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1.  A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping† 
Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont’s experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course’s structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.
doi:10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.771
PMCID: PMC4278484  PMID: 25574285
2.  A novel C-terminal truncation SCN5A mutation from a patient with sick sinus syndrome, conduction disorder and ventricular tachycardia 
Cardiovascular research  2007;76(3):409-417.
Objectives
Individual mutations in the SCN5A-encoding cardiac sodium channel α-subunit cause single cardiac arrhythmia disorders, but a few cause multiple distinct disorders. Here we report a family harboring an SCN5A mutation (L1821fs/10) causing a truncation of the C-terminus with a marked and complex biophysical phenotype and a corresponding variable and complex clinical phenotype with variable penetrance.
Methods and Results
A 12-year-old male with congenital sick sinus syndrome (SSS), cardiac conduction disorder (CCD), and recurrent monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) had mutational analysis that identified a 4 base pair deletion (TCTG) at position 5464-5467 in exon 28 of SCN5A. The mutation was also present in six asymptomatic family members only two of which showed mild ECG phenotypes. The deletion caused a frame shift mutation (L1821fs/10) with truncation of the C-terminus after 10 missense amino acid substitutions. When expressed in HEK-293 cells for patch-clamp study, the current density of L1821fs/10 was reduced by 90% compared with WT. In addition, gating kinetic analysis showed a 5 mV positive shift in activation, a 12 mV negative shift of inactivation and enhanced intermediate inactivation, all of which would tend to reduce peak and early sodium current. Late sodium current, however, was increased in the mutated channels.
Conclusions
The L1821fs/10 mutation causes the most severe disruption of SCN5A structure for a naturally occurring mutation that still produces current. It has a marked loss-of-function and unique phenotype of SSS, CCD and VT with incomplete penetrance.
doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2007.08.006
PMCID: PMC2100438  PMID: 17897635
genetics; arrhythmia; sick sinus syndrome; conduction disorder; ventricular tachycardia; SCN5A; sodium current; frame shift mutation; NaV1.5; inherited arrhythmia
4.  Using tablets to support self-regulated learning in a longitudinal integrated clerkship 
Medical Education Online  2014;19:10.3402/meo.v19.23638.
Introduction
The need to train physicians committed to learning throughout their careers has prompted medical schools to encourage the development and practice of self-regulated learning by students. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) require students to exercise self-regulated learning skills. As mobile tools, tablets can potentially support self-regulation among LIC students.
Methods
We provided 15 LIC students with tablet computers with access to the electronic health record (EHR), to track their patient cohort, and a multiplatform online notebook, to support documentation and retrieval of self-identified clinical learning issues. Students received a 1-hour workshop on the relevant features of the tablet and online notebook. Two focus groups with the students were used to evaluate the program, one early and one late in the year and were coded by two raters.
Results
Students used the tablet to support their self-regulated learning in ways that were unique to their learning styles and increased access to resources and utilization of down-time. Students who used the tablet to self-monitor and target learning demonstrated the utility of tablets as learning tools.
Conclusions
LICs are environments rich in opportunity for self-regulated learning. Tablets can enhance students’ ability to develop and employ self-regulatory skills in a clinical context.
doi:10.3402/meo.v19.23638
PMCID: PMC3955768  PMID: 24646438
mobile learning; self-regulated learning; clinical learning; longitudinal integrated clerkship; workplace learning
5.  Trees and networks before and after Darwin 
Biology Direct  2009;4:43.
It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive geological strata were represented as trees in a popular textbook from 1840, while in 1858 Bronn presented a system of animals, as evidenced by the fossil record, in a form of a tree. Darwin's 1859 tree and its subsequent elaborations by Haeckel came to be accepted in many but not all areas of biological sciences, while network diagrams were used in others. Beginning in the early 1960s trees were inferred from protein and nucleic acid sequences, but networks were re-introduced in the mid-1990s to represent lateral genetic transfer, increasingly regarded as a fundamental mode of evolution at least for bacteria and archaea. In historical context, then, the Network of Life preceded the Tree of Life and might again supersede it.
Reviewers
This article was reviewed by Eric Bapteste, Patrick Forterre and Dan Graur.
doi:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43
PMCID: PMC2793248  PMID: 19917100
9.  An audit of referral patterns for glioblastoma patients in Beaumont hospital 
BMC Proceedings  2012;6(Suppl 4):O48.
doi:10.1186/1753-6561-6-S4-O48
PMCID: PMC3426012
20.  Mr. W. M. BEAUMONT 
PMCID: PMC512081
21.  Beaumont's Medicine 
British Medical Journal  1962;1(5294):1741.
PMCID: PMC1959039
22.  John Morton Beaumont 
British Medical Journal  1877;2(882):745-746.
PMCID: PMC2221563
23.  Dr. Albert William Beaumont 
British Medical Journal  1925;1(3354):720.
PMCID: PMC2226647
24.  EDGAR BEAUMONT, M.D 
British Medical Journal  1921;2(3176):815.
PMCID: PMC2338947
25.  William Rawlins Beaumont 
British Medical Journal  1875;2(780):749-750.
PMCID: PMC2297817

Results 1-25 (861950)