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1.  Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(5):e1001037.
A systematic review of published studies reveals that undergraduate medical students may experience substantial exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, and that this contact may be associated with positive attitudes about marketing.
The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development.
Methods and Findings
We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs.
Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
The complex relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has long been a subject of discussion among physicians and policymakers. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical sales representatives may influence clinical decision making in a way that is not always in the best interests of individual patients, for example, encouraging the use of expensive treatments that have no therapeutic advantage over less costly alternatives. The pharmaceutical industry often uses physician education as a marketing tool, as in the case of Continuing Medical Education courses that are designed to drive prescribing practices.
One reason that physicians may be particularly susceptible to pharmaceutical industry marketing messages is that doctors' attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry may form early in their careers. The socialization effect of professional schooling is strong, and plays a lasting role in shaping views and behaviors.
Why Was This Study Done?
Recently, particularly in the US, some medical schools have limited students' and faculties' contact with industry, but some have argued that these restrictions are detrimental to students' education. Given the controversy over the pharmaceutical industry's role in undergraduate medical training, consolidating current knowledge in this area may be useful for setting priorities for changes to educational practices. In this study, the researchers systematically examined studies of pharmaceutical industry interactions with medical students and whether such interactions influenced students' views on related topics.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers did a comprehensive literature search using appropriate search terms for all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies published before June 2010. Using strict inclusion criteria, the researchers then selected 48 articles (from 1,603 abstracts) for full review and identified 32 eligible for analysis—giving a total of approximately 9,850 medical students studying at 76 medical schools or hospitals.
Most students had some form of interaction with the pharmaceutical industry but contact increased in the clinical years, with up to 90% of all clinical students receiving some form of educational material. The highest level of exposure occurred in the US. In most studies, the majority of students in their clinical training years found it ethically permissible for medical students to accept gifts from drug manufacturers, while a smaller percentage of preclinical students reported such attitudes. Students justified their entitlement to gifts by citing financial hardship or by asserting that most other students accepted gifts. In addition, although most students believed that education from industry sources is biased, students variably reported that information obtained from industry sources was useful and a valuable part of their education.
Almost two-thirds of students reported that they were immune to bias induced by promotion, gifts, or interactions with sales representatives but also reported that fellow medical students or doctors are influenced by such encounters. Eight studies reported a relationship between exposure to the pharmaceutical industry and positive attitudes about industry interactions and marketing strategies (although not all included supportive statistical data). Finally, student opinions were split on whether physician–industry interactions should be regulated by medical schools or the government.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This analysis shows that students are frequently exposed to pharmaceutical marketing, even in the preclinical years, and that the extent of students' contact with industry is generally associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism towards any negative implications of interactions with industry. Therefore, strategies to educate students about interactions with the pharmaceutical industry should directly address widely held misconceptions about the effects of marketing and other biases that can emerge from industry interactions. But education alone may be insufficient. Institutional policies, such as rules regulating industry interactions, can play an important role in shaping students' attitudes, and interventions that decrease students' contact with industry and eliminate gifts may have a positive effect on building the skills that evidence-based medical practice requires. These changes can help cultivate strong professional values and instill in students a respect for scientific principles and critical evidence review that will later inform clinical decision-making and prescribing practices.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
Further information about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on doctors and medical students can be found at the American Medical Students Association PharmFree campaign and PharmFree Scorecard, Medsin-UKs PharmAware campaign, the nonprofit organization Healthy Skepticism, and the Web site of No Free Lunch.
PMCID: PMC3101205  PMID: 21629685
2.  Educating Hungarian Medical Librarians in Special Literature 
In Hungary the completion of a thirty-month course is required of those who wish to qualify as medium-level librarians. Medical librarians are given a special course which differs from the general course in that it covers the subjects of medical terminology and information in special literature. The latter subject is accorded the highest number of teaching hours, since the subject matter is vast and since, in addition to theory, much time must be spent on exercises and the presentation of reference books. The students become familiar with the main Hungarian and foreign information systems in the medical and related fields and with special bibliographies, encyclopedias, handbooks, and dictionaries. We take special care to familiarize students with the abstracting journals and indices. For several semesters they have homework and lesson exercises in the use of the Hungarian Medical Bibliography and Index Medicus.
