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1.  Past lessons and new uses of the mass media in reducing tobacco consumption. 
Public Health Reports  1990;105(3):239-244.
A review of mass media response to the smoking issue over the past 25 years reveals that sustained involvement of the broadcast and print media has served significantly to heighten public awareness and reduce smoking rates in the total U.S. population. Public service advertising has been an integral part of the smoking control movement from its outset, but today's intensely competitive media environment has forced health promoters to look beyond public service announcements in the development of total communication programs. Media advocacy--using the media to sharpen public awareness and mold public policy to serve the public interest, a technique derived from political campaigns--is emerging as a powerful tool in the smoking control movement. Its emphasis is on changing the entire social context of tobacco use in America, rather than the smoking behavior of people. Because media advocates' success pivots on their access to the media, they must be able both to create news and to react quickly to breaking news and unexpected events. The opportunistic, risk-taking nature of media advocacy requires that most efforts be waged at the State and local levels. An increasing number of State health departments and other organizations are using paid advertising to improve the frequency and reach of nonsmoking messages. Research verifies that paid media campaigns increase the target audience's exposure to smoking control messages, but planning and making efficient media purchases require sophistication and, of course, the necessary funds. Irrefutable medical evidence linking smoking to disease and addiction, combined with the powerful social force of the nonsmokers' rights movement, offer hope that a smoke-free society is an achievable goal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1580009  PMID: 2113681
2.  Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising 
Health Education Research  2008;24(3):483-495.
Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.
doi:10.1093/her/cyn046
PMCID: PMC2682642  PMID: 18948569
3.  Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data 
Global Health Action  2014;7:10.3402/gha.v7.22883.
Background
Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution.
Objective
To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services.
Design
A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients.
Results
The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap.
Conclusions
We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health programming. Inclusive partnerships could increase integration of FBOs into the public health care system and improve coordination and use of scarce resources.
doi:10.3402/gha.v7.22883
PMCID: PMC3888906  PMID: 24433944
public private; maternal health; Tanzania; faith-based; service capacity; health mapping
4.  Strategies of media marketing for "America Responds to AIDS" and applying lessons learned. 
Public Health Reports  1991;106(6):623-627.
The Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) public service announcement (PSA) campaign on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), entitled "America Responds to AIDS," has provided an opportunity to examine various media marketing techniques and their effectiveness in setting and sustaining a national media agenda for public health. The overall objective was to enlist the media as a partner in the effort to establish a clear national public health agenda on AIDS by reaching as many Americans as possible with disease prevention information in a credible and acceptable way. In order for the media to become interested in a subject traditionally treated as health information rather than a "news story," CDC identified and employed various methods and tools to generate coverage. These included the use of news conferences, video and audio news releases, satellite interviews, and press kits developed for each phase of the campaign. News "hooks" were used to grab attention; for example, the use of well-known public health spokespersons in media events or the promotion of free collateral materials. The marketing approach undertaken for each phase of the campaign varied, and lessons were learned and applied along the way. A model emerged indicating that a combination of techniques could result in maximum exposure in both news stories and public affairs programming. Because the model allowed messages to be delivered credibly and consistently, the result was increased usage of the PSAs to coincide with the media coverage.
PMCID: PMC1580334  PMID: 1659707
5.  Georgia’s Cancer Awareness and Education Campaign: Combining Public Health Models and Private Sector Communications Strategies 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2004;1(3):A09.
The Georgia Cancer Awareness and Education Campaign was launched in September 2002 with the goals of supporting cancer prevention and early detection efforts, heightening awareness of and understanding about the five leading cancers among Georgia residents, and enhancing awareness and education about the importance of proper nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyles. The inaugural year of the campaign is outlined, beginning with adherence to the public health principles of surveillance, risk factor identification, intervention evaluation, and implementation. A strategic and integrated communications campaign, using tactics such as paid advertising, public service announcements, local community relations, media releases, a documentary film, special events, and other components, is described in detail with links to multimedia samples. With an estimated budget of $3.1 million, the first year of the campaign focuses on breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection.
PMCID: PMC1253474  PMID: 15670430
6.  Advertising health: the case for counter-ads. 
Public Health Reports  1993;108(6):716-726.
Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.
PMCID: PMC1403454  PMID: 8265756
7.  Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam 
Global Health Action  2012;5:10.3402/gha.v5i0.10126.
