The purpose of this study was to 1) estimate the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk milk from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms, 2) determine the association between bulk milk culture results and mean bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), and 3) investigate the agreement of repeated bulk milk cultures. Three consecutive bulk milk samples were obtained at weekly intervals from all 258 PEI dairy herds and were cultured using routine laboratory methods. Cumulative prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma spp. (M. bovis and M. alkalescens) was 74%, 1.6%, and 1.9%, respectively. Bulk milk somatic cell count of Staph. aureus-positive herds was higher than that of negative herds. Agreement for Staph. aureus isolation between 3 consecutive tests was moderate (kappa = 0.46). Mycoplasma bovis and M. alkalescens in bulk milk are being reported for the 1st time in PEI ever and in Canada since 1972.
The culture of a sample of bulk tank milk may be a useful technique by which to screen herds for major mastitis pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, if identified on a culture of a sample of bulk milk, reliably indicate infection of the udder. Environmental bacteria, such as the other streptococci and coliforms, are unlikely to be indicative of the proportion of cows infected with these organisms.
Samples of bulk milk are readily obtainable and can be rapidly and inexpensively cultured to screen large numbers of herds for mastitis-causing bacteria, yet the performance of the test has only recently been formally assessed for its ability to correctly classify herds according to infection status.
A single culture of bulk tank milk has been found to be a test with low sensitivity and high specificity for determining the presence of S. agalactiae or S. aureus in the herd. This means that many infected herds will be called negative, but few uninfected herds will be classified as positive.
The literature assessing the performance of bulk tank milk culture in comparison with other mastitis screening tests, the use of bulk milk culture for prevalence surveys, and factors affecting these results is discussed.
Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.
A case-control study was undertaken during the summer of 1989 in central Alberta dairy herds to identify independent predictors of nocardial mastitis. Thirty-seven herds with nocardial mastitis were matched with control herds based on herd size, milk production, and enrolment in Alberta Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Control herds were considered free of nocardial mastitis based on negative cultures of four weekly bulk tank milk samples and one composite milk sample collected during the same period from each lactating cow in the herd. A detailed questionnaire on herd management was completed during farm visits. The use of blanket dry cow therapy was not found to be a risk factor for nocardial mastitis. Dry cow therapy with intramammary products containing neomycin and the use of multidose vials of dry cow medications were the only predisposing factors identified as being significantly associated with nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds. Use of neomycin as a dry cow therapy increased the odds of nocardial mastitis occurring in these dairy herds by 169 times.
The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis.
Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major groups of bovine mastitis pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, other streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 different antibiotics against bacterial isolates from dairy cattle. The bacterial strains were obtained from milk samples from each cow in 21 New York state dairy herd surveys. In 12 herd surveys (high antibiotic-use group), all 365 cows received antibiotic infusions into the udder at the cessation of each lactation cycle. The 324 animals in the other nine herd surveys (low antibiotic-use group) did not routinely receive antibiotics during the nonlactation period. The MICs from the two groups were compared by calculating for each bacterial group the average MIC, the antibiotic concentration necessary to inhibit 90% of the isolates, and the antibiotic concentration necessary to inhibit 50% of the isolates. Increased resistance to all 13 antibiotics was observed with Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from the high antibiotic use herds. However, there was relatively little difference between the two groups in the resistance patterns of the other bacterial species examined. The most important finding of the study was the identification of a multiple beta-lactam resistance phenotype in Streptococcus agalactiae.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels.
calving interval; dairy cows; ELISA; milk yield; paratuberculosis; SCC
An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters.
Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds.
An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional) and incidence of disorders.
The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score) compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis.
The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage.
Udder health in Swedish organic herds appears to be better than in conventional herds of comparable size and production. The major difference in management between the two types of farms is the proportion of concentrates fed. The mechanisms explaining the association between intensity of feeding and udder health in dairy cows require further research.
Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed.
Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC.
