelial cells. Prostaglandin E2 accumulation by stromal cells was decreased by 34.0% +/- 4.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.001) and by 13.5% +/- 2.7% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005). Infection with 10(6) ccu/ml did not alter endometrial cell viability, as shown by protein measurement, trypan blue dye exclusion, and cell plating efficiency tests. Thus, alterations in prostaglandin production were not due to cell deterioration. These observations suggest that U. diversum can alter prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a patterns in primary cultures of bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability.
Studies were performed to characterize the effects of ureaplasmas in HeLa, 3T6, and CV-1 cell cultures. The ureaplasmas studied were human Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 (serotype VIII), bovine U. diversum T95, simian strain T167-2, ovine strain 1202, canine strain D1M-C, and feline strains 382 and FT2-B. FT2-B was the only ureaplasma to grow in the cell free culture medium, Dulbecco modified Eagle-Earle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The growth pattern of the ureaplasmas varied in the different cell cultures, but each strain grew in at least two of the cell cultures, suggesting a requirement for a product of the cell culture and for low concentrations of urea. When growth occurred, organisms grew to concentrations that approached, but did not equal, those observed in 10B broth. Most, but not all, ureaplasmas grew quickly, reaching peak titers 2 days after infection. Canine strain D1M-C did not grow in 3T6, but showed rapid growth in HeLa and CV-1 cells, killing both cultures, In some systems, e.g., U. urealyticum T960 and simian strain T167-2, the infection persisted, and ureaplasmas could be recovered from cell cultures four passages after infection, when studies were terminated. The cell culture ureaplasmas grew on T agar, but not on mycoplasma agar medium.
Calmodulin (CAM) acts as an intracellular regulator of calcium, an important mediator of many cell processes. We used the CAM assay and electron microscopy to investigate the effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants obtained aseptically from slaughtered cows. A stock suspension of U. diversum (treated specimens) and sterile broth (controls) was added to replicates of cultured explants and incubated at 38 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 for 48 hours. Explants were examined for ciliary activity, extracellular CAM loss, and for histological and ultrastructural changes. Explants and their culture media were examined for changes in CAM concentration. All experiments were replicated three times. In addition, U. diversum, medium and broth were assayed for CAM content. The concentrations of CAM in explants and media changed significantly (p < 0.05) in samples which were inoculated with U. diversum when compared to controls. The controls and infected specimens did not differ histologically or ultrastructurally, but U. diversum was seen to be closely associated with infected explant tissue. In view of this close affinity it is assumed the loss of CAM from the oviductal cells was causally related, but this was not proven. The failure to show cell membrane injury on light and electron microscopic examination was probably related to the short duration of the experiment and may only point out the sensitivity of the CAM assay in detecting early cell membrane injury. Compromise in characteristics of the medium to support both, the viability of oviductal cells and U. diversum limited the experimental time to 48 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Twenty beef heifers were randomly assigned to five equal groups and vaccinated: Group 1--in vaginal submucosa (VM) with Ureaplasma diversum ultrasonicated whole cells (WC) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA); Group 2--in VM with U. diversum cell membranes (CM) in CFA; Group 3--subcutaneously (SC) with CM in CFA; Group 4--in VM with CM alone; and Group 5--in VM with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in CFA. A second vaccination with the same antigens in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was given after four weeks, and three weeks later, all heifers were challenged intravaginally with 3.6 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of U. diversum strain 2312. Immunoglobulins that reacted with U. diversum were measured in serum and cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. In groups 1 and 2, vaccination by the VM route with WC or CM antigens, stimulated high levels of U. diversum-reactive IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies in serum as well as CVM, but a low IgA response only in CVM. In group 4, VM vaccination with CM (no adjuvant) elicited a minimal IgG1 and IgG2 response in serum and CVM. In group 3, SC vaccination with CM antigen stimulated high IgG1 and IgG2 reactivity in both serum and CVM, but no IgA reactivity. Very little IgM reactivity was detected in the four vaccinated groups. Intravaginal challenge resulted in characteristic granular vulvitis in all vaccinated and control heifers, with all animals remaining culture-positive for the 35 day observation period. The infection stimulated a marked increase in the specific IgA response in CVM of the three groups vaccinated with either, adjuvanted antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We measured antibody levels in serum and cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) of four heifers vaccinated with two inoculations of killed Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) two weeks apart, and six heifers given a placebo. Two weeks later, the vaccinates and four placebo heifers, were challenged by intravaginal inoculation with 6.4 x 10(8) colony-forming units of the homologous U. diversum strain. The remaining two placebo heifers served as unvaccinated, unchallenged controls. Antibody levels in serum and CVM of all heifers were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaccination stimulated specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses in serum and CVM but only a slight IgM and no IgA response. In both vaccinate and placebo heifers, subsequent intravaginal challenge resulted in a granular vulvitis (GV) with a predominant IgA response in the CVM. The GV gradually subsided during the 35 day observation period but ureaplasmas were consistently demonstrated by culture. We concluded that subcutaneous vaccination stimulated a specific, albeit nonprotective, IgG response in serum and CVM. In contrast, vaginal infection primarily induced a mucosal IgA response.