PMCID: PMC198750  PMID: 4812592
3.  Effectiveness of instruction in critical appraisal (evidence-based medicine) skills: a critical appraisal 
OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence that the teaching of critical appraisal (evidence-based medicine) skills to undergraduate medical students or residents will result in significant gains in knowledge and increased use of the literature in clinical decision-making. DATA SOURCES: Articles published from 1966 to 1995, retrieved through a MEDLINE search supplemented by manual searches; review of bibliographies maintained by individuals involved in teaching critical appraisal skills; and a previous methodological review. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected if the study involved some form of control group, although strict randomization was not required, and a measure of performance followed the intervention. Articles were excluded if they simply reported the process of teaching critical appraisal skills or used some form of "happiness index." DATA SYNTHESIS: There were 10 studies of the impact of teaching critical appraisal skills, 6 involving medical students and 4 involving residents. Results from 3 of the studies were nearly uninterpretable and thus were excluded; the remaining 7 were methodologically acceptable. Analysis showed that interventions implemented in undergraduate programs resulted in significant gains in knowledge, as assessed by a written test (mean gain 17.0%; standard deviation [SD] 4.0%). Conversely, studies at the residency level consistently showed a small change in knowledge (mean gain 1.3%; SD 1.7%). Two studies that examined residents' use of the literature were unable to demonstrate any positive changes. CONCLUSIONS: Studies of the effect of teaching critical appraisal skills on gains in knowledge at the undergraduate level showed consistent improvement. By contrast, changes in knowledge at the residency level were small. Several suggestions from the educational literature are offered to increase effectiveness of critical appraisal interventions.
PMCID: PMC1232690  PMID: 9469138
4.  Les résidents et l'enseignement: revue de la littérature. 
We reviewed the available data on residents' teaching role in the clinical setting to develop programs to improve their teaching skills. Articles published from 1966 to 1989 were identified through a computerized search of MEDLINE, and the bibliographies of identified papers were reviewed. Articles directly related to the topic were included and analysed. Taking into account their quality, we extracted data relevant to specific issues. Approximately 15% to 25% of an average work week was spent by residents in different teaching activities. Students acknowledged the importance of their contribution to clinical teaching. Residents benefitted from teaching by increasing their medical knowledge and promoting the development of important attitudes. Insufficient preparation for this task and the numerous practical problems faced by residents may explain their modest performance as teachers. Nevertheless, programs directed to residents might improve the quality of their teaching. We suggest some guidelines for the development of programs to improve their teaching skills and for future research.
PMCID: PMC1452407  PMID: 2207935
5.  Adherence: a review of education, research, practice, and policy in the United States 
Pharmacy Practice  2010;8(1):1-17.
To describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the United States.
Authors used MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (since 1990) to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. The authors also searched the primary literature using Ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. The bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. We searched the tables of content of three US pharmacy education journals and reviewed the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. Policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals.
Research and Practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. There was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. Many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. The positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. Although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence.
National pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. Educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students’ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral change.
Several changes in pharmacy practice and national legislation have provided pharmacists opportunities to intervene and monitor medication adherence. Some of these changes have involved the use of technologies and provision of specialized services to improve adherence.
Researchers and practitioners need to evaluate feasible and sustainable models for pharmacists in community settings to consistently and efficiently help patients better use their medications and improve their health outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4140572  PMID: 25152788
Medication Adherence; Pharmacists; Education; Pharmacy; United States
6.  L'enseignement de l'analyse critique des publications scientifiques médicales est-il efficace? Révision des études et de leur qualité méthodologique. 
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate studies assessing the effectiveness of teaching critical appraisal of the literature to medical students. DATA SOURCES: French and English articles published between 1980 and 1990 indexed on MEDLINE or FAMLI as well as articles identified from the bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were evaluated if the subjects were undergraduate or postgraduate medical students and if the teaching intervention was aimed at improving one or more of the following areas: knowledge in clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, reading habits and ability to critically appraise a scientific article. DATA EXTRACTION: The methodologic quality of the articles was assessed by three evaluators, who used a modified version of Poynard's checklist to assign a score. Articles with a score of 60% or more were considered satisfactory. The reliability of the checklist was evaluated by means of the kappa (kappa) coefficient and a coefficient of intraclass correlation. DATA SYNTHESIS: For the three evaluators the mean kappa coefficient was 0.33 and the coefficient of intraclass correlation 0.70. Five of the 10 studies had an overall score of 60% or higher. The quality of the individual sections of the articles varied: purpose of the study 85%, description of the population 58%, methods 44%, analysis of results 50%, and conclusions 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of teaching critical appraisal of the literature remains uncertain. More rigorous methods are needed in research in this area.
PMCID: PMC1490748  PMID: 8448709
7.  Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001743.
Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues compared US medical students' survey responses regarding pharmaceutical company interactions with the schools' AMSA PharmFree scorecard and Institute on Medicine as a Profession's (IMAP) scores.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.
Methods and Findings
Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50–2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50–2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19–0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19–1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15–0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships) were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis.
As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings, manufacturers may help to inform trainees and physicians about developments in health care, but they also create the potential for harm to patients and health care systems. These interactions may, for example, reduce trainees' and trained physicians' skepticism about potentially misleading promotional claims and may encourage physicians to prescribe new medications, which are often more expensive than similar unbranded (generic) drugs and more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than older drugs. To address these and other concerns about the potential career-long effects of interactions between medical trainees and industry, many teaching hospitals and medical schools have introduced policies to limit such interactions. The development of these policies has been supported by expert professional groups and medical societies, some of which have created scales to evaluate the strength of the implemented industry interaction policies.
Why Was This Study Done?