Cattle; Cows; Mastitis; Milking routine; Cow housing; Dry cow therapy
The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariates, the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score of the milk and the type of sample (indicating sample storage temperature and herd mastitis status). A total of 13778 milk samples was cultured for each of the three bacteria. By using results of both direct inoculation and pre-enrichment, the probability of isolation compared to use of direct inoculation only and adjusted for effects of other variables was increased 3.6-fold for Str. agalactiae, 1.6-fold for S. aureus and 1.7-fold for mycoplasma. The probability of isolation for all three bacteria increased as the CMT score increased. For Str. agalactiae, there was a statistical interaction predicting that enrichment improved the odds of isolation more from milk with high CMT scores than from milk with low scores. Results indicate that pre-enrichment can substantially increase the sensitivity of bacteriological screening of dairy cows for mastitis caused by Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, and mycoplasma.
Six milking cows were inoculated with bovine and human T-mycoplasmas and control materials into the udder via the teat canal. Control materials produced only a slight transient cell response in the milk. Bovine T-mycoplasmas produced clinical mastitis in nine out of ten quarters inoculated. Seven developed clinical mastitis together with visible changes in the milk, excretion of T-mycoplasmas and greatly increased cell counts in the milk. In three of these quarters, in two different cows, milk secretion ceased completely. Two quarters in a different cow showed visible milk changes, excretion of T-mycoplasmas and increased cell counts. Two quarters were inoculated with human T-mycoplasmas and neither produced any signs of mastitis.
Infection of the udder with T-mycoplasmas did not stimulate high-titre serum antibody levels as measured by the metabolic inhibition test, but whey samples gave high titres in two of the cows that were able to control and resolve the infection.
Bovine tuberculosis is an ongoing problem in Ireland, and herd incidence has remained at approximately 5% for some years. Spillover of infection from cattle to people remains an ever-present possibility, given the ongoing pool of infection in the Irish cattle population. This paper describes an outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on a dairy farm in southeastern Ireland following the consumption of milk from a seven-year-old cow with tuberculous mastitis. Twenty-five of 28 calves born during autumn 2004 and spring 2005 were subsequently identified as TB reactors, and five of six family members were positive on the Mantoux test. During 2005, milk from this cow had mainly been used to feed calves, and was added only occasionally to the bulk tank. Therefore, the calves each received infected milk on an almost continuous basis between birth and weaning. The family collected milk from the bulk milk tank, and consumed it without pasteurisation. This case highlights the risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. In this family, TB has had a very significant impact on the health of two young children. These risks are well recognised, and relevant information for farmers is available. It is of concern, therefore, that raw milk consumption remains prevalent on Irish farms. New strategies are needed, in partnership with industry, to address this important issue. Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Ireland, mastitis, milk, Mycobacterium bovis, pasteurisation, TB, zoonosis
bovine tuberculosis; Ireland; mastitis; milk; Mycobacterium bovis; pasteurisation; TB; zoonosis
A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation of the trial and on an approximately bimonthly basis throughout the duration of the trial. There was no difference in the prevalence of isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. from composite milk samples obtained during the 6 herd cultures. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the control group was 1.38 cases per 1000 cow days. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the treatment group was 1.06 cases per 1000 cow days. The ratio of these 2 was 1.3, suggesting a higher rate in the control group, but the ratio was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the effect of treatment group was not significant, although the coefficient suggested that predipping reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. The benefit to cost ratio of 0.37 indicated that the benefit of reduced incidence of clinical cases of mastitis would not have justified the added expense required to predip the herd.
