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1.  Detection of Coronavirus 229E Antibody by Indirect Hemagglutination 
Applied Microbiology  1972;24(5):703-707.
Tannic-acid treated sheep erythrocytes (fresh or glutaraldehyde preserved) were sensitized with 229E antigens from human embryonic lung (RU-1) cell cultures. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) antigen titers in 229E-infected cell cultures paralleled virus infectivity and complement fixation (CF) antigen titers. The identity of the IHA antigen was confirmed by testing extracts from inoculated and control cell cultures for ability to inhibit IHA. Also, significant increases in IHA antibody were demonstrated with acute and convalescent serum pairs from patients with proven 229E infections. A comparison of IHA, neutralization and CF titers for 229E antibodies was made on human sera drawn from different populations. The IHA and neutralization results were in agreement on 93% of the 129 sera found to be positive by at least one of three tests. The number of antibody titers detected by the CF test was insufficient to permit comparison. Hyperimmune sera from animals immunized with OC 43 did not react with 229E by IHA. Also no increase in IHA antibody was demonstrated with acute and convalescent serum pairs from patients with seroconversions to OC 43. These findings suggest that the IHA test provides (i) a rapid and sensitive method for serodiagnosis of 229E infections and (ii) a simple and inexpensive method for seroepidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC380648  PMID: 4674373
2.  Mycoplasmosis: Serology of Infections in the Genital Tract of Bulls 
Infection and Immunity  1972;5(1):20-23.
An investigation was carried out to determine the extent to which serology may contribute a means of elucidating the possible etiological significance of the presence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in bulls with genital tract disease. Experimentally infected bulls showed a significant serological response with maximum titers of antibody as early as 12 days after inoculation as measured by the indirect hemagglutination test. The tetrazolium reduction inhibition test, even as modified, was less suitable because this method did not reveal antibodies in all inoculated animals. The indirect hemagglutination test revealed high titers of antibody in serum of most bulls from bull stations in Denmark and Luxembourg although young bulls were often serologically negative. It is concluded that indirect hemagglutination is useful in experimental work and also in estimating the incidence of infection with mycoplasmas in bulls from artificial breeding stations. For diagnostic purposes, use of the indirect hemagglutination test is largely restricted to young bulls and on condition that the first blood sample is drawn very early in the course of the disease.
PMCID: PMC422313  PMID: 4656354
3.  Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. 3. Detection of IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae by a modified indirect haemagglutination test. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1989;103(3):613-623.
The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was compared with the complement-fixation (CF) test for the measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A modification of the IHA was used to measure M. pneumoniae IgM antibodies. Sera were obtained from various groups of patients who were either culture or antigen positive for M. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal aspirates or who had fourfold or greater increase in CF antibody or a titre greater than or equal to 320. The results of these comparisons showed that the modified IHA test was specific and more sensitive (89% as opposed to 64%) than the CF test. The modified IHA test for the detection of IgM antibody was highly effective in the recognition of recent or current infection with the mycoplasma. It was also of equal sensitivity to an indirect enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC2249550  PMID: 2514114
4.  Indirect Hemagglutinating Antibody Response to Herpesvirus hominis Types 1 and 2 in Immunized Laboratory Animals and in Natural Infections of Man 
Applied Microbiology  1974;28(3):392-399.
Indirect hemagglutinating (IHA) antibody responses to Herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2 (HVH-1 and HVH-2) were compared to complement-fixing and neutralizing antibody responses in immunized laboratory animals (rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters) and in natural infections of man. With the immunized animals, type specificity was seen only in the IHA test and only with antisera produced in hamsters and in the rabbits immunized with HVH-2. In human nongenital infections (considered to be caused predominately by HVH-1), IHA and neutralizing antibodies developed at about the same rate and reached approximately the same levels for HVH-1 and HVH-2. IHA titers tended to be higher than neutralizing antibody titers for both virus types. In genital infections (considered to be caused predominately by HVH-2), there was a rapid IHA antibody response to HVH-2, and the early HVH-2 antibody demonstrable by IHA, but not by neutralization tests, was found to be immunoglobulin M in nature. In genital infections, IHA titers for HVH-2 were markedly higher than neutralization titers, but there was no pronounced difference in neutralizing the IHA antibody titers for HVH-1. Several patients with genital infections fialed to develop IHA antibody for HVH-1. The IHA test possessed no greater sensitivity than did complement fixation or neutralization tests for serodiagnosis of HVH infections. Despite the fact that a number of patients with genital infections produced IHA antibody only for HVH-2, the test was no more effective than the neutralization test in providing a type-specific serodiagnosis of infection, due largely to the fact that the rapid IHA antibody response to HVH-2 prevented demonstration of a further, significant antibody titer increase in a number of cases.