The impact of policies designed to limit interactions between students and industry on student behavior is unclear, and it is not known which aspects of the policies are most predictive of student behavior. This information is needed to ensure that the policies are working and to identify ways to improve them. Here, the researchers investigate which medical school characteristics and which aspects of industry interaction policies are most predictive of students' reported behaviors and beliefs by comparing information collected in a national survey of US medical students with the strength of their schools' industry interaction policies measured on two scales—the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared information about reported gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and the perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation collected from 1,610 medical students at 121 US medical schools with AMSA and IMAP scores for the schools evaluated a year earlier. Students at schools with the highest ranked interaction policies based on the AMSA score were 63% less likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools. Students at the highest ranked schools based on the IMAP score were about half as likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools, although this finding was not statistically significant (it could be a chance finding). Similarly, students at the highest ranked schools were 70% less likely to interact with sales representatives as students at the lowest ranked schools. These associations became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for the amount of research funding each school received from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Policies limiting gifts, meals, and being a part of speaking bureaus (where companies pay speakers to present information about the drugs for dinners and other events) were associated with students' reports of receiving no gifts and of non-interaction with sales representatives. Finally, policies regulating industry involvement in educational activities were associated with the perceived separation between faculty and industry, which was regarded as adequate by most of the students at schools with such policies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that policies designed to limit industry interactions with medical students need to address multiple aspects of these interactions to achieve changes in the behavior and attitudes of trainees, but that policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus may be particularly important. These findings also suggest that the level of NIH funding plays an important role in students' self-reported behaviors and their perceptions of industry, possibly because institutions with greater NIH funding have the resources needed to implement effective policies. The accuracy of these findings may be limited by recall bias (students may have reported their experiences inaccurately), and by the possibility that industry interaction policies may have changed in the year that elapsed between policy grading and the student survey. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that limitations on gifts should be emphasized when academic medical centers refine their policies on interactions between medical students and industry and that particular attention should be paid to the design and implementation of policies that regulate industry interactions in institutions with lower levels of NIH funding.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice document, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Information about the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Just Medicine campaign (formerly the PharmFree campaign) and about the AMSA Scorecard is available
Information about the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) and about its Conflicts of Interest Policy Database is also available
“Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide” is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that medical schools can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion
The US Institute of Medicine's report “Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice” recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The ALOSA Foundation provides evidence-based, non-industry-funded education about treating common conditions and using prescription drugs
PMCID: PMC4196737  PMID: 25314155
8.  Impact of a Teaching Service on Emergency Department Throughput 
There are 161 emergency medicine residency programs in the United States, many of which have medical students rotating through the emergency department (ED). Medical students are typically supervised by senior residents or attendings while working a regular shift. Many believe that having students see and present patients prolongs length of stay (LOS), as care can be delayed. Our institution implemented a unique method of educating medical students while in the ED with the creation of a teaching service, whose primary goal is education in the setting of clinical care. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of the teaching service on efficiency by describing LOS and number of patients seen on shifts with and without a teaching service.
This was a retrospective chart review performed over a 12-month period of visits to an urban academic ED. We collected data on all patients placed in a room between 14:00 and 19:59, as these were the hours that the teaching shift worked in the department. We categorized shifts as 1) a teaching service with students (TWS); 2) a teaching service without students (TWOS); and 3) no teaching service (NTS). LOS and median number of patients seen on days with a teaching service, both with and without students (TWS and TWOS), was compared to LOS on days without a teaching service (NTS).
The median LOS on shifts with a dedicated teaching service without students (TWOS) was 206 minutes, while the median LOS on shifts with a teaching service with students (TWS) was 220 minutes. In comparison, the median LOS on shifts when no teaching service was present (NTS) was 202.5 minutes. The median number of patients seen on shifts with the teaching service with students (TWS) was 44, identical to the number seen on shifts when the teaching service was present without students (TWOS). When the teaching service was absent (NTS), the median number of patients seen was 40.
A teaching service in the ED is a novel educational model for medical student and resident instruction that increases total ED patient throughput and has only a modest effect on increased median length of stay for patients.
PMCID: PMC3966460  PMID: 24672605
9.  Peer Teaching in Paediatrics - Medical Students as Learners and Teachers on a Paediatric Course 
Background: Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students.
Methods: Medical student peers in their 6th year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5th year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies.
Results: The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training.
Conclusions: The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors. Paediatric doctors seem to be more motivated for their own teaching tasks if they are assisted by student peer teachers. More research is needed to investigate the influence of peer teaching on the motivation of paediatric doctors to teach medical students und the academic performance of the student peers.
PMCID: PMC3140377  PMID: 21818216
Peer assisted learning; clinical skills training in paediatrics; student evaluation; student self assessment
10.  Undergraduate radiology education in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan: teaching duties, methodologies, and rewards 
In an integrated method of education, medical students are introduced to radiology in their preclinical years. However, no study has been conducted in Pakistan to demonstrate an academic framework of medical radiology education at an undergraduate level. Therefore, we aimed to document and compare the current level of teaching duties, teaching methodologies, and teaching rewards among radiologists and residents in private and public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan.