Abortions occurred in 18% of 131 beef cows and heifers during two months, on a farm in southern Saskatchewan. The losses began two weeks after acute febrile illness and agalactia in a dairy cow to which the beef herd had been exposed. A diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection was made on the basis of serology in cows and the finding of leptospires in fetal tissues by fluorescent antibody test. Tentative diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis delayed treatment and prophylaxis until infection attained high intensity in the herd and severe losses to the farmer occurred. Abortions ceased after vaccination against pomona and oxytetracycline treatment of pregnant cows, although chronic debility followed the acute phase of the disease in some cows. Recrudescence of infection was suspected four months later, when acute agalactia occurred in one cow and debility in calves and cows was recurring. Pomona infection was not proven, but dihydrostreptomycin treatment and revaccination were applied to the whole herd. Seroconversion and IgM antibody continued to indicate a persistent source of infection and susceptibility in a minority of the population one year after onset. The source of the original infection is believed to have been a carrier beef cow, or a dairy cow which was leptospiruric at the time of contact with the beef herd. With the exception of one aborted calf, no evidence of pomona infection was found outside the farm, in cattle or wild mammals tested serologically within a radius of 30 km, during one year following the outbreak.
Abortion; bovine; pomona; leptospirosis
A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interviews with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds.
Logistic regression was used to study risk factors. The use of dry cow products containing neomycin, including two specific dry cow products, was strongly associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in a herd. Other factors which increased the risk of Nocardia mastitis were higher levels of production, larger herd size, and a large percentage of cows treated with dry cow products. These results are compared to results from a similar study carried out in Ontario.
Mastitis prevalence, milking procedures and management practices were investigated in 25 big dairy herds supplying milk to an Estonian dairy company. The aim of the study was to provide information for the company to be used in their new udder health improvement program to be set up after the completion of this study.
Quarter milk samples were collected from 3,166 cows for bacterial analysis and SCC (somatic cell counting). During the farm visit the veterinarian filled in a questionnaire about milking procedures and management practices with the help of farm managers. If the milk SCC of a cow or of a quarter exceeded 200,000/ml, the cow was defined as having mastitis.
The percentage of cows having inflammation in one or more quarters measured by SCC (200,000/ml) was 52.7%. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci were the most common bacterial isolates. Women as farm owners, and participating in the milking, were associated with lower mastitis prevalence on the farm. Peat bedding was associated with higher mastitis prevalence.
We demonstrated relatively high mastitis prevalence in this study. Contagious bacteria (eg. S. aureus, C. bovis, S. agalactiae and coagulase negative staphylococci) caused most of the infections. These infections are usually spread from cow to cow at milking if the milking hygiene is not good enough. The mastitis situation could be improved by improving milking procedures and hygiene.
A case-control study was conducted to identify milking hygiene and udder therapy factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds from which milk samples are submitted to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Veterinary Laboratory Services, Guelph laboratory. The data were collected by telephone interview from 31 case and 31 control herds.
After analytical control for confounders, blanket dry cow therapy and a dry cow antibiotic product were associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in a herd, whereas another dry cow antibiotic product had a sparing effect.
In comparison to mastitis pathogens susceptible to dry cow antibiotic therapy, Nocardia species were isolated infrequently from milk specimens submitted to the Guelph mastitis laboratory.
The effect of vaccination on milk production was evaluated in vaccinated and control cows experimentally challenged in two of four quarters with live Mycoplasma bovis. During the first three weeks after experimental challenge, six of eight unchallenged quarters on vaccinated cows and seven of eight unchallenged quarters on control cows became infected. Most of these quarters secreted normal milk, with negative California Mastitis Test scores and maintained normal milk production throughout most of the study (although some quarters on control cows remained infected). All challenged quarters became infected, had strong California Mastitis Test reactions, and had a drastic (greater than 85%) loss in milk production. Thereafter, four of eight challenged quarters on control cows remained infected, had mostly positive California Mastitis Test scores, produced mostly normal-appearing milk, and recovered some productive capabilities. By the end of the study no M. bovis could be recovered from challenged quarters on vaccinated cows and the milk appeared mostly normal. The California Mastitis Test scores on these quarters, however, remained elevated and milk production remained very low.
