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1.  Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001743.
Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues compared US medical students' survey responses regarding pharmaceutical company interactions with the schools' AMSA PharmFree scorecard and Institute on Medicine as a Profession's (IMAP) scores.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.
Methods and Findings
Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50–2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50–2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19–0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19–1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15–0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships) were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis.
Conclusions
As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings, manufacturers may help to inform trainees and physicians about developments in health care, but they also create the potential for harm to patients and health care systems. These interactions may, for example, reduce trainees' and trained physicians' skepticism about potentially misleading promotional claims and may encourage physicians to prescribe new medications, which are often more expensive than similar unbranded (generic) drugs and more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than older drugs. To address these and other concerns about the potential career-long effects of interactions between medical trainees and industry, many teaching hospitals and medical schools have introduced policies to limit such interactions. The development of these policies has been supported by expert professional groups and medical societies, some of which have created scales to evaluate the strength of the implemented industry interaction policies.
Why Was This Study Done?
The impact of policies designed to limit interactions between students and industry on student behavior is unclear, and it is not known which aspects of the policies are most predictive of student behavior. This information is needed to ensure that the policies are working and to identify ways to improve them. Here, the researchers investigate which medical school characteristics and which aspects of industry interaction policies are most predictive of students' reported behaviors and beliefs by comparing information collected in a national survey of US medical students with the strength of their schools' industry interaction policies measured on two scales—the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared information about reported gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and the perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation collected from 1,610 medical students at 121 US medical schools with AMSA and IMAP scores for the schools evaluated a year earlier. Students at schools with the highest ranked interaction policies based on the AMSA score were 63% less likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools. Students at the highest ranked schools based on the IMAP score were about half as likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools, although this finding was not statistically significant (it could be a chance finding). Similarly, students at the highest ranked schools were 70% less likely to interact with sales representatives as students at the lowest ranked schools. These associations became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for the amount of research funding each school received from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Policies limiting gifts, meals, and being a part of speaking bureaus (where companies pay speakers to present information about the drugs for dinners and other events) were associated with students' reports of receiving no gifts and of non-interaction with sales representatives. Finally, policies regulating industry involvement in educational activities were associated with the perceived separation between faculty and industry, which was regarded as adequate by most of the students at schools with such policies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that policies designed to limit industry interactions with medical students need to address multiple aspects of these interactions to achieve changes in the behavior and attitudes of trainees, but that policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus may be particularly important. These findings also suggest that the level of NIH funding plays an important role in students' self-reported behaviors and their perceptions of industry, possibly because institutions with greater NIH funding have the resources needed to implement effective policies. The accuracy of these findings may be limited by recall bias (students may have reported their experiences inaccurately), and by the possibility that industry interaction policies may have changed in the year that elapsed between policy grading and the student survey. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that limitations on gifts should be emphasized when academic medical centers refine their policies on interactions between medical students and industry and that particular attention should be paid to the design and implementation of policies that regulate industry interactions in institutions with lower levels of NIH funding.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001743.
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice document, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Information about the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Just Medicine campaign (formerly the PharmFree campaign) and about the AMSA Scorecard is available
Information about the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) and about its Conflicts of Interest Policy Database is also available
“Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide” is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that medical schools can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion
The US Institute of Medicine's report “Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice” recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The ALOSA Foundation provides evidence-based, non-industry-funded education about treating common conditions and using prescription drugs
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001743
PMCID: PMC4196737  PMID: 25314155
2.  US Medical Student Performance on the NBME Subject Examination in Internal Medicine: Do Clerkship Sequence and Clerkship Length Matter? 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2015;30(9):1307-1312.
BACKGROUND
Prior to graduation, US medical students are required to complete clinical clerkship rotations, most commonly in the specialty areas of family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn), pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery. Within a school, the sequence in which students complete these clerkships varies. In addition, the length of these rotations varies, both within a school for different clerkships and between schools for the same clerkship.
OBJECTIVE
The present study investigated the effects of clerkship sequence and length on performance on the National Board of Medical Examiner’s subject examination in internal medicine.
PARTICIPANTS
The study sample included 16,091 students from 67 US Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited medical schools who graduated in 2012 or 2013.
MAIN MEASURES
Student-level measures included first-attempt internal medicine subject examination scores, first-attempt USMLE Step 1 scores, and five dichotomous variables capturing whether or not students completed rotations in family medicine, ob/gyn, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery prior to taking the internal medicine rotation. School-level measures included clerkship length and average Step 1 score.
DESIGN
Multilevel models with students nested in schools were estimated with internal medicine subject examination scores as the dependent measure. Step 1 scores and the five dichotomous variables were treated as student-level predictors. Internal medicine clerkship length and average Step 1 score were used to predict school-to-school variation in average internal medicine subject examination scores.
KEY RESULTS
Completion of rotations in surgery, pediatrics and family medicine prior to taking the internal medicine examination significantly improved scores, with the largest benefit observed for surgery (coefficient = 1.58 points; p value < 0.01); completion of rotations in ob/gyn and psychiatry were unrelated to internal medicine subject examination performance. At the school level, longer internal medicine clerkships were associated with higher scores on the internal medicine examination (coefficient = 0.23 points/week; p value < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
The order in which students complete clinical clerkships and the length of the internal medicine clerkship are associated with their internal medicine subject examination scores. Findings may have implications for curriculum re-design.
doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3337-z
PMCID: PMC4539318  PMID: 26173524
clinical education; internal medicine clerkship performance; clerkship sequence; clerkship length; NBME subject examinations
3.  Internal Medicine Clerkship Directors’ Perceptions About Student Interest in Internal Medicine Careers 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(7):1101-1104.
