We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.
Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.
Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.
Mycoplasma; ureaplasma; genital tract; semen; artificial insemination; microbial colonization
Preputial fluid samples were collected from 90 bulls in two Ontario artificial insemination units using a penial glove swab technique previously developed by one of us for use in donor bulls. No Campylobacter fetus organisms were identified from the prepuce or from samples of semen collected at the same time from these bulls. The distal genitalia of 200 bulls were collected at a slaughter house. One isolation of a Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis was obtained on a culture from the fornix area of the prepuce of one of these bulls.
The genital mycoplasma and ureaplasma flora was compared in 136 dogs with varied reproductive histories. Mycoplasmas were recovered from 88% of vulvovaginal swabs, 85% preputial swabs and 72% semen samples. Isolation rates were slightly higher from dogs that were infertile or had evidence of genital disease but the differences from those that were fertile or clinically normal were statistically significant only in the male. Ureaplasmas were recovered from half the females sampled. Higher, but not statistically significant isolation rates (75%) were made from infertile females with purulent vulvar discharge versus those that were clinically normal and fertile (40%). In the male dog there was a significantly higher incidence of ureaplasmas in the prepuce of infertile animals (69%) than those that were fertile (0%) (p less than or equal to 0.05). Semen isolations although not significantly higher in infertile males, were all made from ejaculates, with subnormal motility, low sperm counts and/or a high percentage of midpiece and tail abnormalities (bent or tightly coiled).
Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion.
Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms.
This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis.
Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum
and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained
controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the
lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique
to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the
presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human
placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.
Methods: We cultured placentas from 82 women with complicated
pregnancies. One hundred placentas from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were
evaluated as controls. When possible, placentas were examined histologically for presence
Results: Microorganisms were recovered from 52% of the placentas
of complicated pregnancies and U. urealyticum was the microorganism isolated most
frequently from the placenta. A significant association between positive mycoplasma
culture of the placenta and complication of pregnancy was found, and chorioamnionitis
was positively related to isolation of mycoplasmas.
Conclusions: These data suggest that genital mycoplasmas are
able to infect the human placenta where they can cause chorioamnionitis.
This infection of the placenta by genital mycoplasmas is related to preterm birth and
fatal outcome of pregnancy.
Four agar media (PPLO, NYC, A7B, and E) which are commonly used for the isolation of urogenital tract Mycoplasma species and Ureaplasma urealyticum were compared by culturing swabs of the endocervix of 334 pregnant women on all four media. To permit growth of both Mycoplasma and U. urealyticum, selective ingredients were omitted from the media tested. A7B and E agar were both satisfactory for the isolation of Mycoplasma species, recovering 92 and 82%, respectively, of all Mycoplasma species isolated. Only A7B agar was satisfactory for U. urealyticum isolation, recovering 96% of all isolates. Several modifications of PPLO, NYC, and E agar failed to significantly improve recovery of U. urealyticum on these media. A7B agar was clearly superior to all other media tested in terms of recovery rate, typical appearance of colonies, and ease of reading. A7B can be used for the isolation of both U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma species from urogenital sites.
One hundred and thirty-one ureaplasma isolates were tested using the immunoperoxidase system. Thirty-four were from semen, 34 from preputial washes of normal bulls and 63 were from vaginal swabs from herds experiencing infertility problems and/or vulvovaginitis. The serotypes from semen were T44 (12.1%), Bu2 (11.2%), D48 (2.8%), T315 (0.9%) and T288 (0.9%). Those from preputial washes were T44 (9.3%), Bu2 (8.4%), T288 (7.5%), D48 (0.9%) and T95 (0.9%). From vaginal swabs the serotypes were D48 (22.4%), Bu2 (10.3%), T45 (4.7%), T288 (3.8%) and T315 (1.9%).
Background & objectives:
Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy.
Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method.
Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.
Antimicrobial susceptibility; PCR; ureaplasma serovars
The sites in the genital tract from which mycoplasmas could be recovered at various stages of the estrous cycle were studied in five Standardbred mares naturally infected with Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma subdolum were most frequently isolated from the clitoral fossa as compared to the vagina, cervix, and uterus. The lowest isolation prevalence was observed in the uterus. The recovery of Mycoplasma spp. from the clitoral fossa did not differ at any stage of the estrous cycle; however, recovery from the vagina, cervix, and uterus was variable during the cycle and more organisms were recovered on the day of ovulation than at any other time. From these results it was concluded that the clitoral fossa is the most likely “ecological niche” for Mycoplasma spp. in the mare. Ureaplasmas were not isolated.
