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1.  Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men 
Background
Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen specimens collected from infertile men, and at comparing the seminological variables of semen from infected and non-infected men with these microorganisms.
Methods
A total of 120 semen samples collected from infertile men were investigated. Semen specimens were examined by in-house PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for the presence of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas DNA. Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Standard parametric techniques (t-tests) and nonparametric techniques (Wilcoxon tests) were used for statistical analysis.
Results
The frequency of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas detected in semen samples of infertile men was respectively 19.2% (23/120) and 15.8% (19/120). The frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum (15%) was higher than that of Mycoplasma hominis (10.8%), Ureaplasma parvum (4.2%) and Mycoplasma genitalium (5%). Mixed species of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were detected in 6.7% of semen samples.
Comparison of the parameters of the standard semen analysis between the male partners of the infertile couples with and without genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas infection showed that the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in semen samples is associated with low sperm concentration (p = 0.007) and abnormal sperm morphology (p = 0.03) and a negative correlation between sperm concentration and the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in semen samples of infertile men (p = 0.05). The mean values of seminal volume, pH, vitality, motility and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of genital mycoplasmas DNA or to the detection of ureaplasmas DNA in semen specimens.
Conclusion
Our results demonstrate that genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas seem to be widespread among the male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia. Genital mycoplasmas infections of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality. Our results also indicate that PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay method provides a rapid and effective technique to detect human genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas which is useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of these pathogens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-129
PMCID: PMC2194714  PMID: 17988404
2.  Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan 
We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.
Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.
PMCID: PMC1481172  PMID: 17423929
3.  Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections 
Background & objectives:
Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy.
Methods:
Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method.
Results:
Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.
PMCID: PMC3612329  PMID: 23391795
Antimicrobial susceptibility; PCR; ureaplasma serovars
4.  Presence of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Other Bacteria in the Upper and Lower Genital Tracts of Fertile and Infertile Populations 
Objective: The genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) and Chlamydia trachomatis have been implicated as possible etiologic factors in infertility. Their role in patients with infertility needs to be further defined.
Methods: Seventy-nine infertile patients underwent laparoscopy with cultures obtained for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma from the peritoneal fluid, fallopian tube, endometrium, and endocervix. Cultures for similar organisms were taken from the endocervix of 80 fertile women in their first trimester. Culture results were also compared according to ovulatory status and laparoscopic findings in the infertile group.
Results: There were no differences in the recovery of Ureaplasma (29% vs. 28%) or Chlamydia (4% vs. 0%) positive cervical cultures in the fertile and infertile groups, respectively. However, a significantly higher number of Mycoplasma positive cervical cultures (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.05) were found in the fertile group. Only two upper genital tract cultures were found to be positive (Ureaplasma).
Conclusions: Therefore, if these organisms play a role in infertility, they are present and eradicated prior to infertility work-up and thus do not supports the use of a routine trial of antibiotics prior to laparoscopy.
doi:10.1155/S1064744993000201
PMCID: PMC2364301  PMID: 18475323
5.  Incidence of genital mycoplasmas in women at the time of diagnostic laparoscopy. 
The cervicovaginal and endometrial isolation rates of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis and relevant demographic data were obtained at the time of laparoscopy in 193 women from infertile marriage. For comparative purposes, fertile women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal ligation (n = 56) or other purposes (n = 64) were also cultured. Blacks were more likely than caucasians to be infected with either organism in all population types (p less than or equal to .05); however, no differences were noted in cervicovaginal carriage rates for blacks in different patient populations. M. hominis was isolated more frequently from tubal reanastomosis patients and less often from infertile patients, p less than or equal to .001. No differences were noted among the infertile subpopulations. Although the isolation rate of U. urealyticum from the different patient populations was similar, one subpopulation within the infertile population (male factor) was identified in which the prevalence of ureaplasmal infection of the female's lower genital tract was over twice as high (p less than or equal to .005) as in other infertile women. Yet there were no statistically significant differences in the demographic data of this subpopulation as compared to the population of infertile women as a whole. No other clinical subpopulation with single or multiple diagnoses not including male factor had an increased prevalence of infection. Eighty percent of infected, infertile couples had no clinical evidence of male factor infertility, indicating that only certain individuals are affected.This possibly explains why previous studies involving small numbers of patients without regard to clinical subpopulations have failed to show significant differences between infected and uninfected couples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC2590557  PMID: 6236618
6.  Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e98903.