Background
Experienced medical student educators may have insight into the reasons for declining interest in internal medicine (IM) careers, particularly general IM.
Objective
To identify factors that, according to IM clerkship directors, influence students’ decisions for specialty training in IM.
Design
Cross-sectional national survey.
Participants
One hundred ten institutional members of Clerkship Directors in IM.
Measurements
Frequency counts and percentages were reported for descriptive features of clerkships, residency match results, and clerkship directors’ perceptions of factors influencing IM career choice at participating schools. Perceptions were rated on a five-point scale (1 = very much pushes students away from IM careers; 5 = very much attracts students toward IM careers).
Results
Survey response rate was 83/110 (76%); 80 answered IM career-choice questions. Clerkship directors identified three educational items attracting students to IM careers: quality of IM faculty (mean score 4.3, SD = 0.56) and IM rotation (4.1, SD = 0.67), and experiences with IM residents (3.9, SD = 0.94). Items felt most strongly to push students away from IM careers were current practice environment for internists (mean score 2.1, SD = 0.94), income (2.1, SD = 1.08), medical school debt (2.3, SD = 0.89), and work hours in IM (2.4, SD = 1.05). Factor analysis indicated three factors explaining students’ career choices: value/prestige of IM, clerkship experience, and exposure to internists.
Conclusions
IM clerkship directors believe that IM clerkship experiences attract students toward IM, whereas the income and lifestyle for practicing internists dissuade them. These results suggest that interventions to enhance the practice environment for IM could increase student interest in the field.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0640-y
PMCID: PMC2517945  PMID: 18612752
career choice; education, medical, undergraduate; medical students, workforce
4.  "Making the grade:" noncognitive predictors of medical students' clinical clerkship grades. 
OBJECTIVES: Because clinical clerkship grades are associated with resident selection and performance and are largely based on residents'/attendings' subjective ratings, it is important to identify variables associated with clinical clerkship grades. METHODS: U.S. medical students who completed > or =1 of the following required clinical clerkships--internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, neurology and psychiatry--were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey, which inquired about demographics, degree program, perceived quality of clerkship experiences, assertiveness, reticence and clerkship grades. RESULTS: A total of 2395 medical students (55% women; 57% whites) from 105 schools responded. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors independently associated with receiving lower clerkship grades (high pass/pass or B/C) compared with the highest grade (honors or A). Students reporting higher quality of clerkship experiences were less likely to report lower grades in all clerkships. Older students more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02) and neurology (P < 0.001). Underrepresented minorities more likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.001); Asians more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P = 0.007), pediatrics (P = 0.01) and neurology (P = 0.01). Men more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P < 0.001) and psychiatry (P = 0.004). Students reporting greater reticence more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02), pediatrics (P = 0.02) and psychiatry (P < 0.05). Students reporting greater assertiveness less likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.03) except IM. CONCLUSIONS: The independent associations between lower clerkship grades and nonwhite race, male gender, older age, lower quality of clerkship experiences, and being less assertive and more reticent are concerning and merit further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2574397  PMID: 17987918
5.  Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades? 
Medical Education Online  2016;21:10.3402/meo.v21.31724.
Background
Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2) OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC). In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score) and third-year (M3) Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored.
Methods
Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis.
Results
Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5%) had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year.
Conclusions
There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if this is because of testing variability or heterogeneity from class to class. Although there were no differences in preclinical scores based on M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores, students would benefit from a longitudinal review of their OSCE performance over their medical training. Additionally, students may benefit from more reliable and valid forms of assessing communication. In general, students who take the IM clerkship last in the academic year performed better on the required OSCE. More information is needed to determine why this is seen only at the end of the year.
doi:10.3402/meo.v21.31724
PMCID: PMC4919367  PMID: 27340087
clinical education; communication skills; curriculum development
6.  The effect of medical students’ gender, ethnicity and attitude towards poetry-reading on the evaluation of a required, clinically-integrated poetry- based educational intervention 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:188.
Background
Art -based interventions are widely used in medical education. However, data on the potential effects of art-based interventions on medical students have been limited to small qualitative studies on students’ evaluation of elective programs, and thus their findings may be difficult to generalize. The goal of this study is to examine, in an unselected students’ population, the effect of students’ gender, ethnicity and attitude towards poetry on their evaluation of a clinically-integrated poetry-based educational intervention.
Methods
A required Clinically- Oriented Poetry-reading Experience (COPE) is integrated into the 4th year internal medicine clerkship. We constructed a questionnaire regarding the program’s effects on students. Students completed the questionnaire at the end of the clerkship. We performed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and examined the relationship between students’ evaluation of the program and students’ ethnicity, gender, attitude towards poetry-reading, and the timing of the program (early/late) during the fourth year.
Results
144 students participated in the program, of which 112 completed the questionnaires. We identified two effect factors: “student-patient” and “self and colleagues”. The average score for “student-patient” factor was significantly higher as compared to the “self and colleagues” factor.
Evaluation the “student- patient” effect factor was higher among Arab and Druze as compared to Jewish students. Students’ attitude towards poetry-reading did not correlate with the “student-patient” effect, but correlated with the “self and colleagues” effect. The evaluation of the “self and colleagues” effect was higher among students who participated in the program during their second as compared with the first clerkship. Students’ gender was not associated with any of the effects identified. Students favored obligatory participation in COPE as compared with elective course format.