Equine Mycoplasmas; mare; estrous cycle; reproductive tract
Ureaplasma, spp. Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis are associated with infection of the genitourinary tract, reproductive failure, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex PCR for the detection of these Mycoplasmatales in a single amplification reaction. The analytical sensitivities of this assay were 10.8, 10.8, and 8.8 CFU for each organism, respectively. This multiplex PCR was compared to culture on 26 cervical swabs, 2 vaginal swabs, 4 female urine specimens, 49 semen samples, 2 male urine specimens, and 1 nonspecified sample. A total of 21 specimens were culture positive (25%); 17 of these were PCR positive. An additional 11 specimens were PCR positive but culture negative. Of the 21 culture-positive specimens, 17 (81%) grew Ureaplasma spp. and 4 (19%) grew Mycoplasma spp. Of the 28 PCR-positive specimens, Ureaplasma spp. was detected in 23 (82%), M. hominis was detected in 3 (11%), and both were detected in 2 (7%). In a confirmatory analysis, all samples were tested by amplification of a second target of the ureaplasma genome. True-positive cases were defined as a positive result by culture or by both amplification assays. The multiplex PCR detected organisms in 26 of the 30 true-positive specimens, as well as in 2 other specimens. Based on a 36% prevalence of infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of multiplex PCR analyses were 87, 96, 94, and 93%, respectively. Multiplex PCR offers a rapid, sensitive, and easy method to detect genital mycoplasmas.
Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen specimens collected from infertile men, and at comparing the seminological variables of semen from infected and non-infected men with these microorganisms.
A total of 120 semen samples collected from infertile men were investigated. Semen specimens were examined by in-house PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for the presence of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas DNA. Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Standard parametric techniques (t-tests) and nonparametric techniques (Wilcoxon tests) were used for statistical analysis.
The frequency of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas detected in semen samples of infertile men was respectively 19.2% (23/120) and 15.8% (19/120). The frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum (15%) was higher than that of Mycoplasma hominis (10.8%), Ureaplasma parvum (4.2%) and Mycoplasma genitalium (5%). Mixed species of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were detected in 6.7% of semen samples.
Comparison of the parameters of the standard semen analysis between the male partners of the infertile couples with and without genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas infection showed that the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in semen samples is associated with low sperm concentration (p = 0.007) and abnormal sperm morphology (p = 0.03) and a negative correlation between sperm concentration and the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in semen samples of infertile men (p = 0.05). The mean values of seminal volume, pH, vitality, motility and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of genital mycoplasmas DNA or to the detection of ureaplasmas DNA in semen specimens.
Our results demonstrate that genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas seem to be widespread among the male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia. Genital mycoplasmas infections of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality. Our results also indicate that PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay method provides a rapid and effective technique to detect human genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas which is useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of these pathogens.
Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs.
Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage.
Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.
Animal model; Mycoplasma; Mycoplasma fermentans; Respiratory infection
Objective: The genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and
Ureaplasma urealyticum) and Chlamydia trachomatis have been implicated as possible
etiologic factors in infertility. Their role in patients with infertility needs to be further defined.
Methods: Seventy-nine infertile patients underwent laparoscopy with
cultures obtained for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and
Ureaplasma from the peritoneal fluid, fallopian tube, endometrium, and endocervix.
Cultures for similar organisms were taken from the endocervix of 80 fertile women in their
first trimester. Culture results were also compared according to ovulatory status and
laparoscopic findings in the infertile group.
Results: There were no differences in the recovery of Ureaplasma
(29% vs. 28%) or Chlamydia (4% vs. 0%) positive cervical cultures in the fertile and
infertile groups, respectively. However, a significantly higher number of Mycoplasma
positive cervical cultures (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.05) were found in the fertile group. Only two upper
genital tract cultures were found to be positive (Ureaplasma).
Conclusions: Therefore, if these organisms play a role in infertility,
they are present and eradicated prior to infertility work-up and thus do not supports the use
of a routine trial of antibiotics prior to laparoscopy.