Background
Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam.
Objective
To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam.
Design
We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities.
Results
Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter.
Conclusions
Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a quality assurance system, and strengthening regulatory mechanisms.
doi:10.3402/gha.v5i0.10126
PMCID: PMC3339447  PMID: 22548036
public-private partnership; primary care; health care access; health care quality; Mekong; Vietnam; regulation; quality assurance
8.  The safety and quality of childbirth in the context of health systems: mapping maternal health provision in Lebanon 
Midwifery  2010;26(5-2):549-557.
Objective
to provide basic information on the distribution (public/private and geographically) and the nature of maternity health provision in Lebanon, including relevant health outcome data at the hospital level in order to compare key features of provision with maternal/neonatal health outcomes.
Design
a self-completion questionnaire was sent to private hospitals by the Syndicate of Private Hospitals in collaboration with the study team and to all public hospitals in Lebanon with a functioning maternity ward by the study team in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Health.
Setting
childbirth in an institutional setting by a trained attendant is almost universal in Lebanon and the predominant model of care is obstetrician-led rather than midwife-led. Yet due to a 15-year-old civil war and a highly privatised health sector, Lebanon lacks systematic or publically available data on the organisation, distribution and quality of maternal health services. An accreditation system for private hospitals was recently initiated to regulate the quality of hospital care in Lebanon.
Participants
in total, 58 (out of 125 eligible) hospitals responded to the survey (46% total response rate). Only hospital-level aggregate data were collected.
Measurements
the survey addressed the volume of services, mode of payment for deliveries, number of health providers, number of labour and childbirth units, availability of neonatal intensive care units, fetal monitors and infusion rate regulation pumps for oxytocin, as well as health outcome data related to childbirth care and stillbirths for the year 2008.
Findings
the study provides the first data on maternal health provision from a survey of all eligible hospitals in Lebanon. More than three-quarters of deliveries occur in private hospitals, but the Ministry of Public Health is the single most important source of payment for childbirth. The reported hospital caesarean section rate is high at 40.8%. Essential equipment for safe maternal and newborn health care is widely available in Lebanon, but over half of the hospitals that responded lack a neonatal intensive care unit. The ratio of reported numbers of midwives to deliveries is three times that of obstetricians to deliveries.
Key conclusions and implications for practice
there is a need for greater interaction between maternal/neonatal health, health system specialists and policy makers on how the health system can support both the adoption of evidence-based interventions and, ultimately, better maternal and perinatal health outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.midw.2010.06.012
PMCID: PMC2989442  PMID: 20691519
Maternal health; Safety; Health system
9.  An analysis of ophthalmology services in Finland - has the time come for a Public-Private Partnership? 
Background
We studied the prerequisites for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in the context of the Finnish health care system and more specifically in the field of ophthalmology. PPP can be defined as a more or less permanent cooperation between public and private actors, through which the joint products or services are developed and in which the risks, costs and profits are shared.
The Finnish eye care services system is heterogeneous with several different providers and can be regarded as sub-optimal in terms of overall resource use. What is more, the public sector is suffering from a shortage of ophthalmologists, which further decreases its possibilities to meet the present needs. As ophthalmology has traditionally been a medical specialty with a substantial private sector involvement in service provision, PPP could be a feasible policy to be used in the field. We thus ask the following research question: Is there, and to what extent, an open window of opportunity for PPP?
Methods
In addition to the previously published literature, the research data consisted of 17 thematic interviews with public and private experts in the field of ophthalmology. The analysis was conducted in two stages. First, a literature-based content analysis was used to explore the prerequisites for PPP. Second, Kingdon's (1995) multiple streams theory was used to study the opening of the window of opportunity for PPP.
Results
Public and private parties reported similar problems in the current situation but defined them differently. Also, there is no consensus on policy alternatives. Public opinion seems to be somewhat uncertain as to the attitudes towards private service providers. The analysis thus showed that although there are prerequisites for PPP, the time has not yet come for a Public-Private Partnership.
Conclusion
Should the window open fully, the emergence of policy entrepreneurs and an opportunity for a win-win situation between public and private organizations are required.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-7-24
PMCID: PMC2777145  PMID: 19900293
10.  Project LEAN--lessons learned from a national social marketing campaign. 
Public Health Reports  1993;108(1):45-53.