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis infection on sperm fertilizing ability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098903
PMCID: PMC4096407  PMID: 25019616
7.  Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:171.
Background
Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women.
Methods
Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum.
Results
Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance.
Conclusions
Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-171
PMCID: PMC3976045  PMID: 24679107
Pregnant women; Ureaplasma spp.; Mycoplasma hominis; Antimicrobial susceptibilities
8.  Ureaplasma serotypes associated with the bovine urogenital tract. 
One hundred and thirty-one ureaplasma isolates were tested using the immunoperoxidase system. Thirty-four were from semen, 34 from preputial washes of normal bulls and 63 were from vaginal swabs from herds experiencing infertility problems and/or vulvovaginitis. The serotypes from semen were T44 (12.1%), Bu2 (11.2%), D48 (2.8%), T315 (0.9%) and T288 (0.9%). Those from preputial washes were T44 (9.3%), Bu2 (8.4%), T288 (7.5%), D48 (0.9%) and T95 (0.9%). From vaginal swabs the serotypes were D48 (22.4%), Bu2 (10.3%), T45 (4.7%), T288 (3.8%) and T315 (1.9%).
PMCID: PMC1235978  PMID: 6365295
9.  Comparison of Multiplex PCR Assay with Culture for Detection of Genital Mycoplasmas 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(4):1528-1533.
Ureaplasma, spp. Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis are associated with infection of the genitourinary tract, reproductive failure, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex PCR for the detection of these Mycoplasmatales in a single amplification reaction. The analytical sensitivities of this assay were 10.8, 10.8, and 8.8 CFU for each organism, respectively. This multiplex PCR was compared to culture on 26 cervical swabs, 2 vaginal swabs, 4 female urine specimens, 49 semen samples, 2 male urine specimens, and 1 nonspecified sample. A total of 21 specimens were culture positive (25%); 17 of these were PCR positive. An additional 11 specimens were PCR positive but culture negative. Of the 21 culture-positive specimens, 17 (81%) grew Ureaplasma spp. and 4 (19%) grew Mycoplasma spp. Of the 28 PCR-positive specimens, Ureaplasma spp. was detected in 23 (82%), M. hominis was detected in 3 (11%), and both were detected in 2 (7%). In a confirmatory analysis, all samples were tested by amplification of a second target of the ureaplasma genome. True-positive cases were defined as a positive result by culture or by both amplification assays. The multiplex PCR detected organisms in 26 of the 30 true-positive specimens, as well as in 2 other specimens. Based on a 36% prevalence of infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of multiplex PCR analyses were 87, 96, 94, and 93%, respectively. Multiplex PCR offers a rapid, sensitive, and easy method to detect genital mycoplasmas.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.4.1528-1533.2004
PMCID: PMC387538  PMID: 15070999
10.  Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis with rifampicin as a means of defining the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum 
The results of a double-blind therapeutic trial on 217 men with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) show that minocycline was more effective than rifampicin. Before treatment Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43% of men, Ureaplasma urealyticum from 59%, and Mycoplasma hominis from 22%. Chlamydiae and ureaplasmas were isolated less frequently from men with a recent history of NGU. Minocycline was given to 94 patients, and after treatment chlamydiae were isolated from only one of 40 initially chlamydia-positive patients and ureaplasmas from only five of 57 initially ureaplasma-positive patients. Although most patients responded clinically, failure and partial recovery rather than complete recovery were observed more often among those who were infected with ureaplasmas. Rifampicin was given to 123 patients, after which chlamydiae were isolated from only one of 53 initially chlamydia-positive men whereas ureaplasmas, insensitive to the antibiotic in vitro, were isolated from 55 of 68 men who had initially positive results. Patients infected with ureaplasmas failed to respond to rifampicin treatment significantly more often than those who were not infected. This was also observed when only patients who had never had NGU or who had not had a recent episode were considered. Furthermore, 24 (44%) of the 55 men whose ureaplasmas persisted failed to recover whereas only one (7·7%) of 13 men whose ureaplasmas disappeared did not respond to treatment. These results suggested that ureaplasmas were a cause of urethritis in some of the men (an estimated 10% at least). In addition, Reiter's disease developed in two men treated with rifampicin from whom only ureaplasmas had been isolated initially. M. hominis did not seem to have an important pathogenic role in NGU and there was evidence that ureaplasmas were an unlikely cause of urethritis in some men since the organisms persisted despite complete clinical recovery.