PMCID: PMC186731  PMID: 4371513
5.  Bovine mastitis in Ontario due to Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis. 
Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis was first diagnosed in 16 of 55 cows in an Ontario herd in Feburary 1972. A total of 182 of 598 (30.4%) cows from 33 of 64 (51.5%) farms in widely separated areas of the province were culturally positive. Herd incidence varied from 15 to 40% with one closed herd having an incidence of 61%. Four herds were investigated culturally and serologically by the growth inhibition test for 15 months. In the acute phase the organism was present in the milk in extremely high numbers and could still be isolated from a few cows after eight to 12 months. The sera from 89.5% of the animals with clinical mycoplasma mastitis produced a zone of surface "film" and/or colony inhibition and some cows remained positive for six to 12 months. The disease was experimentally reproduced with a pure culture of the organism isolated from the milk of a cow from one of the herds.
PMCID: PMC1277538  PMID: 1000385
6.  Analysis of antibody assay methods and classes of viral antibodies in serodiagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1978;8(2):153-159.
Forty-nine serum pairs with antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were evaluated for rises in antibody titer (greater than or equal to fourfold) by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and complement fixation (CF), using a freeze-thaw antigen (FT) and a glycine extract antigen (GE). In this sample CF-FT detected more rises in antibody titer than did CF-GE. IHA detected the least number. The apparent reason for stationary antibody titers with CF-GE and IHA was the presence of high antibody titers in the first serum specimen. Separation of immunoglobulin classes of 20 serum pairs by sucrose gradient centrifugation indicated that these antibodies with IHA were of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class and those with CF-GE were of the IgG class. By separation of immunoglobulin classes, rises in IgG CMV antibody titers were seen with IHA, rises not observed in the whole serum because of high IgM antibody titers in the first serum specimen. Absence of rises in antibody titers with CF-FT was due in part to too early sampling of the second serum specimen (less than 21 days) and in part to an apparent inability of some individuals to respond with antibody reactive with FT antigen. CF-GE and CF-FT antibodies of the IgM class were detected in some sera, usually in specimens collected more than 10 days after the onset of symptoms. Although reactive with CMV antigen, the specificity of these IgM antibodies in relation to rheumatoid factor requires clarification.
PMCID: PMC275176  PMID: 212446
7.  Studies on the effect of growth medium composition on the antigenicity of Mycoplasma bovis. 
The Journal of Hygiene  1980;84(1):29-36.
Serum proteins adsorbed from the culture medium were detected in Mycoplasma bovis antigens, the number and type of proteins depending on the serum used in the medium. The alpha-globulins cross-reacted with alpha-globulins from different types of sera but the gamma-globulins did not. The removal of non-specific medium antibodies by absorption showed that they affected the gel diffusion and growth precipitation tests, producing cross-reactions between M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium, but that the complement fixation, tube agglutination, and growth inhibition tests were not similarly affected. The presence of serum proteins in the antigens changed their specific reactivity in all the tests. The production of antibodies to serum proteins was increased by the use of an adjuvant, but it appeared that production of specific antibodies to the mycoplasmas was not.