To determine the influence of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility 11 uninfected virgin heifers with normal ovarian cyclic activity were randomly allocated to test or control groups. At a synchronized estrus, five test heifers were given an intrauterine broth inoculum containing 1.09 x 10(8) to 1.4 x 10(9) colony forming units of U. diversum and six control animals were infused with sterile ureaplasma broth medium. All animals were artificially inseminated within one hour of infusion. Pregnancy was diagnosed in one of five test heifers and all of six controls by serum progesterone concentrations measured to 25 days postinsemination. The difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0152). It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment U. diversum is capable of causing infertility in cattle.
The indirect immunoperoxidase test using small, square filter paper was used for rapid identification of mycoplasmas. Colonies of type strains of 22 mycoplasma species, 3 acholeplasma species, and three Ureaplasma diversum serogroups were stained by this test with high sensitivity and specificity. All of 49 isolates from bovine materials and cell cultures were easily identified by this test, and the results agreed with those obtained by growth inhibition test. Use of filter paper made it possible to add different kinds of antisera or conjugates to the same agar plate simultaneously and also to save antiserum and conjugate. This test proved to be a simple and useful technique for rapid identification of many mycoplasma species grown on agar medium.
Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay.
U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids.
The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.
Ureaplasma diversum; bovine spermatozoid; invasion; confocal microscopy
Understanding mollicutes is challenging due to their variety and relationship with host cells. Invasion has explained issues related to their opportunistic role. Few studies have been done on the Ureaplasma diversum mollicute, which is detected in healthy or diseased bovine. The invasion in Hep-2 cells of four clinical isolates and two reference strains of their ureaplasma was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay.
The isolates and strains used were detected inside the cells after infection of one minute without difference in the arrangement for adhesion and invasion. The adhesion was scattered throughout the cells, and after three hours, the invasion of the ureaplasmas surrounded the nuclear region but were not observed inside the nuclei. The gentamicin invasion assay detected that 1% of the ATCC strains were inside the infected Hep-2 cells in contrast to 10% to the clinical isolates. A high level of phospholipase C activity was also detected in all studied ureaplasma.
The results presented herein will help better understand U. diversum infections, aswell as cellular attachment and virulence.
We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.
Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.
Two field isolates of Ureaplasma diversum spp. were used to infect heifers at the time of insemination in a preliminary study to observe the effect of infection on early pregnancy. M84-14c-1 was a field isolate from a bull's prepuce typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-44 (Group C). M84-477c-4 was a field isolate from bovine semen typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-288 (Group A). All three heifers infected with M84-477c-4 had a mild granular vulvitis at some time during the trial. None was pregnant when slaughtered 27 days after infection. The result of infection with M84-14c-1, a preputial isolate, was not consistent. One heifer had no infection and a normal pregnancy, one heifer was infected with an abnormal pregnancy, and one heifer was open but ureaplasmas were not detected until day 17 of the trial.