PMCID: PMC1045579  PMID: 371746
11.  Isolation of Ureaplasma from bovine granular vulvitis. 
Cultures for mycoplasmatales, viruses and bacteria were made from bovine vulvar swabs to determine whether ureaplasma was associated with a clinical granular vulvitis observed in 16 Ontario dairy herds. Ureaplasma was isolated from 23.5% of 34 clinically normal cows, 74% of 27 cows with mild to moderate vulvar hyperemia but no discharge and 100% of 20 cows with acute vulvar hyperemia accompanied by purulent discharge. There were statistically significant differences in rates of isolation among clinical groups. Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 7.7% and 20% of cows with moderate or acute vulvitis respectively but not from normal cows. Haemophilus somnus was isolated from 25% of cows with acute vulvitis. There were no significant differences in isolations of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium pyogenes and alpha-hemolytic streptococcus between normal and clinically affected animals. Cultures of 135 repeat samples from 33 cows revealed that ureaplasma persisted in some animals for at least three months. No viruses were isolated from any of the animals in this study.
PMCID: PMC1277608  PMID: 352491
12.  The Distribution of Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas in the Genital Tract of Normal Artificial Insemination Bulls 
Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes.
PMCID: PMC1680053  PMID: 17422489
Mycoplasma; ureaplasma; genital tract; semen; artificial insemination; microbial colonization
13.  Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the urines of a non-venereal disease population. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1987;98(3):353-359.
Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms (ureaplasmas) and Mycoplasma hominis organisms (mycoplasmas) were sought in mid-stream urines collected from 200 men and 200 women attending hospital with conditions of a non-venereal nature. In addition, the urines from 100 male and 100 female healthy volunteers were examined. Overall, ureaplasmas were isolated four times more often than mycoplasmas. In individuals less than 50 years of age, the organisms were found in about 20% of men and about 40% of women. In individuals 50 years or older, they were found about one-third to one-half as frequently. Centrifugation of urine and examination of the resuspended deposit did not increase the isolation rates. In men, the numbers of organisms in the urine were usually small (less than or equal to 10(3) c.c.u./ml) with less than tenfold more in the urine of women. The occurrence of 51- greater than 1000 leucocytes per mm3 in some of the urines was not associated with either the presence or an increased number of ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas, whereas they were associated with the presence of 10(5) or more bacteria/ml. The significance of these findings in the context of defining the role of ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas in genital-tract disease is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2235370  PMID: 3595751
14.  Prolonged eradication of urogenital mycoplasmas after administration of tetracycline to men in the Antarctic. 
Meatal swabs were obtained at intervals over 1 year from 23 men in the Antarctic. A 5-day course of tetracycline was given to twelve of them. In retrospect it was found that the antibiotic had been received by two men who were harbouring ureaplasmas, one of whom also had M. hominis. After treatment, these organisms were not found in any of the swabs taken over the next year, except in a swab from one of the men following sexual contact after this time. One of the twelve men developed N.S.U. just before arriving in the Antarctic. He responded clinically to a shorter course of tetracycline and ureplasmas were not recovered from a meatal swab immediately thereafter. However, without further sexual contact, ureaplasmas and disease recurred about a month later. This time, after a 5-day course of tetracycline, disease was not seen, and ureaplasmas were not isolated, over the next year. In contrast, ureaplasmas were isolated consistently over a year from two men who were not given the antibiotic. The evidence strongly suggests that, under natural conditions, the most likely cause of mycoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, recurring in the genital tract after apparently adequate tetracycline therapy, is re-infection as a result of sexual re-exposure.
PMCID: PMC1045296  PMID: 1036463
15.  A high Nugent score but not a positive culture for genital mycoplasmas is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth 
Objective
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship among the Nugent score for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the results of vaginal fluid culture for genital mycoplasma, and the subsequent occurrence of preterm birth.
Methods
The Nugent score and culture for genital mycoplasmas were performed in vaginal fluid obtained from 977 pregnant women (gestational age 13–30 weeks). Vaginal samples were obtained with sterile cotton swabs. The relationship among the Nugent score, vaginal fluid culture results and the occurrence of spontaneous preterm birth was examined.