PMCID: PMC2133824  PMID: 6766155
8.  Experimental mycoplasma mastitis in mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1976;13(4):1205-1208.
Thirteen strains of mycoplasma representing six different species, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma dispar, M. bovirhinis, M. bovigenitalium, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis, and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, were inoculated into the mammary glands of mice, and the number of mycoplasmas present in the glands three days after inoculation was determined. The predominant response included involution of inoculated glands and a neutrophil infiltration. With the exception of M. dispar, the pathogenicity of the six species for mice was found to be similar to their pathogenicity for cattle.
PMCID: PMC420739  PMID: 776833
9.  Serotyping of Avian Mycoplasma Species in India 
Applied Microbiology  1974;27(6):997-1000.
Two-hundred and two strains of avian mycoplasma species belonging to 10 biotypes were typed serologically by employing disk growth inhibition (DGI) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. These could be placed into seven serotypes, namely A (80), B (50), C (3), E (34), L (13), P (4), and 1 and R (18). The figures in parentheses show the number of strains within each type. A close relationship was observed between DGI and IHA tests. The IHA test, however, was more sensitive and specific. It was also noticed that biochemically identical biotypes, namely E and G, and B and M were also found identical in serotyping, thus confirming the biochemical identity. In view of these facts, the strains of biotypes M and G were grouped under serotypes B and E, respectively. The antigenic relationships between the serotypes are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC380196  PMID: 4598439
10.  Guinea Pig Herpes-Like Virus Infection I. Antibody Response and Virus Persistence in Guinea Pigs After Experimental Infection 
Infection and Immunity  1973;7(3):426-431.
Guinea pigs, experimentally infected with guinea pig herpes-like virus produced antibodies which were detectable by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), complement-fixation (CF), and neutralization tests. The IHA test appeared to be a more sensitive method than the CF or neutralization test for determining antibody response in guinea pigs immediately after infection, but the IHA method was not suitable for the detection of antibody in animals receiving small doses of virus. Antibody titers obtained by CF tests were generally higher than those obtained by the neutralization test, and they followed the same time course when individual animals were studied serially. Intracardiac inoculation produced the best antibody response in guinea pigs when compared with other routes of infection. Guinea pigs infected by the intraperitoneal, intranasal, or oral route showed rising antibody titers but the levels were low. Infectious virus was isolated from and persisted in all inoculated animals in the presence of antibody regardless of the route of inoculation. Recovery of infectious virus required cultivation or cocultivation of tissue cells containing virus. The administration of antilymphocyte sera delayed the appearance of IHA antibody but had no effect on antibodies determined by the CF- and neutralization tests.
PMCID: PMC422695  PMID: 4351586
11.  Mycoplasma species recovered from the reproductive tracts of western Canadian cows. 
Samples of cervico-vaginal mucus from 633 animals from 110 herds were cultured and yielded the following mycoplasmas: T-strain--88: Mycoplasma bovigenitalium--79, Mycoplasma spp. (Leach Group 7)--7, Acholeplasma laidlawii--4, Mycoplasma bovirhinis--2 and one not typable. Uterine exudates and endometrial scrapings from 80 infertile cows in two herds were examined. Four animals were positive, M. bovigenitalium was isolated three times, A. laidlawii and Mycoplasma arginini once each. Sixty-five normal uterine contents from pregnant cows were examined, one yielded M. bovigenigalium and the same organism was recovered from the fetal kidney. T-strain mycoplasma, M. bovigenitalium and other Mycoplasma spp. appear to be a part of the normal flora of the cervico-vaginal region of clinically normal one and two year old bred heifers in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Although M. arginini was not recovered from the cervico-vaginal region, a single recovery was made from the uterus of an infertile cow.
PMCID: PMC1277433  PMID: 1125831
12.  Serodiagnosis of Imported Schistosomiasis by a Combination of a Commercial Indirect Hemagglutination Test with Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Antigens and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with S. mansoni Egg Antigens 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(9):3432-3437.
A commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using erythrocytes coated with Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigens (WA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA) were assessed for their use in serodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis (hereafter these tests are designated WA/IHA and SEA/ELISA, respectively). The sensitivity of the tests was evaluated with sera from 75 patients with proven S. mansoni infection, 25 with proven S. haematobium infection, and 10 with clinical Katayama fever. The specificity was assessed with sera from 283 patients with various parasitic, bacterial, viral, and fungal infections and sera containing autoimmune antibodies. Sensitivities of the WA/IHA with a cutoff titer of 1:160 (WA/IHA160) in detecting S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. haematobium combined, and clinical Katayama fever were 88.0, 80.0, 86.0, and 70.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 98.9%. The WA/IHA with a cutoff of 1:80 (WA/IHA80) showed sensitivities of 94.7, 92.0, 94.0, and 90.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 94.7%. The comparable values of SEA/ELISA were 93.3, 92.0, 93.0, and 50.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 98.2%. Combined use of ELISA and WA/IHA80 gave sensitivities of 100% for S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. mansoni and S. haematobium combined and 90% for Katayama fever. The specificity of this combination in detecting schistosomiasis was 92.9%. Combination of SEA/ELISA with WA/IHA160 gave sensitivities of 98.7, 96.0, 98.0, and 80% with a specificity of 97.2%. Our findings suggest that WA/IHA and SEA/ELISA are each sensitive and specific serological tests that are easy to use for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. The combined use of these two tests enabled the serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis to be achieved with very high degrees of both sensitivity and specificity.
PMCID: PMC130766  PMID: 12202589
13.  Isolation and identification of mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis from arthritic cattle in Iowa and Nebraska. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1975;2(3):169-172.
Two strains of Mycoplasma were isolated from synovial fluids of arthritic feeder cattle and were identified as Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis by growth inhibition and fluorescent antibody tests. The strains (Iowa 1136 and Nebraska 2) could not be distinguished from known strains (Donetta and California 01) by immunoelectrophoresis or by agar gel precipitation.
PMCID: PMC274165  PMID: 1176624
14.  Serological Diagnosis of Human Melioidosis with Indirect Hemagglutination and Complement Fixation Tests 
Applied Microbiology  1970;20(5):825-833.
An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test and a complement fixation (CF) test were evaluated from test results on sera from 212 human melioidosis patients of which 119 were culturally proved cases. Significant antibody titers (IHA titers of 1:40 or greater and CF titers of 1:4 or greater) were demonstrated with either test in all except five patients. IHA and CF titers ranged as high as 1:20,480 and 1:1,024, respectively. Antibodies were usually demonstrated by both tests 1 week after onset of disease. Transient seronegative reactions during the course of disease were seen in sera of approximately 19% of the patients with either IHA and CF but rarely with both tests. High titers in either test were obtained by the third week of disease and reached maximum levels in 4 to 5 months. Titers usually were detectable for 9 or more months. Antibodies were detected by IHA and CF tests in 80 to 100% of the sera obtained at various time intervals from 9 months to 2 or more years after disease onset. Antibody persistence occurred in patients who had a short disease course, as well as in patients with prolonged, complicated infections. The IHA test had excellent specificity when evaluated with normal human sera and diverse antimicrobial sera from hyperimmunized rabbits and human patients. The CF antigen appeared to contain common antigens with some but not all types of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The specificity of the CF antigen could be enhanced without appreciable effect on its sensitivity by use of a titer of 1:8 in lieu of 1:4 as a criterion for a significant reaction. Either test could be used advantageously for the laboratory diagnosis of melioidosis.