Ureaplasma diversum is a pathogen in the bovine reproductive tract. The objective of the research was to study interactions with macrophages and lymphocytes which might elucidate aspects of pathogenetic mechanisms of this organism. We studied the activation of murine macrophages of C3H/HeN (LPS-responder) and C3H/HeJ (LPS-low-responder) genotype for TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 and nitric oxide production and blastogenic response of C3H/HeJ splenocytes after Ureaplasma diversum stimulation. Live and heat-killed U. diversum induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 in peritoneal macrophage cultures of both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice in a dose dependent manner. Interferon-gamma modulated the cytokine production, by increasing the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide, but IL-1 secretion was only enhanced in C3H/HeJ macrophages stimulated by live ureaplasmas. Supernatant of U. diversum sonicate was mitogenic for murine spleen lymphocytes. The blastogenic response was dose dependent, and stimulation with both U. diversum and Concanavalin A seemed to have an additive effect. These results suggest that U. diversum, similar to other mycoplasmas, activates murine macrophages and lymphoid cells. The studies should be repeated with bovine cells in order to elucidate pathogenetic aspects of inflammation in cattle caused by U. diversum.
The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.
Three species of mycoplasma have been established as being of importance as causes of pneumonia in housed calves, based on pathogenicity studies and frequency of association with the disease. These three species are Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum. M. bovis is the most pathogenic of these species but the disease outbreaks with which it is associated are sporadic. M. dispar is regularly isolated from pneumonic calves but is also found causing mild superficial and asymptomatic infections of the respiratory mucosa. The bovine ureaplasmas are serologically complex. They are distinct from ureaplasmas isolated from other non-ruminants by PAGE analysis, G + C content of DNA, and serology. A second species within the genus ureaplasma has been proposed to accommodate the bovine ureaplasmas, U. diversum. Control of mycoplasma respiratory infections of cattle based on immunization might be possible. Calves have been immunized against M. bovis and immunity has been related to antibody in the lung. M. dispar appears less immunogenic in calves than M. bovis and this may contribute to its pathogenicity.
Purpose:Biological vectors for cell transfection are mainly viral in origin, with inherent shortcomings. Mycoplasmas are ubiquitous organisms that traverse cells easily. The objective was to determine if Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-mycoplasma) would vector exogenous BRCA1 DNA into blastocysts.
Methods:Hatching mouse blastocysts (N = 70) were incubated in the presence of either viable or dead Ureaplasma urealyticum at 37°C for 1 hr. The blastocysts were exposed to human BRCA1 DNA lacking homology in the mouse genome for 2 hr, followed by DNase-I treatment and wash. Polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of amplified products were performed.
Results:The BRCA1 gene was detected in the blastocysts only when viable Ureaplasma was present. PCR analyses of control Ureaplasma and untreated blastocysts were negative.
Conclusion:Viable Ureaplasma organisms were shown to mediate the uptake of DNA fragments into blastocysts, resulting in transgenic mouse blastocysts with a normal human BRCA1 exon 11 gene.
breast cancer; mycoplasma; Ureaplasma urealyticum; foreign DNA; gene transfer; transgenic
As an estimate of their virulence, the ability of ovine, bovine, canine, feline and simian ureaplasma strains to cause mastitis in the ovine mammary gland was investigated. Five ovine ureaplasmas produced a clinical mastitis. Broth cultures of seven bovine ureaplasmas were unable to infect the ovine gland, but two of these strains plus one other were able to do so following passage through the bovine udder. One of two canine strains and a feline strain both caused mastitis, but the simian strain persisted at low titre for only 5 days post-inoculation in one of the two ewes tested.
Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.