A survey was conducted among 121 radiologists and residents in two private and two public teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Radiologists who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council either part-time or full-time were included. Radiology residents and fellows who were nationally registered with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council were also included. Self-administered questionnaires addressing teaching duties, methods, and rewards were collected from 95 participants.
The overall response rate was 78.51% (95/121). All of the radiologists were involved in teaching residents and medical students, but only 36% reported formal training in teaching skills. Although most of the respondents (76%) agreed that medical students appeared enthusiastic about learning radiology, the time spent on teaching medical students was less than five hours per week annually (82%). Only 37% of the respondents preferred dedicated clerkships over distributed clerkships (41%). The most common preferred teaching methodology overall was one-on-one interaction. Tutorials, teaching rounds, and problem-based learning sessions were less favored by radiologists than by residents. Teaching via radiology films (86%) was the most frequent mode of instruction. Salary (59%) was the most commonly cited teaching reward. The majority of respondents (88%) were not satisfied with their current level of teaching rewards.
All radiologists and residents working in an academic radiology department are involved in teaching undergraduate students at multiple levels. The most valued teaching methodology involves use of images, with one-on-one interaction between the trainer and trainee. The monetary reward for teaching is inbuilt into the salary. The methodology adopted for teaching purposes was significantly different between respondents from private hospitals and those from public teaching hospitals. Because of low satisfaction among the respondents, efforts should be made to provide satisfying teaching rewards.
PMCID: PMC3661265  PMID: 23745098
radiology; hospital; department; medical faculty; teaching hospital
11.  Contribution of integrated teaching in the improvement of an undergraduate ophthalmology curriculum 
Conventional medical curriculum is the rule of medical teaching in Greek Medical Schools. Medical students are often taught irrelevant details with little or no reference to their potential clinical significance. Alternatively, integrated teaching warrants that the complete teaching material is covered by each faculty member not considering areas of personal expertise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of integrated teaching in ophthalmic training.
The main outcome measures of this retrospective study were a) comments and recommendations made anonymously by the fifth-year medical students in the evaluation questionnaires filled in at the end of their training, and b) scores obtained by students in their final examination at the end of their training in the 2nd Department of Ophthalmology as part of the core Curriculum of the Medical School of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The latter outcome was analyzed with respect to the implementation of integrated teaching.
The score obtained by students in the final examination, which is an objective outcome measure, increased significantly after the implementation of integrated teaching. The final grade (scores out of 10) of students who were trained with the integrated system (6.17±1.67, mean ± standard deviation) was significantly higher compared to those (5.52±2.20) trained with the conventional system (P<0.001). The positive outcome of this process was evident as there was a significant increase in the number of students satisfied with the teaching process compared to previous academic years.
Based on the experience of eight academic years and as a result of interactive assessment process our department has modified its medical student teaching process from conventional to integrated; all teaching staff members are involved in the teaching process, while students are divided in small groups. In conclusion, integrated teaching in small student groups appears to be an efficient teaching method (for both theoretical and clinical skills) of ophthalmic training for medical students.
PMCID: PMC4241950  PMID: 25429248
medical teaching; integrated teaching; medical training assessment
12.  Teaching emergency medicine with workshops improved medical student satisfaction in emergency medicine education 
There are different teaching methods; such as traditional lectures, bedside teaching, and workshops for clinical medical clerkships. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Emergency Medicine (EM) focuses on emergency medical conditions and deals with several emergency procedures. This study aimed to compare traditional teaching methods with teaching methods involving workshops in the EM setting for medical students.
Fifth year medical students (academic year of 2010) at Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand participated in the study. Half of students received traditional teaching, including lectures and bedside teaching, while the other half received traditional teaching plus three workshops, namely, airway workshop, trauma workshop, and emergency medical services workshop. Student evaluations at the end of the clerkship were recorded. The evaluation form included overall satisfaction, satisfaction in overall teaching methods, and satisfaction in each teaching method.
During the academic year 2010, there were 189 students who attended the EM rotation. Of those, 77 students (40.74%) were in the traditional EM curriculum, while 112 students were in the new EM curriculum. The average satisfaction score in teaching method of the new EM curriculum group was higher than the traditional EM curriculum group (4.54 versus 4.07, P-value <0.001). The top three highest average satisfaction scores in the new EM curriculum group were trauma workshop, bedside teaching, and emergency medical services workshop. The mean (standard deviation) satisfaction scores of those three teaching methods were 4.70 (0.50), 4.63 (0.58), and 4.60 (0.55), respectively.
Teaching EM with workshops improved student satisfaction in EM education for medical students.
PMCID: PMC4321415
emergency medicine education; workshop; student satisfaction
13.  Perceptions of medical school graduates and students regarding their academic preparation to teach 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2006;82(971):607-612.
How medical students learn and develop the characteristics associated with good teaching in medicine is not well known. Information about this process can improve the academic preparation of medical students for teaching responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to determine how different experiences contributed to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of medical school graduates and students regarding medical teaching.