PMCID: PMC377056  PMID: 5530276
15.  Detection of cytomegalovirus antibody with latex agglutination. 
Transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections should be prevented in seronegative immunocompromised patients by providing blood products from donors who are also seronegative. Latex agglutination was investigated as a simple and rapid method for detecting antibody against CMV. Latex beads were coated with CMV antigen, incubated for 8 min at room temperature with 25 microliter of sera, and examined for agglutination. The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination was compared with that of indirect hemagglutination (IHA, Cetus Corp., Emeryville, Calif.) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with sera from 604 random blood donors or patients. Of 327 serum samples shown to be seronegative by EIA and IHA, 327 had a latex agglutination titer of less than 1:4 (specificity, 100%). Of 236 serum samples with detectable antibody by EIA and IHA, 228 had a latex agglutination titer of 1:4 or greater (sensitivity, 97%). Plasma collected with EDTA, heparin, or citrate was satisfactory for latex agglutination. Latex agglutination results correlated quantitatively with those of EIA, and the test also detected fourfold or greater rises in antibody with paired sera from six patients with posttransfusion CMV infections. Latex agglutination is a sensitive and specific assay that is rapid and simple to perform and should be effective in selecting seronegative blood donors to prevent posttransfusion CMV infections in seronegative recipients.
PMCID: PMC268323  PMID: 2991330
16.  Micro-indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. 
A micro-indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was developed for detecting antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus of pigs. TGE virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures was highly purified and concentrated by the combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, treatment with fluorocarbon, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Tanned sheep erythrocytes were sensitized with purified virus for use in the IHA test. The results of testing 104 serum samples collected from pigs in the field indicated that the IHA antibody titers were approximately five times higher than those obtained by a serum neutralization test and that there was good correlation between the antibody titers determined by the two tests. High IHA antibody titers developed in pigs experimentally exposed to virulent TGE virus. Sensitized sheep erythrocytes were stable under long-term storage at 4 degrees C (at least for 50 days). The conclusions made are that the IHA test described is more sensitive than the serum neutralization test for the detection of TGE antibody and may be of value for serodiagnosis of TGE.
PMCID: PMC274712  PMID: 197119
17.  Evaluation of MUREX SUDS Toxo test. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(11):2049-2053.
The SUDS Toxo test (MUREX Corp., Norcross, Ga.) was compared with the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) by examining 404 serum specimens, including 64 (15.8%) specimens with IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:2. When SUDS was compared with IHA, sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.4%) indicated that there were similar reactivities between the two tests. When an IFA titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant and IHA and SUDS were compared with IFA, IHA was slightly less sensitive but had a higher positive predictive value than did SUDS; however, there was no statistical difference between the tests. When SUDS was compared with IFA, in which a titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant, the high negative predictive value (100%), excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.3%), and ease of performance made SUDS an attractive alternative to IHA for screening single serum specimens for toxoplasmosis.
PMCID: PMC269409  PMID: 3320079
18.  Micro Indirect Hemagglutination Test for Cytomegalovirus 
Applied Microbiology  1971;21(1):104-107.
In an effort to obtain the flexibility and ease of performance of a rapid, serological test for detection of cytomegalovirus antibody, the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) technique was investigated by using a microserological system. Antigens were prepared from tissue cultures of infected human fibroblasts. The specificity of the cytomegalovirus antibody response detected by the IHA test correlated well with the standard neutralization test. The IHA method was more sensitive than the complement fixation test in detecting antibody in congenitally infected newborns. There appeared to be some heterologous antibody response with Herpesvirus hominis or varicella virus infections. The IHA test pattern was found to be very stable with excellent persistence of agglutination.
PMCID: PMC377126  PMID: 4322278
19.  Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis-Specific Antibody in Bison Sera 
Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison. A method for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum antibodies is needed in order to establish prevalence and transmission patterns. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) validated for the detection of M. bovis-specific serum IgG in cattle are commercially available, but their suitability for bison sera has not been determined. A collection of bison sera, most from animals with a known history of infection or vaccination with M. bovis, was tested for M. bovis-specific IgG using commercially available kits as well as an in-house ELISA in which either cattle or bison M. bovis isolates were used as a source of antigen. Comparison of the results demonstrates that ELISAs optimized for cattle sera may not be optimal for the identification of bison seropositive for M. bovis, particularly those with low to moderate antibody levels. The reagent used for the detection of bison IgG and the source of the antigen affect the sensitivity of the assay. Optimal performance was obtained when the capture antigen was derived from bison isolates rather than cattle isolates and when a protein G conjugate rather than an anti-bovine IgG conjugate was used for the detection of bison IgG.