Results
(1) Of the 977 women, 14% (137) had a Nugent score of ≥ 8; (2) The prevalence of a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas was 30% (288); Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 252 (88%), Mycoplasma hominis in 9 (3%), and both in 27 (9%) women; (3) Cases with a Nugent score of ≥ 8 had a higher rate of a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas than those with the lower Nugent score (55% vs. 25%; p<0.001); (4) Women with a Nugent score of ≥ 8 had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth <37 (10% vs. 4%), <34 (5% vs. 2%), and <32 (4% vs. 1%) weeks of gestation than those with the lower Nugent score (At each gestational age, p<0.05); (5) In contrast, a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas was not associated with an increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth; (6) Among patients with a positive culture and a Nugent score of ≥ 8, the frequency of spontaneous preterm delivery (<37 weeks) was 10% (7/72); (7) There was no difference in the incidence of spontaneous preterm delivery according to the results of vaginal culture in patients with a Nugent score of ≥ 8, as well as in those with a lower Nugent score.
Conclusion
A high Nugent score (≥ 8) for the detection of BV but not a positive vaginal culture for genital mycoplasmas is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth.
doi:10.1080/14767050802616994
PMCID: PMC3540826  PMID: 19330704
Nugent score; bacterial vaginosis; genital mycoplasmas; Ureaplasma urealyticum; Mycoplasma hominis; preterm birth; prematurity
16.  Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study 
Purpose
Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women.
Methods
We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas’ pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection.
Results
In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum.
Conclusion
The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s00404-013-3102-7
PMCID: PMC3984420  PMID: 24318169
Ureaplasma parvum; Ureaplasma urealyticum; Upper urogenital tract; Asymptomatic infection
17.  Conception rate, uterine infection and embryo quality after artificial insemination and natural breeding with a stallion carrier of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a case report 
Background
Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause venereal disease and infertility in horses. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa - carrier stallion, often unresponsive to artificial vagina collection, was used to naturally breed mares. Semen collected from the same stallion was also used to perform artificial inseminations. Pregnancy rates, embryo quality and incidence of uterine infection were compared between inseminated or naturally-bred mares.
Methods
P. aeruginosa was isolated from swabbing of the penis, prepuce and distal urethra of the stallion. Before being bred or inseminated, clitoral/vestibular samples were collected from all mares, and cultured for isolation of P. aeruginosa. At the first observed estrus, endometrial swabs were also collected. All mares subjected to natural mating (NS) were re-evaluated for P.aeruginosa by culture of clitoral and endometrial swabs. Artificial inseminations (AI) were performed either with fresh-extended semen (11 AI/7 mares) or frozen semen (10 AI/7 mares). The stallion was also used to breed 3 mares (4 services). For embryo collection, 2 mares were inseminated with fresh-extended semen (1 AI/mare), and 2 additional mares were inseminated with frozen semen (2 AI/mare). Two mares were naturally-bred with a total of 9 services, for embryo collection. All mares were examined after AI or natural service (NS), for uterine pathologies. Embryo recoveries were attempted passing a catheter with inflatable cuff connected to a sterile flexible 2-way flushing catheter, through the cervix. Flushed media was recovered into an Em-Con filter, and embryos searched using a stereoscope. Embryos were graded from 1 (excellent) to 4 (degenerated/dead).
Results
Pregnancy rates obtained after NS was 50% per cycle. However, more than half of the NS resulted in uterine disease, while uterine pathology was seen only in 22% of the time following AI. Half of the mares bred by NS got positive to P. aeruginosa. Percentage of embryo recovery rates was identical after AI or NS (66.7%). The 4 embryos recovered after AI were classified as Grade 1, while after NS only 2 out of the 6 recovered embryos were Grade 1.
Conclusion
a) there was no evidence of reduced fertilization after AI or NS, b) a numerically higher incidence of uterine disease was noticed after NS, c) venereal transmission of P. aeruginosa after NS was confirmed, d) a lower percentage of G1 embryos may be obtained after NS. Overall, the data supports the indication for P. aeruginosa-carrier stallions to be bred by AI rather than by NS, and raises the possibility that P. aeruginosa may affect embryo quality.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-54-20
PMCID: PMC3349612  PMID: 22458304
Stallion; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Venereal diseases; Artificial insemination; Embryo quality
18.  Detection of ureaplasmas by the polymerase chain reaction in the amniotic fluid of patients with cervical insufficiency 
Journal of perinatal medicine  2010;38(3):261-268.
Aims
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of detecting microbial footprints of ureaplasmas in amniotic fluid (AF) using specific primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients presenting with cervical insufficiency.