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation initiated a social marketing campaign in 1987 to reduce the nation's risk for heart disease and some cancers. Consensus on recommendations for dietary change have stimulated the development of a variety of social marketing campaigns to promote behavior change. Project LEAN (Low-Fat Eating for America Now) is a national campaign whose goal is to reduce dietary fat consumption to 30 percent of total calories through public service advertising, publicity, and point-of-purchase programs in restaurants, supermarkets, and school and worksite cafeterias. The public service advertising reached 50 percent of the television viewing audience and the print publicity, more than 35 million readers. The toll-free hotline received more than 300,000 calls. Thirty-four organizations joined the foundation in partnership and raised $350,000 for collaborative activities. Thirteen States implemented local campaigns. Lessons have been learned about the use of the media, market segmentation, effective spokespersons, and successful partnerships. These lessons will be valuable to others planning social marketing campaigns on nutrition and other preventive behaviors.
Images
PMCID: PMC1403329  PMID: 8434097
11.  Strengthening Intersectoral Collaboration for Primary Health Care in Developing Countries: Can the Health Sector Play Broader Roles? 
Many strategic challenges impeding the success of primary health care are rooted in weak strategic inputs, including intersectoral collaboration. Some encouraging evidence from programmes, projects, and studies suggests that intersectoral collaboration is feasible and useful. The strategy has the potential to fast-track the attainment of Millenium Development Goals. However, the strategy is not commonly utilised in developing countries. The health sector expects inputs from other sectors which may not necessarily subscribe to a shared responsibility for health improvement, whereas the public expects ‘‘health” from the health sector. Yet, the health sector rarely takes on initiatives in that direction. The sector is challenged to mobilise all stakeholders for intersectoral collaboration through advocacy and programming. Pilot projects are advised in order to allow for cumulative experience, incremental lessons and more supportive evidence.
doi:10.1155/2010/272896
PMCID: PMC2862317  PMID: 20454703
12.  Suicide Coverage in U.S. Newspapers Following the Publication of the Media Guidelines 
In 2001 several U.S. government agencies and health organizations, including the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, the American Association of Suicidology and the Annenberg Public Policy Center, published consensus recommendations for the media reporting of suicide. This study evaluated whether these guidelines were followed in U.S. newspapers articles on suicide published in 2002 and 2003. We examined articles featuring individual cases of suicidal behavior (N = 157) published in a nationally representative sample of 968 local and national newspapers. Our main finding is that U.S. newspaper suicide coverage did not consistently reflect the influence of the media guidelines in the two years following their publication. On the positive side, a minority (19%) of stories included inappropriate imagery. On the negative side, suicide stories often detailed suicide method (56% of stories) and location (58%) but rarely provided information about warning signs and risk factors (1% of stories), the role of depression (4%), the role of alcohol (2%), and prevention resources (6%). Our findings, together with previous evidence, suggest the need for sustained dialogue and collaboration with the media about the responsible reporting of suicide.
doi:10.1521/suli.2010.40.5.524
PMCID: PMC3015096  PMID: 21034215
13.  Nutrition at school: preparing for the future. The Thirteenth Annual Nutrition Symposium. 
Public Health Reports  1994;109(5):706-709.
Two of the best ways to improve the quality of childhood nutrition are (a) more collaboration at the national, State, and local levels and (b) adoption of innovative and multimedia learning methods, according to the leaders of nutrition education. These themes were discussed at the 13th Annual Nutrition Symposium, which was held March 9, 1994, in Washington, DC. In recognition of National Nutrition Month, a collaborative effort of the Public Health Service's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the meeting was attended by more than 300 public and private sector nutrition educators and public health professionals. Their assignment was to analyze school-based nutrition education programs and the research being conducted on nutrition. Keynote speaker Surgeon General M. Joycelyn Elders, MD, issued the challenge for all Federal and State agencies to work with schools and nutrition education professionals to overcome limited resources and children's current eating habits to improve the nutritional status of children. Responding to that challenge, speakers from the Department of Health and Human Services, the agency sponsoring the meeting, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Education, as well as from the Congress, business, and public schools addressed several initiatives.