Conclusions
According to students’ evaluation, a format of integrated, obligatory poetry-based intervention may be suitable for enhancing “student-patient” aims in heterogeneous student populations. The higher evaluation of the “patient-student” effect among Arab and Druze as compared to Jewish students may be related to cultural differences in the perception of this component of medical professionalism. Further research can provide insight into the effect of cultural and ethnic differences on actual empathy of medical students in patient encounters.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-188
PMCID: PMC4176599  PMID: 25223335
Art-based intervention; Poetry; Medical humanities; Medical education
7.  Improving the National Board of Medical Examiners Internal Medicine Subject Exam for Use in Clerkship Evaluation 
OBJECTIVE
To provide a consensus opinion on modifying the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Medicine Subject Exam (Shelf) to: 1) reflect the internal medicine clerkship curriculum, developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) and the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM); 2) emphasize knowledge important for a clerkship student; and 3) obtain feedback about students' performances on the Shelf.
DESIGN
Two-round Delphi technique.
PARTICIPANTS
The CDIM Research and Evaluation Committee and CDIM members on NBME Step 2 Committees.
MEASUREMENTS
Using 1–5 Likert scales (5 = highest ratings), the group rated test question content for relevance to the SGIM–CDIM Curriculum Guide and importance for clerkship students' knowledge. The Shelf content is organized into 4 physician tasks and into 11 sections that are generally organ system based. Each iteration of the Shelf has 100 questions. Participants indicated a desired distribution of questions by physician task and section, topics critical for inclusion on each exam, and new topics to include. They specified the types of feedback clerkship directors desired on students' performances. Following the first round, participants viewed pooled results prior to submitting their second-round responses.
RESULTS
Of 15 individuals contacted, 12 (80%) participated in each round. The desired distribution by physician task was: diagnosis (43), treatment (23), mechanism of disease (20), and health maintenance (15). The sections with the most questions requested were the cardiovascular (17), respiratory (15), and gastroenterology (12) sections. The fewest were requested in aging/ethics (4) and neurology, dermatology, and immunology (5 each). Examples of low-rated content were Wilson's Disease, chancroid and tracheal rupture (all <2.0). Health maintenance in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease all received 5.0 ratings. Participants desired feedback by: section (4.6) and physician task (3.9), on performances of the entire class (4.0), and for individual students (3.8).
CONCLUSION
Clerkship directors identified test content that was relevant to the curricular content and important for clerkship students to know, and they indicated a desired question distribution. They would most like feedback on their students' performance by organ system–based sections for the complete academic year. This collaborative effort could serve as a model for aligning national exams with course goals.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.10673.x
PMCID: PMC1495056  PMID: 12133157
clinical clerkship; clinical competance; student evaluation; undergraduate education
8.  Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(5):e1001037.
A systematic review of published studies reveals that undergraduate medical students may experience substantial exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, and that this contact may be associated with positive attitudes about marketing.
Background
The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development.
Methods and Findings
We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs.
Conclusions
Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
The complex relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has long been a subject of discussion among physicians and policymakers. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical sales representatives may influence clinical decision making in a way that is not always in the best interests of individual patients, for example, encouraging the use of expensive treatments that have no therapeutic advantage over less costly alternatives. The pharmaceutical industry often uses physician education as a marketing tool, as in the case of Continuing Medical Education courses that are designed to drive prescribing practices.
One reason that physicians may be particularly susceptible to pharmaceutical industry marketing messages is that doctors' attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry may form early in their careers. The socialization effect of professional schooling is strong, and plays a lasting role in shaping views and behaviors.
Why Was This Study Done?
Recently, particularly in the US, some medical schools have limited students' and faculties' contact with industry, but some have argued that these restrictions are detrimental to students' education. Given the controversy over the pharmaceutical industry's role in undergraduate medical training, consolidating current knowledge in this area may be useful for setting priorities for changes to educational practices. In this study, the researchers systematically examined studies of pharmaceutical industry interactions with medical students and whether such interactions influenced students' views on related topics.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers did a comprehensive literature search using appropriate search terms for all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies published before June 2010. Using strict inclusion criteria, the researchers then selected 48 articles (from 1,603 abstracts) for full review and identified 32 eligible for analysis—giving a total of approximately 9,850 medical students studying at 76 medical schools or hospitals.
Most students had some form of interaction with the pharmaceutical industry but contact increased in the clinical years, with up to 90% of all clinical students receiving some form of educational material. The highest level of exposure occurred in the US. In most studies, the majority of students in their clinical training years found it ethically permissible for medical students to accept gifts from drug manufacturers, while a smaller percentage of preclinical students reported such attitudes. Students justified their entitlement to gifts by citing financial hardship or by asserting that most other students accepted gifts. In addition, although most students believed that education from industry sources is biased, students variably reported that information obtained from industry sources was useful and a valuable part of their education.
Almost two-thirds of students reported that they were immune to bias induced by promotion, gifts, or interactions with sales representatives but also reported that fellow medical students or doctors are influenced by such encounters. Eight studies reported a relationship between exposure to the pharmaceutical industry and positive attitudes about industry interactions and marketing strategies (although not all included supportive statistical data). Finally, student opinions were split on whether physician–industry interactions should be regulated by medical schools or the government.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This analysis shows that students are frequently exposed to pharmaceutical marketing, even in the preclinical years, and that the extent of students' contact with industry is generally associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism towards any negative implications of interactions with industry. Therefore, strategies to educate students about interactions with the pharmaceutical industry should directly address widely held misconceptions about the effects of marketing and other biases that can emerge from industry interactions. But education alone may be insufficient. Institutional policies, such as rules regulating industry interactions, can play an important role in shaping students' attitudes, and interventions that decrease students' contact with industry and eliminate gifts may have a positive effect on building the skills that evidence-based medical practice requires. These changes can help cultivate strong professional values and instill in students a respect for scientific principles and critical evidence review that will later inform clinical decision-making and prescribing practices.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037.