A questionnaire was developed, addressing reliability and validity considerations, and given to first year residents and third year medical students (taught by those residents). Completed questionnaires were collected from 76 residents and 110 students (81% of the sample group). Item responses were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Most residents (n = 54; 71%) positively viewed opportunities they had to practice teaching when they were seniors. Residents rated three activities for learning to teach highest: (1) observing teachers as they teach; (2) reviewing the material to be taught; and (3) directly teaching students; representing both individual and participatory ways of learning. Residents' self ratings of teaching behaviours improved over time and this self assessment by the residents was validated by the students' responses. Comparison between residents' self ratings and students' views of typical resident teaching behaviours showed agreement on levels of competence, confidence, and motivation. The students rated characteristics of enthusiasm, organisation, and fulfilment lower (p<0.002) than residents rated themselves.
The residents and students in this study viewed academic preparation for teaching responsibilities positively and showed agreement on characteristics of good teaching that may be helpful indicators in the process of developing medical teachers.
PMCID: PMC2585736  PMID: 16954460
medical education, undergraduate; medical education, internship and residency; teaching methods; experiential learning; educational techniques
14.  Undergraduate radiology teaching from the student’s perspective 
Insights into Imaging  2012;4(1):103-109.
To obtain medical students’ evaluation of the quality of undergraduate radiology teaching received, preferred teaching methods and resources. This is a follow-up project to an earlier study of junior doctors who felt that radiology teaching left them ill prepared for medical practice.
A questionnaire to third and fifth year medical students undertaking clinical rotations at Newcastle University, UK.
The questionnaire was completed by 57/60 (95 %) of third and 37/40 (93 %) of final year medical students. Students received minimal radiology teaching in pre-clinical years, feeling this was insufficient. The majority of students rated interactive case-based teaching as effective. Self-directed learning resources such as textbooks, journals and even online learning modules were perceived as less effective. Other types of web resources rated higher. Motivation for most students when studying radiology was to achieve learning objectives needed to pass their next exams and/or to improve as a doctor.
Medical students criticise the lack of radiology teaching in pre-clinical undergraduate years. Radiology teaching should be represented in all undergraduate years, preferably delivered via interactive teaching sessions. Currently available e-learning modules do not meet the students’ learning needs and there is a call for reliable, up-to-date open access electronic resources.
Main Messages
• Radiology teaching should be represented in all pre-clinical and clinical undergraduate years.
• Medical students rate interactive case-based teaching sessions as very effective.
• There is a call for reliable, up-to-date open access electronic resources for medical students.
PMCID: PMC3579990  PMID: 23225253
Radiology; Teaching; Student opinion; Teaching methods; Undergraduate medical education
15.  Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2006;21(12):1222-1229.
To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine.
A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005.
Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles.
We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods.
The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency.
In order to revitalize academic medicine, we must engage trainees and retain their interest throughout their training. Research opportunities for medical students, and fellowships or graduate training can meet this challenge and influence career choice. Initiatives to stimulate and maintain interest in academic medicine should be evaluated in prospective studies across multiple sites.
PMCID: PMC1924755  PMID: 17105520
academic medicine; career choice
16.  Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents 
Canadian Family Physician  2009;55(9):902-903.e5.
To review the literature on teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents and to identify formats and content of these programs and their effects.
Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to mid-July 2008) and the Education Resources Information Center database (pre-1966 to mid-July 2008) were searched using and combining the MeSH terms teaching, internship and residency, and family practice; and teaching, graduate medical education, and family practice.
The initial MEDLINE and Education Resources Information Center database searches identified 362 and 33 references, respectively. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and studies were included if they described the format or content of a teaching-skills program or if they were primary studies of the effects of a teaching-skills program for family medicine residents or family medicine and other specialty trainees. The bibliographies of those articles were reviewed for unidentified studies. A total of 8 articles were identified for systematic review. Selection was limited to articles published in English.
Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents vary from half-day curricula to a few months of training. Their content includes leadership skills, effective clinical teaching skills, technical teaching skills, as well as feedback and evaluation skills. Evaluations mainly assessed the programs’ effects on teaching behaviour, which was generally found to improve following participation in the programs. Evaluations of learner reactions and learning outcomes also suggested that the programs have positive effects.
Family medicine residency training programs differ from all other residency training programs in their shorter duration, usually 2 years, and the broader scope of learning within those 2 years. Few studies on teaching-skills training, however, were designed specifically for family medicine residents. Further studies assessing the effects of teaching-skills training in family medicine residents are needed to stimulate development of adapted programs for the discipline. Future research should also assess how residents’ teaching-skills training can affect their learners’ clinical training and eventually patient care.
PMCID: PMC2743590  PMID: 19752261
17.  Comparison of the Quality Assessment of the Medical Education by students of Bologna and the Old System of Studying 
Medical Archives  2014;68(2):132-136.
The quality of teaching at the universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as abroad depends on many factors, among which are: adequate space for teaching, teaching staff, equipment and technical aids to assist the teaching process, which are in accordance with existing standards and norms. Opinion of students plays an important role in measuring the quality of education.
The goal:
was to compare the quality of the teaching process students which study according to the Bologna system and students who are studying according to the old system.