An investigation was carried out to determine the extent to which serology may contribute a means of elucidating the possible etiological significance of the presence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in bulls with genital tract disease. Experimentally infected bulls showed a significant serological response with maximum titers of antibody as early as 12 days after inoculation as measured by the indirect hemagglutination test. The tetrazolium reduction inhibition test, even as modified, was less suitable because this method did not reveal antibodies in all inoculated animals. The indirect hemagglutination test revealed high titers of antibody in serum of most bulls from bull stations in Denmark and Luxembourg although young bulls were often serologically negative. It is concluded that indirect hemagglutination is useful in experimental work and also in estimating the incidence of infection with mycoplasmas in bulls from artificial breeding stations. For diagnostic purposes, use of the indirect hemagglutination test is largely restricted to young bulls and on condition that the first blood sample is drawn very early in the course of the disease.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of genital mycoplasmas, especially Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), compared to women with normal cytology living in Katowice, Poland. Two sterile swabs were used to obtain material from the posterior vaginal fornix of 143 women with squamous intraepithelial lesions and 39 healthy women: first for general bacteriology, second for detection of urogenital mycoplasmas using Mycoplasma IST2 kit. From each positive Mycoplasma IST2 culture DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for identification of U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma IST was positive in 34.1% cases. Urogenital mycoplasmas were demonstrated in women with HSIL significantly more often compared to women with LSIL, ASCUS, and with normal cytology. DNA of U. parvum was demonstrated in majority of Mycoplasma IST2-positive cases, U. urealyticum DNA-only in 9 (4.9%). Predominance of 3/14 serovars of U. parvum was demonstrated. U. urealyticum biovar 2 was present more often in women with squamous intraepithelial lesions.
Mycoplasma hominis; Ureaplasma urealyticum; ASCUS; LSIL; HSIL
Contour clamped homogeneous field (CHEF) agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), ramped to give linear separation of DNA molecules of 600-1600 kilobase pairs (kbp), was used to determine mobilities for full-sized genomic DNA of the serotype standard strains of the human genital mollicutes, Ureaplasma urealyticum relative to yeast chromosomal DNA markers. Indicated genome sizes (in kbp) were 760 for the four biotype 1 strains and 840-1140 for eleven biotype 2 strains. Other estimates were: 720 for Mycoplasma hominis, 1070 for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 890 for Mycoplasma flocculare, 1180 and 1350 for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Y and GC1176-2, respectively, and 1650 and 1580 for Acholeplasma laidlawii B and PG 8, respectively. These data supplement previous evidence from CHEF AGE that the genomes of the Mycoplasmataceae are diverse in size with some larger than previously estimated from DNA renaturation kinetics.
Sixteen bovine genital mycoplasmal isolates obtained from semen and prepuce of bulls and from aborted fetuses were compared physiologically and serologically with the Donetta strain (tentatively Mycoplasma agalactiae var. bovis), a known pathogen. All isolates were distinct from the Donetta organism. Four appeared to be saprophytes, and the remainder were placed in one group which could not be further separated by the biochemical or serological methods used. Two of the organisms in the latter group have been subsequently identified as M. bovigenitalium. Uterine infusion of broth cultures of four isolates into virgin heifers failed to produce clinical evidence of disease, and significant lesions were not present at necropsy. The mycoplasmas were recovered from cervicovaginal mucus of only three heifers, and never for more than 3 days postinfusion. Since the organisms were not recovered from any organs at necropsy, it appears that the mycoplasmas were incapable of surviving in the clinically normal virgin female reproductive tract.
Two hundred and thirty seven semen samples from 10 institutes for artificial insemination by donor (AID) in Belgium and the Netherlands were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. The incidence of these micro-organisms in the semen samples was 0%, 6.3%, 4.6%, 35.9%, 0%, and 0.4% respectively, and 47% of all samples were infected with one or more of the micro-organisms. As the ejaculates from which the samples had been taken had already been, or would be, used for AID, the exclusion of microbiological contamination with sexually communicable micro-organisms before insemination is indicated.
Ten mycoplasmas were isolated from 130 nasopharyngeal swabs from thoroughbred horses with acute respiratory disease and three from 198 apparently normal horses. Two mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 tracheal swabs taken at necropsy. These mycoplasmas, together with six isolated from the equine respiratory tract by other workers, were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Other properties examined in certain representative strains were appearance under the electron microscope, ability to adsorb or agglutinate the erythrocytes of various animal species and the electrophoretic pattern of the cell proteins. On the basis of these test, mycoplasmas from the equine respiratory tract were divided into seven species. Three species belonged to the genus Acholeplasma, members of which do not require sterol for growth, and were identified as A. laidlawii, A. oculi (formerly A. oculusi) originally isolated from the eyes of goats, and a recently named species A. equifoetale, previously isolated from aborted equine fetuses. Of the four sterol-dependent Mycoplasma species, one was indentified as M. pulmonis, a common rodent pathogen. Another cross-reacted serologically with M. felis and should probably be classified as that species. The other two species probably represent new species peculiar to the horse. One of these, represented by the strains N3 and N11, ferments glucose and is serologically distinct from 19 recognized species of glucose-utilizing mycoplasmas and from two species which do not metabolize either glucose or arginine. The other species, represented by four strains, hydrolyses arginine and, because it is serologically distinct from all the named arginine-hydrolysing Mycoplasma species, the name M. equirhinis sp.nov. is proposed for it. Of the seven species, only M. pulmonis and the glucose-utilizing species represented by N3 and N11 were found exclusively in horses with acute respiratory disease. A. oculi was isolated from an apparently normal horse. The other four species were found in normal horses as well as those with respiratory disease, although three out of the four strains of M. equirhinis were from sick horses.