Further information about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on doctors and medical students can be found at the American Medical Students Association PharmFree campaign and PharmFree Scorecard, Medsin-UKs PharmAware campaign, the nonprofit organization Healthy Skepticism, and the Web site of No Free Lunch.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037
PMCID: PMC3101205  PMID: 21629685
9.  Residents as Role Models: The Effect of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship on Medical Students' Career Interest 
Background
Medical students' choice of residency specialty is based in part on their clerkship experience. Postclerkship interest in a particular specialty is associated with the students' choice to pursue a career in that field. But, many medical students have a poor perception of their obstetrics and gynecology clerkships.
Objective
To determine whether fourth-year medical students' perceptions of teaching quality and quantity and amount of experiential learning during the obstetrics-gynecology clerkship helped determine their interest in obstetrics-gynecology as a career choice.
Methods
We distributed an anonymous, self-administered survey to all third-year medical students rotating through their required obstetrics and gynecology clerkship from November 2006 to May 2007. We performed bivariate analysis and used χ2 analysis to explore factors associated with general interest in obstetrics and gynecology and interest in pursuing obstetrics and gynecology as a career.
Results
Eighty-one students (N  =  91, 89% response rate) participated. Postclerkship career interest in obstetrics and gynecology was associated with perceptions that the residents behaved professionally (P < .0001) and that the students were treated as part of a team (P  =  .008). Having clear expectations on labor and delivery procedures (P  =  .014) was associated with postclerkship career interest. Specific hands-on experiences were not statistically associated with postclerkship career interest. However, performing more speculum examinations in the operating room trended toward having some influence (P  =  .068). Although more women than men were interested in obstetrics and gynecology as a career both before (P  =  .027) and after (P  =  .014) the clerkship, men were more likely to increase their level of career interest during the clerkship (P  =  .024).
Conclusions
Clerkship factors associated with greater postclerkship interest include higher satisfaction with resident professional behavior and students' sense of inclusion in the clinical team. Obstetrics and gynecology programs need to emphasize to residents their role as educators and professional role models for medical students.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-09-00070.1
PMCID: PMC2951771  PMID: 21976080
10.  Improving the Physical Diagnosis Skills of Third-year Medical Students 
OBJECTIVE
To determine if a literature-based physical diagnosis curriculum could improve student knowledge, skill, and self-confidence in physical diagnosis.
DESIGN
Prospective controlled trial of an educational intervention.
SETTING
Required internal medicine clerkship for third-year medical students at Brown Medical School.
PARTICIPANTS
Third-year medical students who completed the internal medicine clerkship during the academic year 1999–2000: 32 students at 1 clerkship site received the intervention; a total of 50 students at 3 other clerkship sites served as controls.
INTERVENTION
Physical diagnosis curriculum based on 8 articles from the Journal of the American Medical Association's Rational Clinical Examination series. Intervention students met weekly for 1 hour with a preceptor to review each article, discuss the sensitivity and specificity of the maneuvers and findings, and practice the techniques with an inpatient who agreed to be visited and examined.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
Physical diagnosis knowledge for the 8 topics was evaluated using a 22-item multiple choice question quiz, skill was evaluated using trained evaluators, and self-confidence was assessed using an end-of-clerkship survey. Intervention students scored significantly higher than the control group on the knowledge quiz (mean correct score 70% vs 63%, P = .002), skills assessment (mean correct score 90% vs 54%, P < .001), and self-confidence score (mean total score 40 vs 35, P = .003), and they expressed greater satisfaction with the physical diagnosis teaching they received in the clerkship.
CONCLUSION
This physical diagnosis curriculum was successful in improving students' knowledge, skill, and self-confidence in physical diagnosis.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.20821.x
PMCID: PMC1494895  PMID: 12911648
physical diagnosis; medical education; clinical examination
11.  Evaluating team-based, lecture-based, and hybrid learning methods for neurology clerkship in China: a method-comparison study 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:98.
Background
Neurology is complex, abstract, and difficult for students to learn. However, a good learning method for neurology clerkship training is required to help students quickly develop strong clinical thinking as well as problem-solving skills. Both the traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) and the relatively new team-based learning (TBL) methods have inherent strengths and weaknesses when applied to neurology clerkship education. However, the strengths of each method may complement the weaknesses of the other. Combining TBL with LBL may produce better learning outcomes than TBL or LBL alone. We propose a hybrid method (TBL + LBL) and designed an experiment to compare the learning outcomes with those of pure LBL and pure TBL.
Methods
One hundred twenty-seven fourth-year medical students attended a two-week neurology clerkship program organized by the Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital. All of the students were from Grade 2007, Department of Clinical Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University. These students were assigned to one of three groups randomly: Group A (TBL + LBL, with 41 students), Group B (LBL, with 43 students), and Group C (TBL, with 43 students). The learning outcomes were evaluated by a questionnaire and two tests covering basic knowledge of neurology and clinical practice.
Results
The practice test scores of Group A were similar to those of Group B, but significantly higher than those of Group C. The theoretical test scores and the total scores of Group A were significantly higher than those of Groups B and C. In addition, 100% of the students in Group A were satisfied with the combination of TBL + LBL.