PMCID: PMC1403563  PMID: 7938395
14.  Evaluation of Immunization Knowledge, Practices, and Service-delivery in the Private Sector in Cambodia 
A study of private-sector immunization services was undertaken to assess scope of practice and quality of care and to identify opportunities for the development of models of collaboration between the public and the private health sector. A questionnaire survey was conducted with health providers at 127 private facilities; clinical practices were directly observed; and a policy forum was held for government representatives, private healthcare providers, and international partners. In terms of prevalence of private-sector provision of immunization services, 93% of the private inpatient clinics surveyed provided immunization services. The private sector demonstrated a lack of quality of care and management in terms of health workers’ knowledge of immunization schedules, waste and vaccine management practices, and exchange of health information with the public sector. Policy and operational guidelines are required for private-sector immunization practices that address critical subject areas, such as setting of standards, capacity-building, public-sector monitoring, and exchange of health information between the public and the private sector. Such public/private collaborations will keep pace with the trends towards the development of private-sector provision of health services in developing countries.
PMCID: PMC2740687  PMID: 18637533
Evaluation studies; Health services; Health-sector reforms; Health systems; Immunization; Private sector; Quality of care; Standards; Cambodia
15.  HRSA's collaborative efforts with national organizations to expand primary care for the medically underserved. 
Public Health Reports  1991;106(1):10-14.
As the Federal agency that provides leadership in expanding access to primary health care, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) manages some 50 programs directed toward the delivery of services and strengthening the base of national health resources. An enabling element of the agency's strategy is the expansion of partnerships with national associations, private foundations, and other entities that share a concern for the health care of the medically underserved. Cooperative efforts with national organizations are intended to promote the integration of public and private resources and encourage adoption of efficient approaches to organizing and financing health care. Medical education in the primary care specialties, State programs for women and children, involvement of managed care organizations with low-income populations, and programs concerning the uninsured are the foci of some of these collaborative relationships.
PMCID: PMC1580206  PMID: 1899932
16.  Recommendations for headache service organisation and delivery in Europe 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(4):419-426.
Headache disorders are a major public-health priority, and there is pressing need for effective solutions to them. Better health care for headache—and ready access to it—are central to these solutions; therefore, the organisation of headache-related services within the health systems of Europe becomes an important focus. These recommendations are the result of collaboration between the European Headache Federation and Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache. The process of development included wide consultation. To meet the very high level of need for headache care both effectively and efficiently, the recommendations formulate a basic three-level model of health-care organisation rationally spread across primary and secondary health-care sectors, taking account of the different skills and expertise in these sectors. They recognise that health services are differently structured in countries throughout Europe, and not always adequately resourced. Therefore, they aim to be adaptable to suit these differences. They are set out in five sections: needs assessment, description of the model, adaptation, standards and educational implications.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0320-x
PMCID: PMC3139057  PMID: 21380555
European Headache Federation; Global Campaign against Headache; Guidelines; Headache disorders; Service delivery and organisation
17.  Recommendations for headache service organisation and delivery in Europe 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(4):419-426.
Headache disorders are a major public-health priority, and there is pressing need for effective solutions to them. Better health care for headache—and ready access to it—are central to these solutions; therefore, the organisation of headache-related services within the health systems of Europe becomes an important focus. These recommendations are the result of collaboration between the European Headache Federation and Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache. The process of development included wide consultation. To meet the very high level of need for headache care both effectively and efficiently, the recommendations formulate a basic three-level model of health-care organisation rationally spread across primary and secondary health-care sectors, taking account of the different skills and expertise in these sectors. They recognise that health services are differently structured in countries throughout Europe, and not always adequately resourced. Therefore, they aim to be adaptable to suit these differences. They are set out in five sections: needs assessment, description of the model, adaptation, standards and educational implications.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0320-x
PMCID: PMC3139057  PMID: 21380555
European Headache Federation; Global Campaign against Headache; Guidelines; Headache disorders; Service delivery and organisation
18.  Mass media approaches to reducing cardiovascular disease risk. 
Public Health Reports  1990;105(3):245-252.
A key function of a basic and clinical biomedical research organization is to communicate the findings of clinical investigations so that people may apply the results to improve their health and well-being. To help communicate results from cardiovascular disease research, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has established a series of national health education programs. The authors describe a model for two of the five programs and discuss the role of communication media in supporting national goals for education programs. The research basis for the programs is reviewed, together with the process by which the Institute develops information materials for mass media, notably public service announcements. A description of two national health education campaigns, hypertension and cholesterol, illustrates how market research is used to identify appropriate target audiences, develop messages, and select channels of communication. Lessons learned about the role of mass media in a national health education campaign are summarized.