Material and methods:
We used a questionnaire containing variables relevant to test the success of the teaching process at the Faculty of Medicine in Sarajevo. The survey was conducted among the students of the sixth year of the Medical Faculty in Sarajevo. The study included 138 students of which 85 students who are studying according to the Bologna system and 53 students who are studying according the old system.
The results showed that the students of both groups assessed similarly basic elements of the teaching process. A statistically significant difference is found in the evaluation of the relationship of teachers, assistants, the number of students and the evaluation of space for teaching, practice and studying. Students of the Bologna system believe that assistants should offer more empirical examples and that the exercises are not well designed, unlike the old system students who are satisfied with the concept of practical exercises. A small number of students, in both groups had the opportunity to exercise on the model how to administer injections, while the model for intubation and simulation model used more students of the Bologna system. From the baseline 55% of Bologna students and 48% of students which study according to old system, considered that they are ready to work independently.
Quality of medical education at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo evaluated by students studying under the old system was not satisfactory in a number of variables that has been shown in this study. Students who are studying according to the Bologna system are more satisfied and most of the variables that were used in this research were evaluated positively.
Although in this study is pointed to the many positive features of the Bologna system, in Bosnia and Herzegovina still exist many shortcomings in this study system. It is necessary to carry out many of the changes in our universities through the Bologna process. Primary it is necessary changes to studies curricula, their alignment with the programs of other European universities, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, a new method of selection of teachers and their engagement at the university.
PMCID: PMC4272501  PMID: 24937940
Bologna process of education; Faculty of medicine of Sarajevo University; students
18.  Impact on patients of expanded, general practice based, student teaching: observational and qualitative study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7508):89.
Objectives To compare patients' enablement and satisfaction after teaching and non-teaching consultations. To explore patients' views about the possible impact that increased community based teaching of student doctors in their practice may have on the delivery of service and their attitudes towards direct involvement with students.
Design Observational study using validated survey instruments (patient enablement index—PEI, and consultation satisfaction questionnaire—CSQ) administered after teaching consultations and non-teaching consultations. Ten focus groups (two from each practice), comprising five with patients participating in prearranged teaching sessions and five with patients not participating in these.
Setting Five general practices in west Suffolk and southern Norfolk, England, that teach student doctors on the Cambridge graduate medical course.
Participants 240 patients attending teaching consultations (response rate 82%, 196 patients) and 409 patients attending non-teaching consultations (response rate 72%, 294 patients) received survey instruments. Ten focus groups with a total of 34 patients participating in prearranged teaching sessions and 20 patients not participating in these.
Main outcome measures Scores on the patient enablement index and consultation satisfaction questionnaire, analysed at the level of all patients, allowing for age, sex, general practitioner, and practice, and at the level of the individual general practitioner teacher. Qualitative analysis of focus group data.
Results Patients' enablement or satisfaction was not reduced after teaching consultations compared with non-teaching consultations (mean difference in scores on the patient enablement index and consultation satisfaction questionnaire with adjustment for confounders 2.24% and 1.70%, respectively). This held true for analysis by all patients and by general practitioner teacher. Qualitative data showed that patients generally supported the teaching of student doctors in their practice. However, this support was conditional on receiving sufficient information about reasons for doctors' absence, the characteristics of students, and the nature of teaching planned. Many patients viewed their general practice as different from hospital and expected greater control over students' presence during their consultations.
Conclusions Patients' enablement and satisfaction are not impaired by students' participation in consultations. Patients generally support the teaching of student doctors in their general practice but expect to be provided with sufficient information and to have a choice about participation, so they can give informed consent. Recognising this when organising general practice based teaching is important.
PMCID: PMC558616  PMID: 15996965
19.  Student perceptions of GP teachers' role in community-based undergraduate surgical education: a qualitative study 
JRSM Short Reports  2012;3(8):51.
To evaluate medical students' perceptions of a new community-based surgical module being delivered as part of a third-year clinical methods teaching (CMT) course at Imperial College, London.
A qualitative study using focus group interviews with medical students who had recently completed the surgical module. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed to identify key categories that reflected the positive and negative aspects of the student's perspectives.
Imperial College, London
Two groups of fourth-year medical students were invited to participate in the focus groups. The first group consisted of seven students from the surgery and Anaesthesia BSc course. The second group consisted of a random sample of five students from other BSc courses at Imperial College.
Main Outcome Measures
These were not defined pre-study as the purpose of the study was to obtain student perceptions of the surgical module. Facilitators were given guide questions to aid consistency and prompted discussion where required using an inductive approach to the topics discussed by the students.
Student opinions of surgical teaching delivered in the community compared favourably with the surgical teaching delivered in hospitals. Students identified the key benefits as: having protected time to learn, regular access to suitable patients, and teaching that was more learner-centred. Challenges identified by students included the GPs' lack of specialist knowledge and teaching that was dictated by individual interests rather than the syllabus.