Conclusions
Our results support our proposal that the combination of TBL + LBL is acceptable to students and produces better learning outcomes than either method alone in neurology clerkships. In addition, the proposed hybrid method may also be suited for other medical clerkships that require students to absorb a large amount of abstract and complex course materials in a short period, such as pediatrics and internal medicine clerkships.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-98
PMCID: PMC4037118  PMID: 24884854
Lecture-based learning; Team-based learning; Neurology; Clerkship; Hybrid learning method
12.  Using a formative simulated patient exercise for curriculum evaluation 
Background
It is not clear that teaching specific history taking, physical examination and patient teaching techniques to medical students results in durable behavioural changes. We used a quasi-experimental design that approximated a randomized double blinded trial to examine whether a Participatory Decision-Making (PDM) educational module taught in a clerkship improves performance on a Simulated Patient Exercise (SPE) in another clerkship, and how this is influenced by the time between training and assessment.
Methods
Third year medical students in an internal medicine clerkship were assessed on their use of PDM skills in an SPE conducted in the second week of the clerkship. The rotational structure of the third year clerkships formed a pseudo-randomized design where students had 1) completed the family practice clerkship containing a training module on PDM skills approximately four weeks prior to the SPE, 2) completed the family medicine clerkship and the training module approximately 12 weeks prior to the SPE or 3) had not completed the family medicine clerkship and the PDM training module at the time they were assessed via the SPE.
Results
Based on limited pilot data there were statistically significant differences between students who received PDM training approximately four weeks prior to the SPE and students who received training approximately 12 weeks prior to the SPE. Students who received training 12 weeks prior to the SPE performed better than those who received training four weeks prior to the SPE. In a second comparison students who received training four weeks prior to the SPE performed better than those who did not receive training but the differences narrowly missed statistical significance (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a methodology for conducting rigorous curricular evaluations using natural experiments based on the structure of clinical rotations. In addition, it provided preliminary data suggesting targeted educational interventions can result in marked improvements in the clinical skills spontaneously exhibited by physician trainees in a setting different from which the skills were taught.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-4-8
PMCID: PMC419360  PMID: 15140263
13.  Influence of Assigned Reading on Senior Medical Student Clinical Performance 
Objective
This Institutional Review Board-approved, prospective, observational study compared the clinical performance of senior medical students in an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship using a clinical behavioral evaluation tool in which one group had mandatory, topic specific readings and the other did not.
Methods
The study took place in an urban, tertiary referral center emergency department treating 43,000 patients annually and supporting medical student clerkships and an EM residency. The grades of two groups of senior medical students participating in an elective EM clerkship were compared. Those students during the 2002–2004 academic years were not assigned mandatory, topic-specific reading for the clerkship, while those during the 2004–2007 academic years were. The groups were compared on baseline demographic information, prior academic performance, and EM clerkship grade distributions using appropriate statistical techniques, including multinomial logistic regression, chi-square tests, and Fisher’s Exact tests.
Results
The control and experimental groups each had 83 subjects and were similar in baseline characteristics, except for the control group performing better than the experimental group during the basic science training of medical school (years 1–2; p=0.01). The experimental group had statistically significant more members in the EM Interest Group (EMIG; p=0.0001) and more members who went on to match in an EM residency (p=0.0007). The difference in grade distributions between the control group and experimental group was not statistically significant (p=0.40). Of note, those student members of the EMIG (p=0.0005) and those later matching to an emergency medicine residency (p<0.0001) were more likely to earn a grade of “honors” for the clerkship.
Conclusion
The addition of uniform, topic-specific reading assignments to an EM senior medical student curriculum does not improve the overall clinical performance of those students as measured using a clinical behavioral evaluation tool.
PMCID: PMC2672302  PMID: 19561764
14.  How an ethics workshop for preceptors affects medical students. 
Canadian Family Physician  1994;40:1292-1298.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a workshop on medical ethics attended by family medicine preceptors would affect their students' learning of ethics, and what educational and experiential factors affected the students' learning about ethics. DESIGN: A 3-hour workshop planned by a group of family physicians and ethicists and taught by a faculty member and an ethicist was offered to family physician preceptors. Students entering the clerkship were invited by letter to complete written answers to two clinical papers. Their answers were compared with "ideal" answers based on a weighted composite of the responses of 12 family physicians with a particular interest in ethics. The scores of students assigned to preceptors who had been offered the workshop were compared with those of students assigned to a control group of preceptors. Clerks were also asked about influences on their answers. PARTICIPANTS: The 86 preceptors participating in the family medicine programs at the University of Western Ontario, divided by random selection within geographic clustering into an experimental group of 50 and a control group of 36. Preceptors offered the workshop were considered to be in the experimental group whether or not they attended. The student questionnaire was sent to all students entering the family medicine clerkship program in the academic year 1989-1990 and some in the following year, until sufficient responses were received. Responses were analyzed from 32 clerks in the experimental group and 36 in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Performance of students whose preceptors were invited to the workshop against performance of students whose preceptors were not invited to the workshop. RESULTS: No significant differences were noted between the performance of students whose preceptors were offered the workshop and those whose preceptors were not. CONCLUSION: The single outcome measure and the volunteer bias make conclusions difficult to draw. Further studies varying interventions and outcome measures are warranted.
PMCID: PMC2380146  PMID: 8086844
15.  Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students 
Background
The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity.
Objective
The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students.
Design
A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted.
Participants
Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study.
Measures
Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs), patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students.
Results
Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation with sharing knowledge/skills and encouraging student initiative. Higher work RVUs and total patient encounters were negatively correlated with timely feedback and constructive criticism.
Conclusion
The results suggest that internal medicine clerkship student evaluations of hospitalist faculty are negatively influenced by high clinical service intensity measured in terms of annual work RVUs, patient encounters, and duty days.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S77216
PMCID: PMC4330005  PMID: 25709514
work relative value units; patient encounters; duty days; clinical service intensity; medical students
16.  Comparison of Medical Students' Satisfaction with Family Medicine Clerkships between University Hospitals and Community Hospitals or Clinics 
Korean Journal of Family Medicine  2016;37(6):340-345.