PMCID: PMC1579998  PMID: 2113682
19.  Institutional public private partnerships for core health services: evidence from Italy 
Background
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are potential instruments to enable private collaboration in the health sector. Despite theoretical debate, empirical analyses have thus far tended to focus on the contractual or project dimension, overlooking institutional PPPs, i.e., formal legal entities run by proper corporate-governance mechanisms and jointly owned by public and private parties for the provision of public-health goods. This work aims to fill this gap by carrying out a comparative analysis of the reasons for the adoption of institutional PPPs and the governance and managerial features necessary to establish them as appropriate arrangements for public-health services provisions.
Methods
A qualitative analysis is carried out on experiences of institutional PPPs within the Italian National Health Service (Sistema Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). The research question is addressed through a contextual and comparative embedded case study design, assuming the entire population of PPPs (4) currently in force in one Italian region as the unit of analysis: (i) a rehabilitation hospital, (ii), an orthopaedic-centre, (iii) a primary care and ambulatory services facility, and (iv) a health- and social-care facility. Internal validity is guaranteed by the triangulation of sources in the data collection phase, which included archival and interview data.
Results
Four governance and managerial issues were found to be critical in determining the positive performance of the case examined: (i) a strategic market orientation to a specialised service area with sufficient potential demand, (ii) the allocation of public capital assets and the consistent financial involvement of the private partner, (iii) the adoption of private administrative procedures in a regulated setting while guaranteeing the respect of public administration principles, and (iv) clear regulation of the workforce to align the contracts with the organisational culture.
Conclusions
Findings suggests that institutional PPPs enable national health services to reap great benefits when introduced as a complement to the traditional public-service provisions for a defined set of services and goals.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-82
PMCID: PMC3103412  PMID: 21504580
20.  The Private Partners of Public Health: Public-Private Alliances for Public Good 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2009;6(2):A69.
Objective
We sought to convey lessons learned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) about the value and challenges of private-sector alliances resulting in innovative health promotion strategies. Several PRCs based in a variety of workplace and community settings contributed.
Methods
We conducted interviews with principal investigators, a literature review, and a review of case studies of private-sector alliances in a microbusiness model, a macrobusiness model, and as multiparty partnerships supporting public health research, implementation, and human resource services.
Results
Private-sector alliances provide many advantages, particularly access to specialized skills generally beyond the expertise of public health entities. These skills include manufacturing, distribution, marketing, business planning, and development. Alliances also allow ready access to employee populations. Public health entities can offer private-sector partners funding opportunities through special grants, data gathering and analysis skills, and enhanced project credibility and trust. Challenges to successful partnerships include time and resource availability and negotiating the cultural divide between public health and the private sector. Critical to success are knowledge of organizational culture, values, mission, currency, and methods of operation; an understanding of and ability to articulate the benefits of the alliance for each partner; and the ability and time to respond to unexpected changes and opportunities.
Conclusion
Private-public health alliances are challenging, and developing them takes time and resources, but aspects of these alliances can capitalize on partners' strengths, counteract weaknesses, and build collaborations that produce better outcomes than otherwise possible. Private partners may be necessary for program initiation or success. CDC guidelines and support materials may help nurture these alliances.
PMCID: PMC2687875  PMID: 19289012
21.  A media advocacy intervention linking health disparities and food insecurity 
Health Education Research  2011;26(6):948-960.
Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related food insecurity leads to disparities related to the consumption of a popular food product across Canada (namely, Kraft Dinner®), we launched a media intervention intended to appeal to radio, television, print and Internet journalists. All the media coverage conveyed our intended message that food insecurity is a serious population health problem, confirming that message framing, personal narratives and visual imagery are important in persuading media outlets to carry stories about poverty as a determinant of population health. Among politicians and members of the public (through on-line discussions), the coverage provoked on-message as well as off-message reactions. Population health researchers and health promotion practitioners should anticipate mixed reactions to media advocacy interventions, particularly in light of new Internet technologies. Opposition to media stories regarding the socio-economic determinants of population health can provide new insights into how we might overcome challenges in translating evidence into preventive interventions.
doi:10.1093/her/cyr043
PMCID: PMC3219881  PMID: 21685402
22.  San Francisco Hep B Free: A Grassroots Community Coalition to Prevent Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer 
Journal of Community Health  2010;36(4):538-551.
Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of liver cancer and the largest health disparity between Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and the general US population. The Hep B Free model was launched to eliminate hepatitis B infection by increasing hepatitis B awareness, testing, vaccination, and treatment among APIs by building a broad, community-wide coalition. The San Francisco Hep B Free campaign is a diverse public/private collaboration unifying the API community, health care system, policy makers, businesses, and the general public in San Francisco, California. Mass-media and grassroots messaging raised citywide awareness of hepatitis B and promoted use of the existing health care system for hepatitis B screening and follow-up. Coalition partners reported semi-annually on activities, resources utilized, and system changes instituted. From 2007 to 2009, over 150 organizations contributed approximately $1,000,000 in resources to the San Francisco Hep B Free campaign. 40 educational events reached 1,100 healthcare providers, and 50% of primary care physicians pledged to screen APIs routinely for hepatitis B. Community events and fairs reached over 200,000 members of the general public. Of 3,315 API clients tested at stand-alone screening sites created by the campaign, 6.5% were found to be chronically infected and referred to follow-up care. A grassroots coalition that develops strong partnerships with diverse organizations can use existing resources to successfully increase public and healthcare provider awareness about hepatitis B among APIs, promote routine hepatitis B testing and vaccination as part of standard primary care, and ensure access to treatment for chronically infected individuals.
doi:10.1007/s10900-010-9339-1
PMCID: PMC3130910  PMID: 21125320
Hepatitis B; Liver cancer; Asian Americans; Pacific Islander Americans; Community networks; Healthcare coalitions
23.  Improving Public Health System Performance Through Multiorganizational Partnerships 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;7(6):A116.
Public health activities in the United States are delivered through multiple public and private organizations that vary widely in their resources, missions, and operations. Without strong coordination mechanisms, these delivery arrangements may perpetuate large gaps, inequities, and inefficiencies in public health activities. We examined evidence and uncertainties concerning the use of partnerships to improve the performance of the public health system, with a special focus on partnerships between public health agencies and health care organizations. We found that the types of partnerships likely to have the largest and most direct effects on population health are among the most difficult, and therefore least prevalent, forms of collaboration. High opportunity costs and weak and diffuse participation incentives hinder partnerships that focus on expanding effective prevention programs and policies. Targeted policy actions and leadership strategies are required to illuminate and enhance partnership incentives.
PMCID: PMC2995603  PMID: 20950523
24.  Drinking and Driving 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1985;133(8):806-806B.
Alcohol misuse generates many health and social problems at a cost that society is increasingly unwilling to sustain. One of the most tragic consequences of alcohol misuse is the result of drinking and driving. Each week, impaired drivers kill 40 Canadian men, women and children and injure 1250 others. The Canadian Medical Association (CMA), in its campaign against drinking and driving, has recommended that a condition of obtaining or renewing a driver's licence include the individual's written consent to allow the taking of blood samples by qualified medical personnel when deemed necessary by law enforcement agencies. CMA has recommended to the provinces that the legal age for the purchase and public possession of alcohol be raised to 21. CMA also supports the ban of all alcohol advertising in the electronic media and emphasizes that since alcohol is a drug, all containers should be visibly labelled “Misuse of this Product can be Injurious to Health”. CMA continues to support and encourage the federal and provincial governments in their battle to prevent alcohol-related deaths and injuries through education, control of advertising, use of breathalyzer devices, mandatory blood alcohol testing and legislation enacting stiffer penalties for drinking and driving.
PMCID: PMC1346477
25.  5 a day for better health—nine community research projects to increase fruit and vegetable consumption 
Public Health Reports  1995;110(1):68-79.
One of the national objectives in “Healthy People 2000” is for members of the public to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables to five or more servings daily. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) began a nationwide campaign to achieve this objective in 1991. As part of this campaign, the NCI funded nine research studies in 1993. These projects are implementing and evaluating community-based programs designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among different segments of the population in Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, and Washington.
The settings for these projects include the Special Supplement Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC Programs), churches, worksites, and schools. The projects are led by multidisciplinary teams and entail extensive collaboration among academic, governmental, private sector, and voluntary agencies within each State. The projects represent a model public health paradigm for conducting this type of research.
PMCID: PMC1382077  PMID: 7838947

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