Methods
Amniocentesis was performed in 58 patients with acute cervical insufficiency (cervical dilatation, ≥1.5 cm) and intact membranes, and without regular contractions (gestational age, 16–29 weeks). AF was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital mycoplasmas. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Patients were divided into three groups according to the results of AF culture and PCR for ureaplasmas: those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (n=44), those with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR (n = 10), and those with a positive AF culture regardless of PCR result (n=4).
Results
1) Ureaplasmas were detected by PCR in 19.0% (11/58) of patients, by culture in 5.2% (3/58), and by culture and/or PCR in 22.4% (13/58); 2) Among the 11 patients with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas, the AF culture was negative in 91% (10/11); 3) Patients with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR for ureaplasmas had a significantly higher median AF matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) concentration and white blood cell (WBC) count than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); 4) Patients with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas but a negative AF culture had a higher rate of spontaneous preterm birth within two weeks of amniocentesis than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.05 after adjusting for gestational age at amniocentesis); 5) Of the patients who delivered within two weeks of amniocentesis, those with a positive PCR for ureaplasmas and a negative AF culture had higher rates of histologic amnionitis and funisitis than those with a negative AF culture and a negative PCR (P<0.05 after adjusting for gestational age at amniocentesis, for each); (6) However, no significant differences in the intensity of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response and perinatal outcome were found between patients with a positive AF culture and those with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR.
Conclusions
1) Cultivation techniques for ureaplasmas did not detect most cases of intra-amniotic infection caused by these microorganisms (91% of cases with cervical insufficiency and microbial footprints for ureaplasmas in the amniotic cavity had a negative AF culture); 2) Patients with a negative AF culture and a positive PCR assay were at risk for intra-amniotic and fetal inflammation as well as spontaneous preterm birth.
doi:10.1515/JPM.2010.040
PMCID: PMC3085903  PMID: 20192887
Amniotic fluid (AF); cervical insufficiency; chorioamnionitis; intra-amniotic infection; intra-amniotic inflammation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); pregnancy; preterm birth; spontaneous abortion; ureaplasmas
19.  Liquid-Based Urine Cytology as a Tool for Detection of Human Papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in Men 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(2):401-406.
Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis.
doi:10.1128/JCM.05219-11
PMCID: PMC3264174  PMID: 22135257
20.  Bovine Genital Mycoplasmosis 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1981;22(11):339-343.
Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion.
Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms.
This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis.
PMCID: PMC1789999  PMID: 7337908
21.  Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections 
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract.
PMCID: PMC3773568  PMID: 24046809
Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Chlamydia trachomatis; Trichomonas vaginalis; Mycoplasma genitalium; Ureaplasma urealyticu; Ureaplasma parvum; epidemiology; PCR
22.  An investigation on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in Swedish dogs 
Background
Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae cause a broad spectrum of diseases in a wide range of hosts, including man, other mammals, and birds. Upper respiratory and genital diseases are common clinical problems caused by Chlamydiaceae. Very little is known about chlamydial infections in dogs. Few clinical reports on natural disease in dogs describe mainly conjunctival and upper respiratory signs, and the role of Chlamydiaceae in genital disease is unclear. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in healthy dogs and in dogs with genital or upper respiratory disease, including conjunctivitis.
Methods
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydiaceae was used to detect any chlamydial species within this family. Swab samples from the conjunctiva and the mucosal membranes of the oropharynx, rectum and genital tract were taken from 79 dogs: 27 clinically healthy dogs, 25 dogs with clinical signs from the genital tract and 28 dogs with conjunctivitis. There were 52 female and 27 male dogs. From 7 of the male dogs, additional semen samples were analysed.
Results
No Chlamydiaceae were detected from any dog.
Conclusions
Although the number of dogs that was included is limited, the results suggest that cases of Chlamydiaceae in dogs probably are related to infection from other species, and that dogs in general do not harbour Chlamydiaceae. Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae do not seem to be of major importance for genital or ocular disease in Swedish dogs.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-52-63
PMCID: PMC2993712  PMID: 21078208
23.  High Prevalence of Genital Mycoplasmas among Sexually Active Young Adults with Urethritis or Cervicitis Symptoms in La Crosse, Wisconsin 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(10):4636-4640.