Background
The purpose of this study was to compare students' awareness of and satisfaction with clerkships in family medicine between a university hospital and a community hospital or clinic.
Methods
Thirty-eight 4th year medical students who were undergoing a clerkship in family medicine in the 1st semester of 2012 were surveyed via questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered both before and after the clerkship.
Results
External clerkships were completed in eight family medicine clinics and two regional hospitals. At preclerkship, participants showed strong expectation for understanding primary care and recognition of the need for community clerkship, mean scores of 4.3±0.5 and 4.1±0.7, respectively. At post-clerkship, participants showed a significant increase in recognition of the need for community clerkship (4.7±0.5, P<0.001). The pre-clerkship recognition of differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics was 4.1±0.7; at post-clerkship, it was 3.9±0.7. Students' confidence in their ability to see a first-visit patient and their expectation of improved interviewing skills both significantly increased at post-clerkship (P<0.01). Satisfaction with feedback from preceptors and overall satisfaction with the clerkship also significantly increased, but only for the university hospital clerkship (P<0.01).
Conclusion
Students' post-clerkship satisfaction was uniformly high for both clerkships. At pre-clerkship, students were aware of the differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics, and this awareness did not change by the end of the clerkship.
doi:10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.6.340
PMCID: PMC5122666  PMID: 27900072
Medical Students; Clinical Clerkship; Primary Health Care; Community Medicine
17.  Knowledge and skills needed to improve as preceptor: development of a continuous professional development course – a qualitative study part I 
BMC Nursing  2015;14:51.
Background
Preceptors are expected to have the skills to be able to form an effective learning environment and facilitate a constructive clinical learning experience for students and new employees. Internationally, access to education for preceptors varies, with preceptors worldwide requesting more education in preceptorship. This article is based on a two-part study focusing on both the development and evaluation of a continuous, credit-bearing professional development course. The aim of this part of the study was to investigate and include preceptors’ requests and educational needs when developing a continuous professional development course on an advanced level.
Methods
This study used a qualitative research approach. In total, 64 preceptors (62 women and two men) answered one single written, self-administered global question online. The participants were all interested in teaching and had completed an undergraduate training in preceptorship. The collected data was analysed by content analysis inspired by Burnard’s description of the method.
Results
The participating preceptors illuminated two main themes: ‘Tools for effective precepting of students and healthcare professionals’ and ‘in-depth knowledge and understanding of preceptorship in an academic setting’. The results suggest that vital components for preceptor preparation could be a) teaching and learning strategies, b) reflective and critical reasoning, c) communication models, d) the role of the preceptor, and e) preceptorship.
Conclusion
Using the results from this study as a guide, a continuous professional development course was designed to assist preceptors in deepening their knowledge of preceptorship in regard to planning, leading and implementing educational activities directed at students, healthcare professionals, patients and their families. The course content focuses on skills needed for preceptorship and is based on adult learning principles. A continuous, credit-bearing professional development course must include an exam by which participants are formally assessed and graded; therefore, a written assignment was included as part of the course.
doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0103-9
PMCID: PMC4609157  PMID: 26478717
Advanced level; Clinical practice; Continuous professional development course; Development; Preceptor
18.  Pre-clerkship clinical skills and clinical reasoning course performance: Explaining the variance in clerkship performance 
Introduction: Evidence suggests that pre-clerkship courses in clinical skills and clinical reasoning positively impact student performance on the clerkship. Given the increasing emphasis on reducing diagnostic reasoning errors, it is very important to develop this critical area of medical education. An integrated approach between clinical skills and clinical reasoning courses may better predict struggling learners, and better allocate scarce resources to remediate these learners before the clerkship. Methods: Pre-clerkship and clerkship outcome measures from 514 medical students graduating between 2009 and 2011were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model. Results: Learners with poor performances on integrated pre-clerkship outcome measures had a relative risk of 6.96 and 5.85 for poor performance on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exams and clerkship performance, respectively, and explained 22 % of the variance in clerkship NBME subject exam scores and 20.2 % of the variance in clerkship grades. Discussion: Pre-clerkship outcome measures from clinical skills and clinical reasoning courses explained a significant amount of clerkship performance beyond baseline academic ability. These courses provide valuable information regarding student abilities, and may serve as an early indicator for students requiring remediation. Conclusions: Integrating pre-clerkship outcome measures may be an important aspect of ensuring the validity of this information as the pre-clerkship curriculum becomes compressed, and may serve as the basis for identifying students in need of clinical skills remediation.
doi:10.1007/s40037-016-0287-z
PMCID: PMC4978640  PMID: 27432368
Clinical skills; Clinical reasoning; Struggling learners
19.  The Association of Student Examination Performance with Faculty and Resident Ratings Using a Modified RIME Process 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2008;23(7):1020-1023.
Background
RIME is a descriptive framework in which students and their teachers can gauge progress throughout a clerkship from R (reporter) to I (interpreter) to M (manager) to E (educator). RIME, as described in the literature, is complemented by residents and attending physicians meeting with a clerkship director to discuss individual student progress, with group discussion resulting in assignment of a RIME stage.
Objective
1) to determine whether a student’s RIME rating is associated with end-of-clerkship examination performance; and 2) to determine whose independent RIME rating is most predictive of a student’s examination performance: attendings, residents, or interns.
Design
Prospective cohort study.
Participants
Third year medical students from academic years 2004–2005 and early 2005–2006 at 1 medical school.