PMCID: PMC3889597  PMID: 23843427
20.  Indirect hemagglutination test for human antibody to typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1975;2(5):430-437.
An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described that uses glutaraldehyde-stabilized erythrocytes treated with a rickettsial erythrocyte-sensitizing substance obtained from Rickettsia typhi or Rickettsia rickettsii. The serological reagent was stable for at least 3 months at room temperature and 6 months at 4 C. It exhibited group specificity and no group cross-reactivity. At a minimum dilution of 1:40, acute and early convalescent epidemic and murine typhus antisera showed 86% positive reactors, whereas similar spotted fever antisera had 74% positive reactors. In comparison with the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the IHA procedure gave lower titers but showed comparable detection of seroconversion with most paired sera. The IHA test demonstrated significantly higher titers than the complement fixation test and was more sensitive than either the complement fixation or Weil-Felix test in identifying seroconversion. No agglutination was observed when sensitized erythrocytes were tested with rodent sera known to contain rickettsial antibodies.
PMCID: PMC274203  PMID: 811685
21.  Reactivity of Envelope, Capsid, and Soluble Antigens of Herpesvirus hominis Types 1 and 2 in the Indirect Hemagglutination Test 
Infection and Immunity  1974;10(1):102-106.
Envelope, capsid, and soluble antigens of Herpesvirus hominis (HVH) types 1 and 2 were compared to crude antigens (disrupted HVH-infected cells) for potency, type-specificity, and diagnostic value in the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. The envelope appeared to be the predominant component reacting in the IHA test, but recurrent HVH infections increased the reactivity of human sera with capsid antigens. The soluble antigens reacted in the IHA test with HVH immune animal sera, but very few convalescent-phase human sera showed reactivity with soluble antigens. Overall, none of the subunit antigens showed greater type-specificity than did crude antigens in IHA tests with immune animal or convalescent-phase human sera. Recurrent infections with type 1 or type 2 viruses tended to broaden heterotypic reactivity of the patients' sera with both crude and subunit antigens, even in patients showing only a single type of antibody by IHA inhibition. Subunit antigens were no more sensitive than crude antigens in demonstrating significant IHA antibody titer rises for serodiagnosis of herpesvirus infections, and they generally had to be used at lower working dilutions than crude antigens.
PMCID: PMC414963  PMID: 4366916
22.  Immunological Responses of the Rat to Mycoplasma arthritidis1 
Journal of Bacteriology  1969;98(3):930-937.
Arthritis was produced in rats by the intravenous injection of Mycoplasma arthritidis. Metabolic inhibiting antibody and indirect hemagglutinating antibody could not be detected in the sera of arthritic or convalescent animals. Nonmurine species of mycoplasma were capable of inducing metabolic inhibiting antibody in the rat. A hypothesis based upon the possible occurrence of heterogenetic antigens common to M. arthritidis and rat tissue was brought forward to explain these findings. Complement-fixing antibody to M. arthritidis was detected 3 to 4 days after injection and subsequently rose to high levels, depending upon the severity of arthritis and number of organisms injected. Animals that had recovered from intravenous or subcutaneous inoculation with M. arthritidis were resistant to subsequent infections by the organism. Immunity could be passively transferred by the intravenous injection of convalescent serum. Adsorption of the convalescent serum with antigen greatly reduced the complement fixation titer but did not significantly alter the protective properties of the serum. The presence of complement-fixing antibody could not be related to the development of immunity. An avirulent strain of M. arthritidis and a strain previously classified as M. hominis type 2 were capable of inducing resistance to subsequent injection by virulent M. arthritidis.
PMCID: PMC315276  PMID: 5305935
23.  The Immune Response of Calves given Mycoplasma bovis Antigens 
Seven calves seven to 30 days of age were given Mycoplasma bovis antigen by different routes. Immunization was in two phases. The first consisted of single or multiple SC, IV or oral doses of antigen for two to four weeks. The second phase consisted of multiple SC or ID injections given from the eighth to the 19th week. The experiment was terminated at 26 weeks. Antibody titers were followed by indirect hemagglutination, growth inhibition and tetrazolium reduction inhibition. Total serum protein, protein fractions and IgG and IgM concentrations were determined in serums of one calf and the distribution of indirect hemagglutination antibodies in IgG and IgM classes were determined in serums of two of the calves.