Sexually active young adults in the small college town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, were evaluated for conventional sexually transmitted pathogens and tested for infections with mycoplasmas. The prevalence in 65 symptomatic men or women and 137 healthy volunteers (67 men and 70 women) was compared. Urine specimens from both cohorts were tested by ligase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In addition, the urethral or cervical swabs from the symptomatic subjects were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium and cultured for Mycoplasma hominis and the ureaplasmas. The results confirmed a relatively low prevalence of gonorrhea among symptomatic men (12%) and chlamydia among symptomatic men (15%) and normal women (3%). In contrast, infections with mycoplasmas, especially the ureaplasmas (57%), were common and the organisms were the only potential sexually transmitted pathogen detected in 40 (62%) symptomatic subjects. Because of the high prevalence, we also evaluated urethral swabs from an additional 25 normal female volunteers and recovered ureaplasmas from 4 (16%) subjects. Additionally, the participants rarely used protection during sexual intercourse and some symptomatic subjects apparently acquired their infections despite using condoms regularly. The findings demonstrate a strong association between abnormal urogenital findings and detection of myoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, and suggest the infections will remain common.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.10.4636-4640.2004
PMCID: PMC522307  PMID: 15472322
24.  Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in chlamydial and non-chlamydial nongonococcal urethritis. 
Urethral specimens from 726 patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) were examined for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis. Chlamydiae were isolated from 35.9% of ureaplasma-positive patients and from 36.5% of ureaplasma-negative patients. Ureaplasmas were isolated from 52.5% of chlamydia-positive patients and from 53.1% of chlamydia-negative patients, an observation which contrasts with that of some workers who have suggested that ureaplasmas are significantly associated with chlamydia-negative NGU. Furthermore, the numbers of ureaplasmas isolated from patients who did or did not harbour chlamydiae were not significantly different nor was there a particular association of ureaplasmas with chlamydia-negative NGU in patients experiencing their first episode of disease. In addition, M. hominis was not isolated more frequently from those from whom chlamydiae were or were not isolated. The only significant associations were the isolation of M. hominis from patients who were ureaplasma-positive and of ureaplasmas from those who were M. hominis-positive. These findings do not necessarily mitigate against ureaplasmas being responsible for some cases of chlamydia-negative NGU.
PMCID: PMC1045578  PMID: 427513
25.  Comparison of the new Mycofast Revolution assay with a molecular assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas from clinical specimens 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:453.
Background
Genital mycoplasmas are opportunistic bacteria that are associated with undesirable gynaecologic and reproductive events. Mycoplasmas are fastidious bacteria with increasing resistance to routine antimicrobials and often fail to grow on conventional culture methods. The commercial Mycofast Revolution assay permits the phenotypic detection and identification of genital mycoplasmas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against five antimicrobial agents with MICs corresponding to the CLSI guidelines can also be performed. This study aimed to compare the new commercially available Mycofast Revolution assay with a multiplex PCR assay.
Methods
Self-collected swabs were obtained from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in Pretoria, South Africa from October 2012 to November 2012. These swabs were used to seed UMMt and modified Amies transport media. The seeded UMMt transported medium was used to inoculate the Mycofast Revolution assay for the identification, enumeration and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of genital mycoplasmas. Following DNA extraction from the modified Amies transport medium, specimens were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas.
Results
The Mycofast Revolution kit had a sensitivity and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI: 62.15% to 88.51%) and 80% (95% CI: 28.81% to 96.70%), respectively, against the PCR assay. The positive and negative predictive values were 97.1% (95% CI: 85.03% to 99.52%) and 28.6% (95% CI: 8.57% to 58.08%). Genital mycoplasmas were detected in 71.4% (35/49) of samples with the Mycofast Revolution assay with 49% (24/49) being Ureaplasma spp. and 22.4% (11/49) mixed strains. The multiplex PCR assay had a positivity rate of 89.8% (44/49) for genital mycoplasmas; mixed strains were present in 51% (25/49) of samples, Ureaplasma spp. in 16.3% (8/49) and M. hominis in 22.4% (11/49) of samples.
Conclusions
There was a fair agreement (κ = 0.319) between the Mycofast Revolution assay and the mPCR assay. With the high prevalence rates of genital mycoplasmas, fast and efficient diagnostic methods are imperative to treat infections and minimise complications. The Mycofast Revolution assay is simple to use, has a short turn-around time and interpretation of results are straightforward. This assay circumvents common problems experienced with conventional culture and molecular methods in diagnostic laboratories where skilled personnel are limited and can be used as an alternative diagnostic assay.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-453
PMCID: PMC3849776  PMID: 24079603
Mycoplasma hominis; Ureaplasma spp; Mycofast; Antimicrobial susceptibilities; Multiplex PCR assay

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