One hundred and five bulls from an artificial insemination unit were tested for the presence of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The method involved the inoculation of preputial samples into a new transport enrichment medium prior to culture and immunofluorescence tests. Seventeen bulls (16%) were found to be either positive or suspected carriers of C. fetus at one or more sampling times. The average age of these 17 bulls was about two years greater than the average age of all the bulls in the unit. A combined treatment of vaccination and dihydrostreptomycin sulfate injection suppressed or eliminated the organism from carrier bulls. The use of transport enrichment medium has increased our capability and effectiveness to monitor the presence of C. fetus in artificial insemination bulls.
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship among the Nugent score for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the results of vaginal fluid culture for genital mycoplasma, and the subsequent occurrence of preterm birth.
The Nugent score and culture for genital mycoplasmas were performed in vaginal fluid obtained from 977 pregnant women (gestational age 13–30 weeks). Vaginal samples were obtained with sterile cotton swabs. The relationship among the Nugent score, vaginal fluid culture results and the occurrence of spontaneous preterm birth was examined.
(1) Of the 977 women, 14% (137) had a Nugent score of ≥ 8; (2) The prevalence of a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas was 30% (288); Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 252 (88%), Mycoplasma hominis in 9 (3%), and both in 27 (9%) women; (3) Cases with a Nugent score of ≥ 8 had a higher rate of a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas than those with the lower Nugent score (55% vs. 25%; p<0.001); (4) Women with a Nugent score of ≥ 8 had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth <37 (10% vs. 4%), <34 (5% vs. 2%), and <32 (4% vs. 1%) weeks of gestation than those with the lower Nugent score (At each gestational age, p<0.05); (5) In contrast, a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas was not associated with an increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth; (6) Among patients with a positive culture and a Nugent score of ≥ 8, the frequency of spontaneous preterm delivery (<37 weeks) was 10% (7/72); (7) There was no difference in the incidence of spontaneous preterm delivery according to the results of vaginal culture in patients with a Nugent score of ≥ 8, as well as in those with a lower Nugent score.
A high Nugent score (≥ 8) for the detection of BV but not a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth.
Nugent score; bacterial vaginosis; genital mycoplasmas; Ureaplasma urealyticum; Mycoplasma hominis; preterm birth; prematurity
A series of meatal swabs, taken from 17 men over a period of 17 months during their tour at an Antarctic base was examined for mycoplasmas. The number of organisms isolated never exceeded 104 and not every specimen from each man yielded mycoplasmas. Nevertheless, Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 71% and T-mycoplasmas from 59% of the men at some time during their stay. M. hominis persisted in the presence of serum IHA antibody titres of 1/64. Three subjects yielded only M. hominis and one only T-mycoplasmas.
Six men had already spent a year at the base when the study began and mycoplasmas were still being isolated from some of them at the end of a 31 month period of isolation. The persistence of mycoplasmas in the male genital tract can therefore be independent of sexual contact. Two modes of persistence are suggested; either a few men act as carriers and reinfect the others by contaminating their environment, or as seems more likely, most men have chronic infections.
The in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 14 mycoplasma and 13 ureaplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of bulls was examined. It was found that at relatively low concentrations, tetracycline, declomycin and tylosin were lethal to both types of organisms. Lincospectin, berenil, streptomycin and erythromycin were lethal to mycoplasmas but were only inhibitory to the ureaplasma strains at the same concentrations. Polymyxin B and novobiocin were ineffective at the levels tested.
Samples of cervico-vaginal mucus from 633 animals from 110 herds were cultured and yielded the following mycoplasmas: T-strain--88: Mycoplasma bovigenitalium--79, Mycoplasma spp. (Leach Group 7)--7, Acholeplasma laidlawii--4, Mycoplasma bovirhinis--2 and one not typable. Uterine exudates and endometrial scrapings from 80 infertile cows in two herds were examined. Four animals were positive, M. bovigenitalium was isolated three times, A. laidlawii and Mycoplasma arginini once each. Sixty-five normal uterine contents from pregnant cows were examined, one yielded M. bovigenigalium and the same organism was recovered from the fetal kidney. T-strain mycoplasma, M. bovigenitalium and other Mycoplasma spp. appear to be a part of the normal flora of the cervico-vaginal region of clinically normal one and two year old bred heifers in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Although M. arginini was not recovered from the cervico-vaginal region, a single recovery was made from the uterus of an infertile cow.