This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China. Out of 3178 quarter milk samples from 846 lactating cows, among which 459 cows (54.3%) were found HMT positive, 890 quarters (28%) were found having subclinical mastitis. From 75 representative S. aureus isolates, 16 distinct types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major PFGE types (A, B, C, and D) accounted for 82.7% of all isolates, and type A (41.3%) was observed in multiple herds across the studied areas. Each region was found to have a predominant type: Hangzhou type A (64.1%), Ningbo type C (34.5%) and type B (23.1%), Jinhua type D (53.3%), and Taizhou type C (62.5%). Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 90.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin (77.3%), tetracycline (60.0%), or erythromycin (48.0%) was observed. The bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were commonly found. The information obtained from this study is useful for designing specific control programs for bovine S. aureus mastitis in this region.
Staphylococcus aureus; Bovine mastitis; Antimicrobial resistance; Genetic diversity; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological pathogen of bovine mastitis, which triggers significant economic losses in dairy herds worldwide. In this study, S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in Korea were investigated by spa typing and staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) gene profiling. Forty-four S. aureus strains were isolated from 26 farms in five provinces. All isolates grouped into five clusters and two singletons based on 14 spa types. Cluster 1 and 2 isolates comprised 38.6% and 36.4% of total isolates, respectively, which were distributed in more than four provinces. SE and SE-like toxin genes were detected in 34 (77.3%) isolates and the most frequently detected SE gene profile was seg, sei, selm, seln, and selo genes (16 isolates, 36.3%), which was comparable to one of the genomic islands, Type I νSaβ. This is a first report of spa types and the prevalence of the recently described SE and SE-like toxin genes among S. aureus isolates from bovine raw milk in Korea. Two predominant spa groups were distributed widely and recently described SE and SE-like toxin genes were detected frequently.
bovine mastitis; enterotoxin; mobile genetic elements; S. aureus; spa typing
Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle.
Data from an epidemiological study in Ontario, involving 304 dairy herds, were used to identify associations between selected production indices and lipoarabinomannan antigen serological test results for paratuberculosis (LAM-ELISA). Analyses were conducted at both the herd and individual cow levels of organization. After analytically controlling for management and cow factors in the respective regression models, positive serological paratuberculosis status (as defined by the LAM-ELISA test), was associated with higher milk somatic cell counts at both the herd average (p less than 0.01), and individual cow levels of organization (p less than 0.0001). In contrast, LAM-ELISA test results were consistently not associated with calving intervals in either the herd average or individual cow level analyses. Associations between LAM-ELISA results and milk production were inconsistent. No associations were found at the herd level of organization, and LAM-ELISA results were not associated with a change in breed class average (BCA) for milk, between the previous and the most recent lactations of individual cattle. However, at the individual cow level, LAM-ELISA results were positively associated with higher milk production as measured by the current BCA (p less than 0.05), and individual cow average kg of milk produced per year of life since two years of age (p less than 0.0001).
The study purpose was to validate PetrifilmsTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and PetrifilmsTM (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count –3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and PetrifilmTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the PetrifilmsTM had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. PetrifilmsTM should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.
Dairy cattle; Mastitis; Laboratory culture; PetrifilmsTM; Test evaluation; Kenya
Studies were conducted to determine prevalence and dynamics of bovine parvovirus (BPV) infection. Dairy cows from 29 randomly selected herds in southwestern Ontario were tested twice, one year apart, for the presence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against BPV. Fifty-one percent of 1141 cows tested had BPV-HI titers > 1:32. One year later, the seroprevalence was 83% in 1131 cows from the same farms. The herd mean seroprevalence was 49% and 86% for the year-1 and year-2 samples, respectively. Evidence of BPV infection was found in 96% (27/28) of herds in year-1 and 100% of herds in year-2. A comparison of titers from 716 cows tested twice showed evidence of frequent BPV infection. Sixty-two percent of 326 animals selected in a systematic manner from 40 Guelph area dairy farms had BPV-HI titers > 1:32. The herd mean seroprevalence was 64% Two herds had no animals with titers above the critical titer (1:32) while in one-quarter of the herds all animals exceeded the critical titer.