Measurements and Main Results
Each attending, resident, and intern independently assessed the student’s final RIME stage attained. For the purpose of analysis, R stage=1, I=2, M=3, and E=4. Regression analyses were performed with examination scores as dependent variables (National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] medicine subject examination and a clinical performance examination [CPE]), with independent variables of mean attending RIME score, mean resident score, and mean intern score. For the 122 students, significant predictors of NBME subject exam score were resident RIME rating (p = .008) and intern RIME rating (p = .02). Significant predictor of CPE performance was resident RIME rating (p = .01).
Conclusion
House staff RIME ratings of students are associated with student performance on written and clinical skills examinations.
doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0611-3
PMCID: PMC2517939  PMID: 18612736
medical education; clinical evaluation; medical students
20.  Effect of the Inpatient General Medicine Rotation on Student Pursuit of a Generalist Career 
BACKGROUND
Entry into general internal medicine (GIM) has declined. The effect of the inpatient general medicine rotation on medical student career choices is uncertain.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the effect of student satisfaction with the inpatient general medicine rotation on pursuit of a career in GIM.
DESIGN
Multicenter cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS
Third-year medical students between July 2001 and June 2003.
MEASUREMENTS
End-of-internal medicine clerkship survey assessed satisfaction with the rotation using a 5-point Likert scale. Pursuit of a career in GIM defined as: (1) response of “Very Likely” or “Certain” to the question “How likely are you to pursue a career in GIM?”; and (2) entry into an internal medicine residency using institutional match data.
RESULTS
Four hundred and two of 751 (54%) students responded. Of the student respondents, 307 (75%) matched in the 2 years following their rotations. Twenty-eight percent (87) of those that matched chose an internal medicine residency. Of these, 8% (25/307) were pursuing a career in GIM. Adjusting for site and preclerkship interest, overall satisfaction with the rotation predicted pursuit of a career in GIM (odds ratio [OR] 3.91, P<.001). Although satisfaction with individual items did not predict pursuit of a generalist career, factor analysis revealed 3 components of satisfaction (attending, resident, and teaching). Adjusting for preclerkship interest, 2 factors (attending and teaching) were associated with student pursuit of a career in GIM (P<.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Increased satisfaction with the inpatient general medicine rotation promotes pursuit of a career in GIM.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00429.x
PMCID: PMC1484782  PMID: 16704390
medical student; career interest; general internal medicine
21.  Impact of a Pre-Clinical Clinical Skills Curriculum on Student Performance in Third-Year Clerkships 
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND
Research on the outcomes of pre-clinical curricula for clinical skills development is needed to assess their influence on medical student performance in clerkships.
OBJECTIVE
To better understand the impact of a clinical-skills curriculum in the pre-clinical setting on student performance.
DESIGN
We conducted a non-randomized, retrospective, pre-post review of student performance evaluations from 3rd-year clerkships, before and after implementation of a clinical-skills curriculum, the Colleges (2001–2007).
MAIN RESULTS
Comparisons of clerkship performance data revealed statistically significant differences favoring the post-Colleges group in the Internal Medicine clerkship for 9 of 12 clinical-skills domains, including Technical Communication Skills (p < 0.023, effect size 0.16), Procedural Skills (p < 0.031, effect size 0.17), Communication Skills (p < 0.003, effect size 0.21), Patient Relationships (p < 0.003, effect size 0.21), Professional Relationships (p < 0.021, effect size 0.17), Educational Attitudes (p < 0.001, effect size 0.24), Initiative and Interest (p < 0.032, effect size 0.15), Attendance and Participation (p < 0.007, effect size 0.19), and Dependability (p < 0.008, effect size 0.19). Statistically significant differences were identified favoring the post-Colleges group in technical communication skills for three of six basic clerkships (Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Pediatrics).
CONCLUSIONS
Implementation of a pre-clinical fundamental skills curriculum appears to be associated with improved clerkship performance in the 3rd year of medical school, particularly in the Internal Medicine clerkship. Similar curricula, focused on teaching clinical skills in small groups at the bedside with personalized mentoring from faculty members, may improve student performance. Continued efforts are needed to understand how to best prepare students for clinical clerkships and how to evaluate outcomes of similar pre-clinical skills programs.
doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1032-7
PMCID: PMC2710476  PMID: 19521738
medical education; clinical skills; medical students; pre-clinical; curriculum
22.  Are students ready for meaningful use? 
Medical Education Online  2013;18:10.3402/meo.v18i0.22495.
Background
The meaningful use (MU) of electronic medical records (EMRs) is being implemented in three stages. Key objectives of stage one include electronic analysis of data entered into structured fields, using decision-support tools (e.g., checking drug–drug interactions [DDI]) and electronic information exchange.
Objective
The authors assessed the performance of medical students on 10 stage-one MU tasks and measured the correlation between students’ MU performance and subsequent end-of-clerkship professionalism assessments and their grades on an end-of-year objective structured clinical examination.
Participants
Two-hundred and twenty-two third-year medical students on the internal medicine (IM) clerkship.
Design/main measures
From July 2010 to February 2012, all students viewed 15 online tutorials covering MU competencies. The authors measured student MU documentation and performance in the chart of a virtual patient using a fully functional training EMR. Specific MU measurements included, adding: a new problem, a new medication, an advanced directive, smoking status, the results of screening tests; and performing a DDI (in which a major interaction was probable), and communicating a plan for this interaction.
Key results
A total of 130 MU errors were identified. Sixty-eight (30.6%) students had at least one error, and 30 (13.5%) had more than one (range 2–6). Of the 130 errors, 90 (69.2%) were errors in structured data entry. Errors occurred in medication dosing and instructions (18%), DDI identification (12%), documenting smoking status (15%), and colonoscopy results (23%). Students with MU errors demonstrated poorer performance on end-of-clerkship professionalism assessments (r =−0.112, p=0.048) and lower observed structured clinical examination (OSCE) history-taking skills (r =−0.165, p=0.008) and communication scores (r= − 0.173, p=0.006).