Mycoplasma; ureaplasma; genital tract; semen; artificial insemination; microbial colonization
After incubation of Ureaplasma urealyticum serotype 8 in the presence of 3H-labeled palmitic acid, about 25 acylated proteins were detected by electrophoresis and fluorography. Of these, at least six were shown to be antigenic by immunoprecipitation of solubilized palmitate-labeled cells with a homologous polyclonal serum. These six included the serotype 8-specific surface-expressed 96-kDa antigen. After phase partition of palmitate-labeled cells with Triton X-114, all but six acylated proteins partitioned entirely into the detergent phase. The others, including the 96-kDa antigen, partitioned preferentially into the detergent phase and were apparently amphipathic. These results are consistent with the acylated proteins being mainly membrane associated.
We have developed a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to detect and identify the commonest mollicutes causing cell line contamination (Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma orale, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) and human infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum). We developed a nested PCR assay with “universal” primers targeting the mollicute 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Amplified biotin-labeled PCR products were hybridized to membrane-bound species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The assay correctly identified reference strains of 10 mollicute species. Cell cultures submitted for detection of mollicute contamination, clinical specimens, and clinical isolates were initially tested by PCR assay targeting a presumed mollicute-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Any that were positive were assessed by the RLB assay, with species-specific PCR assay as the reference method. Initially, 100 clinical and 88 of 92 cell culture specimens gave concordant results, including 18 in which two or more mollicute species were detected by both methods. PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and subsequent retesting by species-specific PCR assay of the four cell culture specimens for which results were initially discrepant confirmed the original RLB results. Sequencing of amplicons from 12 cell culture specimens that were positive in the 16S rRNA PCR assay but negative by both the RLB and species-specific PCR assays failed to identify any mollicute species. The RLB hybridization assay is sensitive and specific and able to rapidly detect and identify mollicute species from clinical and cell line specimens.
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of detecting microbial footprints of ureaplasmas in amniotic fluid (AF) using specific primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients presenting with cervical insufficiency.
Amniocentesis was performed in 58 patients with acute cervical insufficiency (cervical dilatation, ≥1.5 cm) and intact membranes, and without regular contractions (gestational age, 16–29 weeks). AF was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital mycoplasmas. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Patients were divided into three groups according to the results of AF culture and PCR for ureaplasmas: those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (n=44), those with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR (n = 10), and those with a positive AF culture regardless of PCR result (n=4).
1) Ureaplasmas were detected by PCR in 19.0% (11/58) of patients, by culture in 5.2% (3/58), and by culture and/or PCR in 22.4% (13/58); 2) Among the 11 patients with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas, the AF culture was negative in 91% (10/11); 3) Patients with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR for ureaplasmas had a significantly higher median AF matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) concentration and white blood cell (WBC) count than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); 4) Patients with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas but a negative AF culture had a higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth within two weeks of amniocentesis than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.05 after adjusting for gestational age at amniocentesis); 5) Of the patients who delivered within two weeks of amniocentesis, those with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas and a negative AF culture had higher rates of histologic amnionitis and funisitis than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.05 after adjusting for gestational age at amniocentesis, for each); (6) However, no significant differences in the intensity of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response and perinatal outcome were found between patients with a positive AF culture and those with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR.
1) Cultivation techniques for ureaplasmas did not detect most cases of intra-amniotic infection caused by these microorganisms (91% of cases with cervical insufficiency and microbial footprints for ureaplasmas in the amniotic cavity had a negative AF culture); 2) Patients with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR assay were at risk for intra-amniotic and fetal inflammation as well as spontaneous preterm birth.
Amniotic fluid (AF); cervical insufficiency; chorioamnionitis; intra-amniotic infection; intra-amniotic inflammation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); pregnancy; preterm birth; spontaneous abortion; ureaplasmas
Urine specimens to be tested for Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-strain mycoplasma) must often be transported to a central laboratory for identification. To examine survival of these organisms over 2 days of transport, fresh urine samples were tested for the presence of ureaplasmas and then divided into four groups: (i) fresh, (ii) frozen, (iii) preserved with 1% (wt/vol) boric acid at room temperature, and (iv) preserved with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide and frozen. The samples were cultured on both A7 and New York City solid media, and the estimates of survival were compared to that of fresh urine. Less than 10% survival of Ureaplasma was observed in 11 of 14 specimens stored frozen for 2 days without preservation; six specimens lost all organisms. Specimens containing either dimethyl sulfoxide or boric acid showed higher survival rates, although neither method consistently approached the full recovery of the T-strains found with the fresh urine. Ureaplasmas from fresh specimens grew well on both New York City and A7 media; however, the New York City medium proved superior for those preserved with boric acid and for urine samples containing few ureaplasmas. These results indicate that preservation of samples does increase the yield of U. urealyticum from urine samples delayed in transit.