Indirect hemagglutination titers of 1280 and peak titers of >20,480 occurred after the first and second phases respectively. There was no relationship between total serum IgG or IgM concentrations and indirect hemagglutination titers. In one calf given M. bovis antigen in one dose SC and five weekly doses IV in phase I, indirect hemagglutination antibodies appeared in IgM within one week and IgG by four weeks, IgG antibody activity rose steadily until the 17th week but declined at the 26th week, whereas IgM activity after the initial rise dropped at the 13th week but rose even higher as a result of second phase ID injections. Another calf given six weekly IV doses of M. bovis antigen in phase I developed indirect hemagglutination antibodies in IgM peaking at four weeks then declining but with no IgG response. Activity in both IgM and IgG occurred after the second phase. Growth inhibition antibodies were found only on two occasions in one calf serum and tetrazolium reduction inhibition activity when tested never gave titres exceeding 1:32.
PMCID: PMC1277591  PMID: 907904
24.  A simplified PCR assay for fast and easy mycoplasma mastitis screening in dairy cattle 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2011;12(2):191-193.
A simplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for fast and easy screening of mycoplasma mastitis in dairy cattle. Species of major mycoplasma strains [Mycoplasma (M.) bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens and M. canadense] in cultured milk samples were detected by this simplified PCR-based method as well as a standard PCR technique. The minimum concentration limit for detecting mycoplasma by the simplified PCR was estimated to be about 2.5 × 103 cfu/mL and was similar to that of the standard PCR. We compared the specificity and sensitivity of the simplified PCR to those of a culture method. Out of 1,685 milk samples cultured in mycoplasma broth, the simplified PCR detected Mycoplasma DNA in 152 that were also positive according to the culture assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the simplified PCR were 98.7% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting mycoplasma in those cultures. The results obtained by the simplified PCR were consistent with ones from standard PCR. This newly developed simplified PCR, which does not require DNA purification, can analyze about 300 cultured samples within 3 h. The results from our study suggest that the simplified PCR can be used for mycoplasma mastitis screening in large-scale dairy farms.
PMCID: PMC3104175  PMID: 21586880
bovine; mastitis; mycoplasma; simplified PCR
25.  Field comparison of circulating antibody assays versus circulating antigen assays for the detection of schistosomiasis japonica in endemic areas of China 
Parasites & Vectors  2014;7:138.
Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem in affected countries, and routine, highly sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic methods are lacking. We evaluated two immunodiagnostic techniques for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum infections: circulating antibody and circulating antigen assays.
A total of 1864 individuals (between 6 and 72 years old) residing in five administrative villages in Hubei province were screened by serum examination with an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The positive individuals (titer ≥20 in IHA) were reconfirmed by stool examination with the Kato-Katz method (three slides from a single stool specimen). Samples of good serum quality and a volume above 0.5 ml were selected for further testing with two immunodiagnostic antibody (DDIA and ELISA) and two antigen (ELISA) assays.
The average antibody positive rate in the five villages was 12.7%, while the average parasitological prevalence was 1.50%; 25 of the 28 egg-positive samples were also circulating antigen-positive. Significant differences were observed between the prevalence according to the Kato-Katz method and all three immunodiagnostic antibody assays (P-value <0.0001). Similar differences were observed between the Kato-Katz method and the two immunodiagnostic antigen assays (P-value <0.0001) and between the antigen and antibody assays (P-value <0.0001).
Both circulating antibody and circulating antigen assays had acceptable performance characteristics. Immunodiagnostic techniques to detect circulating antigens have potential to be deployed for schistosomiasis japonica screening in the endemic areas.
PMCID: PMC3978087  PMID: 24684924
Schistosoma japonicum; Circulating antibody; Circulating antigen; China

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