Conclusions
MU errors among medical students are common and correlate with subsequent poor performance in multiple educational domains. These results indicate that without assessment and feedback, a substantial minority of students may not be ready to progress to more advanced MU tasks.
doi:10.3402/meo.v18i0.22495
PMCID: PMC3835789  PMID: 24256741
documentation/methods; electronic health records; professional competence; students; medical; curriculum
23.  Overnight Hospital Experiences for Medical Students: Results of the 2014 Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine National Survey 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2015;30(9):1245-1250.
BACKGROUND
Since the 2011 Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour rules for residents were implemented, 24–30 h call for interns has been replaced by shift work, including night-float. The impact of these changes on undergraduate medical education experiences in internal medicine has not been described.
OBJECTIVE
We aimed to determine the current status of medical students’ overnight experiences in Internal Medicine clerkships and sub-internships, and to assess internal medicine educators’ perceptions of the importance of overnight work during internal medicine rotations.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS
In May 2014, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) conducted its annual survey. Twenty-eight questions about student participation in overnight work and perceptions of the importance of overnight work (rated on 1–5 Likert scale, 1 = very unimportant and 5 = very important) were included. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize responses. Free text results were analyzed qualitatively.
KEY RESULTS
The response rate was 78 %. A minority of respondents reported students having any overnight experience during the clerkship (38.7 %) or the sub-internship (40.7 %). Only 5 % of respondents reported having students assigned to night-float rotations outside of clerkships or sub-internships. Respondents agreed that overnight experiences were more important during the sub-internship than the clerkship, 4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 3.2 ± 1.2, p < 0.001. Admitting new patients, following their course and responding to emergencies were rated as important overnight tasks for both clerkship and sub-internship students.
CONCLUSIONS
Overnight experiences offer students additional educational opportunities. Clerkship directors felt that the overnight experience for the sub-intern in particular was an important chance to practice providing emergency cross coverage and other intern roles. In the era of ACGME duty hours, there is a need to further examine whether there is a role for increased overnight hospital experiences for medical students.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3405-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11606-015-3405-4
PMCID: PMC4539329  PMID: 26173530
overnight; medical student; education; shift; duty hours
24.  A clinical refresher course for medical scientist trainees 
Medical teacher  2014;36(6):475-479.
Introduction
MD–PhD students experience a prolonged hiatus away from clinical medicine during their laboratory research phase and some have experienced difficulty transitioning back to clinical medicine during clerkship years. We developed a clinical refresher program that serves to rebuild clinical skills prior to re-entering the clinical clerkship years.
Methods
A nine-week program includes a combination of didactic and practical review in history, physical exam, presentation and clinical reasoning skills. The program uses multiple modalities from classroom-based activities to patient care encounters and includes a final assessment using standardized patients.
Results
After seven years of experience, we have made modifications that result in our students scoring comparably well on a standardized patient exam to their second-year medical student colleagues. By the end of the course, all students reported feeling more comfortable completing a history and physical examination and some improvement in preclinical knowledge base. Review of clerkship scores showed a higher percentage of MD–PhD students scoring Honors in a clerkship in years after course implementation as compared to years prior to course implementation.
Conclusion
We describe a clinical refresher course for successfully retraining MD–PhD students to re-enter clinical medical training. It is effective at restoring clinical skills to a level comparable to their medical student contemporaries and prepares them to rejoin the medical student class at the conclusion of their research phase.
doi:10.3109/0142159X.2014.886767
PMCID: PMC4270363  PMID: 24527799
25.  Medical Student Performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination and the National Emergency Medicine M4 Exams 
Introduction
In April 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released an Advanced Clinical Examination (ACE) in emergency medicine (EM). In addition to this new resource, CDEM (Clerkship Directors in EM) provides two online, high-quality, internally validated examinations. National usage statistics are available for all three examinations, however, it is currently unknown how students entering an EM residency perform as compared to the entire national cohort. This information may help educators interpret examination scores of both EM-bound and non-EM-bound students.
Objectives
The objective of this study was to compare EM clerkship examination performance between students who matched into an EM residency in 2014 to students who did not. We made comparisons were made using the EM-ACE and both versions of the National fourth year medical student (M4) EM examinations.
Method
In this retrospective multi-institutional cohort study, the EM-ACE and either Version 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the National EM M4 examination was given to students taking a fourth-year EM rotation at five institutions between April 2013 to February 2014. We collected examination performance, including the scaled EM-ACE score, and percent correct on the EM M4 exams, and 2014 NRMP Match status. Student t-tests were performed on the examination averages of students who matched in EM as compared with those who did not.
Results
A total of 606 students from five different institutions took both the EM-ACE and one of the EM M4 exams; 94 (15.5%) students matched in EM in the 2014 Match. The mean score for EM-bound students on the EM-ACE, V1 and V2 of the EM M4 exams were 70.9 (n=47, SD=9.0), 84.4 (n=36, SD=5.2), and 83.3 (n=11, SD=6.9), respectively. Mean scores for non-EM-bound students were 68.0 (n=256, SD=9.7), 82.9 (n=243, SD=6.5), and 74.5 (n=13, SD=5.9). There was a significant difference in mean scores in EM-bound and non-EM-bound student for the EM-ACE (p=0.05) and V2 (p<0.01) but not V1 (p=0.18) of the National EM M4 examination.
Conclusion
Students who successfully matched in EM performed better on all three exams at the end of their EM clerkship.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2015.9.27305
PMCID: PMC4651594  PMID: 26594290

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