Community-based teaching has been widely used to deliver teaching traditionally taught in hospital settings. However, surgical skills are still taught largely by surgical specialists within hospitals. Our study suggests that students are receptive to GPs teaching surgical topics in the community and perceive GPs as competent teachers. This study suggests that there may be benefits in delivering traditional surgical modules in community settings. Providing training for teachers may be a key factor in ensuring quality of surgical teaching for all students.
PMCID: PMC3434433  PMID: 23301139
20.  Is different better? Models of teaching and their influence on the net financial outcome for general practice teaching posts 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:45.
In Australia, training for general practice (GP) occurs within private practices and their involvement in teaching can have significant financial costs. At the same time there are growing demands for clinical places for all disciplines and for GP there is concern that there are insufficient teaching practices to meet the demand at the medical student, prevocational and vocational training levels. One option to address this may be to change how teaching occurs in the practice. A question that arises in posing such an option is whether different models of teaching change the costs for a teaching practice. The aim of this study is to determine the net financial outcome of teaching models in private GP.
Modelling the financial implications for a range of teaching options using a costing framework developed from a survey of teaching practices in South Australia. Each option was compared with the traditional model of teaching where one GP supervisor is singularly responsible for one learner. The main outcome measure was net financial outcome per week. Decisions on the model cost parameters were made by the study's Steering Group which comprised of experienced GP supervisors. Four teaching models are presented. Model 1 investigates the gains from teaching multiple same level learners, Models 2 and 3, the benefits of vertically integrated teaching using different permutations, and Model 4 the concept of a GP teacher who undertakes all the teaching.
There was a significant increase in net benefits of Aus$547 per week (95% confidence intervals $459, $668) to the practice when a GP taught two same level learners (Model 1) and when a senior registrar participated in teaching a prevocational doctor (Model 3, Aus$263, 95% confidence intervals $80, $570). For Model 2, a practice could significantly reduce the loss if a registrar was involved in vertically integrated teaching which included the training of a medical student (Aus$551, 95% confidence intervals $419, $718). The GP teacher model resulted in a net remuneration of Aus$207,335 per year, sourced predominantly from the GP teacher activities, with no loss to the practice.
Our study costed teaching options that can maximise the financial outcomes from teaching. The inclusion of GP registrars in the teaching model or the supervisor teaching more than one same level learner results in a greater financial benefit. This gain was achieved through a reduction in supervisor teaching time and the sharing of administrative and teaching activities with GP registrars. We also show that a GP teacher who carries a minimal patient load can be a sustainable option for a practice. Further, the costing framework used for the teaching models presented in this study has the ability to be applied to any number of teaching model permutations.
PMCID: PMC3146948  PMID: 21749692
21.  Complementary and Alternative Medicine Familiarization: What's happening in Medical Schools in Wales? 
Despite recommendations that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) familiarization should be offered to UK medical students, in Wales little such teaching was offered. We decided to assess medical students’ knowledge of CAMs, perceived training needs in CAMs, their view of its role in the National Health Service (NHS) and current teaching given. Analysis of data from a questionnaire given to medical students and direct questioning of senior academic medical school staff in Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools was carried out. The participants comprised 78 first year medical students in the undergraduate entry program in Cardiff and 58 first year medical students from the graduate entry program in Swansea. Senior academic medical school staff at Cardiff and Swansea Medical Schools were asked about current CAM teaching. Results revealed that 32% of undergraduate entry students (UGES) had previous knowledge of CAMs compared with 51% of graduate entry students (GES). Of the UGES, 62% believed they should be taught about CAM's compared with 94% of GES. Of UGES 31% felt that CAMs have a role in the NHS compared with 50% of GES. None of the students had received teaching about CAMs and little formal CAM teaching is currently included in the curricula at each site. The majority of medical students in Wales would like to receive CAM teaching and significant numbers support a role for CAMs in the NHS. Little formal teaching is currently provided.
PMCID: PMC2862934  PMID: 18955309
CAM teaching; medical students; integrated healthcare
22.  The Annotated Bibliography and Citation Behavior: Enhancing Student Scholarship in an Undergraduate Biology Course 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2007;6(4):350-360.
Contemporary undergraduates in the biological sciences have unprecedented access to scientific information. Although many of these students may be savvy technologists, studies from the field of library and information science consistently show that undergraduates often struggle to locate, evaluate, and use high-quality, reputable sources of information. This study demonstrates the efficacy and pedagogical value of a collaborative teaching approach designed to enhance information literacy competencies among undergraduate biology majors who must write a formal scientific research paper. We rely on the triangulation of assessment data to determine the effectiveness of a substantial research paper project completed by students enrolled in an upper-level biology course. After enhancing library-based instruction, adding an annotated bibliography requirement, and using multiple assessment techniques, we show fundamental improvements in students' library research abilities. Ultimately, these improvements make it possible for students to more independently and effectively complete this challenging science-based writing assignment. We document critical information literacy advances in several key areas: student source-type use, annotated bibliography enhancement, plagiarism reduction, as well as student and faculty/librarian satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC2104498  PMID: 18056306
23.  Integrated modular teaching in dermatology for undergraduate students: A novel approach 
Undergraduate teaching in dermatology comprises didactic lectures and clinical classes. Integrated modular teaching is a novel approach, which integrates basic sciences with dermatology in the form of a module. Further the module also incorporates various teaching modalities, which facilitate active participation from students and promotes learning. The pre- and post-test values showed the effectiveness of the integrated module. The students feedback was encouraging.