Ureaplasmas isolated from the human genital tract and from the genital and respiratory tracts of cattle were grown in association with organ cultures of bovine oviduct (uterine tube). All strains of unreaplasmas multiplied in organ cultures, stopped ciliary activity, and caused histological lesions. Most strains grew well, and 10(8) to 10(9) color-changing units were determined 18 to 144 h after inoculation. Twenty-four to 144 h after inoculation with unreaplasmas, ciliostasis was complete. Ciliostasis was also caused by additions of nonviable cultures at pH 8.8 (or adjusted to 7.4) or washed disrupted cells (100 mug of protein/ml); it occurred in 48 to 96 h. The cilia-stopping effect of nonviable cultures was diminished by heating (56 C for 30 min) and was abolished by boiling. When added to fresh medium in amounts exceeding 25%, nonviable unreaplasmal cultures completely inhibited ureaplasmal growth. By light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, cilia-stopping effect was correlated with collapse and sloughing of the cilia (the initial lesion was "bent" cilia), with bulging and vacuolization of secretory and ciliated cells, and finally with disorganization of the epithelium, necrosis, and desquamation.
A better method for diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis is needed because culture is slow and somewhat lacking in sensitivity. Immunodiagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus infection usually involves detection of antigen-antibody reactions with an anti-immunoglobulin conjugate. However, nonspecific immunoglobulin (Ig), bound to the surface of T. foetus, would also be detected by an anti-Ig conjugate and thus would interfere with the specificity of the immunoassay. The goals of this study were to define the binding of bovine immunoglobulins to T. foetus. To determine whether nonimmune binding of Ig to T. foetus occurs, we immunized rabbits with organisms that had been grown in medium containing normal bovine serum and vigorously washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline. The rabbit antiserum had similar titers to T. foetus and to normal bovine serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, two bovine serum proteins were immunoprecipitated by the rabbit antiserum in an immunoelectrophoretogram. One of the serum proteins had a distribution characteristic of IgG2. The rabbit antiserum was then shown to react with purified bovine IgG and IgM by ELISA. Reactivity to IgG was greater. To identify the IgG subisotypes bound and to confirm nonimmune binding of Ig, we grew T. foetus in agammaglobulinemic fetal calf serum and reacted it with IgG1, IgG2, and IgM specific for dinitrophenol (DNP) in ELISA. The binding of IgG2 was greatest, that of IgG1 was next, and that of IgM was least. Little competitive inhibition by DNP was detected, indicating that binding of DNP-specific antibodies was predominantly nonimmune rather than antigen-specific Ig binding. We also demonstrated that T. foetus grew well in medium containing agammaglobulinemic fetal calf serum or serum made agammaglobulinemic by ammonium sulfate precipitation of Igs. This may overcome the problem of low specificity in diagnostic assays as a result of antigen with Ig bound by nonimmune mechanisms.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the adherence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to bovine mature, or immature, cumulus-free oocytes and to in vitro fertilized embryos, maintained in vitro in a ligated bovine oviduct to allow for the hardening of the zona pellucida. Incubation of the oocytes and embryos in the oviduct for 5 h caused hardening of the zona pellucida as measured by resistance to pronase digestion (which increased from approximately 3 min to 7 h; P >0.001). However, there was no difference between the number of infected oocytes and embryos (n = 965 in 193 samples) following experimental exposure to BVDV regardless of whether or not they were previously incubated in the oviduct (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the modification of the proteolytic resistance properties of the zona pellucida during in vitro oviductal incubation did not influence the adherence of BVDV to zona pellucida of oocytes or in vitro fertilized embryos.