The aim of this study was to determine the acceptance and opinion of undergraduate students regarding integrated modular teaching as a new teaching aid in dermatology.
Settings and Design:
This was a descriptive study. Varied teaching methodologies involving multiple disciplines were undertaken in six major undergraduate topics in dermatology for seventh and eighth semester students.
Materials and Methods:
A total of six modules were conducted over a period of 12 months for students of seventh and eighth semesters. The topics for the various modules were sexually transmitted diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, oral ulcers, leprosy, connective tissue disorders and psoriasis. Faculty members from different disciplines participated. Pre- and post-test were conducted before and after the modules respectively to gauge the effectiveness of the modules.
It was found that almost every student had a better score on the posttest as compared to the pretest. General feedback obtained from the students showed that all of them felt that modular teaching was a more interesting and useful teaching learning experience than conventional teaching.
Integrated modular teaching can be an effective adjunct in imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to the students. Further, various teaching methodologies can be used in integrated modules effectively with active student participation. Thus integrated modular teaching addresses two important issues in medical education, namely integration and active student participation.
PMCID: PMC4144209  PMID: 25165641
Dermatology; integrated modular teaching; undergraduate
24.  Video-assisted feedback in general practice internships using German general practitioner's guidelines  
Introduction: The planned modification of the Medical Licenses Act in Germany will strengthen the specialty of general practice. Therefore, medical students should get to know the daily routine of general practitioners during their academic studies. At least 10% of students should get the possibility to spend one quarter of the internship, in the last year of their academic studies, in a practice of family medicine.
The demonstrated teaching method aims at giving feedback to the student based on video recordings of patient consultations (student-patient) with the help of a checklist.
Video-feedback is already successful used in medical teaching in Germany and abroad.
This feasibility study aims at assessing the practicability of video-assisted feedback as a teaching method during internship in general practice.
Teaching method: First of all, the general practice chooses a guideline as the learning objective. Secondly, a subsequent patient – student – consultation is recorded on video. Afterwards, a video-assisted formative feedback is given by the physician. A checklist with learning objectives (communication, medical examination, a structured case report according to the guideline) is used to structure the feedback content.
Feasibility: The feasibility was assessed by a semi structured interview in order to gain insight into barriers and challenges for future implementation. The teaching method was performed in one general practice. Afterwards the teaching physician and the trainee intern were interviewed.
The following four main categories were identified: feasibility, performance, implementation in daily routine, challenges of the teaching concept.
The results of the feasibility study show general practicability of this approach. Installing a video camera in one examination room may solve technical problems. The trainee intern mentioned theoretical and practical benefits using the guideline. The teaching physician noted the challenge to reflect on his daily routines in the light of evidence-based guidelines.
Conclusion: This teaching method supports quality control and standardizing of learning objectives during the internship in general practice by using general practice guidelines. The use of a checklist enhances this method in general practice. We consider the presented teaching method in the context of the planned modification of the Medical Licenses Act is part of quality control and standardisation of medical teaching during general practice internships. In order to validate these presumptions, further, evaluation of this method concerning the learning objectives using the guidelines of general practice need to be carried out.
PMCID: PMC3525913  PMID: 23255963
Video feedback; general practice; guideline; evidence based medicine; internship
25.  How Do Precepting Physicians Select Patients for Teaching Medical Students in the Ambulatory Primary Care Setting? 
To study how clinical preceptors select patients for medical student teaching in ambulatory care and to explore key factors they consider in the selection process.
Qualitative analysis of transcribed interviews.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.
Nineteen physicians (14 general internists and 5 general pediatricians) who serve as clinical preceptors.
Responses to in-depth open-ended interview regarding selection of patients for participation in medical student teaching.
Preceptors consider the competing needs of the patient, the student, and the practice the most important factors in selecting patients for medical student teaching. Three dominant themes emerged: time and efficiency, educational value, and the influence of teaching on the doctor-patient relationship. These physicians consciously attempt to select patients whose participation in medical student teaching maximizes the efficiency of the clinical practice and optimizes the students' educational experiences, while minimizing any potential for harming the relationship between preceptor and patient.
These findings may help validate the frustration preceptors frequently feel in their efforts to teach in the outpatient setting. Becoming more cognizant of the competing interests—the needs of the patient, the student, and the practice—may help physicians to select patients to enhance the educational experience without compromising efficiency or the doctor-patient relationship. For educators, this study suggests an opportunity for faculty development programs to assist the clinical preceptor both in selecting patients for medical student teaching and in finding ways to maximize the efficiency and educational quality of the outpatient teaching environment.
PMCID: PMC1494919  PMID: 12950482
medical students; primary care; outpatient; teaching

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