The historical development of the Medical Branch Library from the Medical Department of Soulé University, established in 1861, to the present is traced. The powerful growth stimulus that was provided by Dr. Chauncey Leake is recognized as is the important influence more recently of Dr. Truman G. Blocker, Jr. The new Moody Medical Library Building and the services and financing of the library are described.
Cancelled charge slips collected over a one-year period supply the data for this analysis of circulation in the Yale Medical Library. Full-time teaching faculty are the heaviest users of journal literature, and students, of monograph literature. Faculties of Medical School departments are compared in terms of their use of material in individual subjects. Subject literatures are analyzed in terms of groups of users borrowing from them. The extent to which journal titles used by medical students are also used by Medical School faculty is examined. One of the products of the study is a rank list of journal titles used in the Library. Results are presented in several tables.
Analysis of book and journal circulation is based on cancelled charge slips collected over a one-year period in the Yale Medical Library. About two-fifths of material circulated were monographs. Books and journals in seven subject fields provided over half of the circulation. Approximately two-thirds of both books and journals used had been published during the most recent nine years. A subject-by-subject examination of the ratio of books to journals circulating revealed that, in subjects where proportionally more journals than books were taken out of the Library, books were of more recent imprint dates than were journals, contrary to the overall pattern. Date distribution of books and journals by subject was also studied. Results are illustrated with graphs and tables.
Surveys of medical school libraries made over a twenty-year period (1960-61 through 1980-81) were analyzed. As indicated by growth in both number and support, medical school libraries have evolved from a period of stability through expansive growth and subsequent leveling off. Expenditures and resource development have been affected by historical developments, especially recent massive federal and state aid to medical education.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the issues involved in mapping an existing structured controlled vocabulary, the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) developed at Columbia University, to an institutional vocabulary, the laboratory and pharmacy vocabularies of the Yale New Haven Medical Center. DESIGN: 200 Yale pharmacy terms and 200 Yale laboratory terms were randomly selected from database files containing all of the Yale laboratory and pharmacy terms. These 400 terms were then mapped to the MED in three phases: mapping terms, mapping relationships between terms, and mapping attributes that modify terms. RESULTS: 73% of the Yale pharmacy terms mapped to MED terms. 49% of the Yale laboratory terms mapped to MED terms. After certain obsolete and otherwise inappropriate laboratory terms were eliminated, the latter rate improved to 59%. 23% of the unmatched Yale laboratory terms failed to match because of differences in granularity with MED terms. The Yale and MED pharmacy terms share 12 of 30 distinct attributes. The Yale and MED laboratory terms share 14 of 23 distinct attributes. CONCLUSION: The mapping of an institutional vocabulary to a structured controlled vocabulary requires that the mapping be performed at the level of terms, relationships, and attributes. The mapping process revealed the importance of standardization of local vocabulary subsets, standardization of attribute representation, and term granularity.
This paper deals with the efforts of a medical library to stimulate interest in the history of medicine by utilizing its historical resources. It is based on a survey designed to evaluate the monthly publication of the library, the Bookman, and to determine the response of health science faculty to historical essays as well as to other sections of the publication. The results show that a large percentage of the faculty reads historical essays either regularly or occasionally, and reveal a trend contrary to the common belief that the teaching staff in health science centers is not interested in medical history. The authors suggest that a library with historical resources can contribute to the educational process in a medical community by actively publicizing its collections and providing opportunities for informal and self-initiated reading.
A study was designed to evaluate the progress of hospital libraries within Region 7 since the Pacific Southwest Regional Medical Library Services (PSRMLS) began in 1969. Library progress was defined as an increase in extent and types of services and resources offered. The study assessed the impact of Regional Medical Library programs on hospital libraries and compared resources and services reported in 1969, 1971, and 1984. The 1984 data were also measured against a set of core library services and resources that should be provided by a full-service hospital library. In addition to assessing the quality of PSRMLS programs and their effect on Region 7 hospital libraries, the study documented extensive growth in staffing, collection size, and services. PSRMLS programs were highly rated by the respondents, who also indicated that participation in PSRMLS programs improved specific library resources and services.
This study is an application of the relationship of serial articles published to serial articles cited, developed in theory in the author's “Statistical Bibliography in the Health Sciences” (Bulletin 50: 450-461, July 1962). A ranked list of the indexes of significance of most of the serials indexed in Current List of Medical Literature was derived and erected from 21,000 citations secured in a random sampling of 1962 and 1961 biomedical journals regularly received in the Yale Medical Library. The author measures the gross indexing effectiveness of Current List against his indexes of significance, offers his method and results as means to reach objective standards for indexing and abstracting, and projects his results as measures of general value of the serials analyzed.
The purpose of this investigation was to produce a title list of current journals supplying upwards of 75 percent of demand at the Columbia and Yale Medical Libraries. Columbia received nearly 2,000 journals and Yale over 1,500; findings are based upon an analysis of canceled charge slips for issues published from 1959 through June 1962. This combined study of recorded usage for six months in the Columbia Medical Library (12.9 percent of circulation during January through June 1962) and for one year in the Yale Medical Library (12.5 percent of 1961/62 circulation) revealed that a core of 262 journals supplied 80 percent of use of titles published in the 1959 to mid-1962 period. However, it is probable that current issues of all titles received were used at least once within the libraries. Titles of sixty-seven journals which supplied slightly more than 50 percent of use are listed.
Philadelphia at the time of the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA) is described. Several factors that promoted the birth of the association are discussed, including the rapid increase in the labor force and the rise of other health related professions, such as the American Hospital Association and the professionalization of nursing. The growth of the public hygiene movement in Philadelphia at the time of Sir William Osler's residency in the city is discussed. Finally, the rapid growth of the medical literature is considered a factor promoting the development of the association. This article continues the historical consideration of the MLA begun in the author's article on the three founders of the association. The background information is drawn from the items listed in the bibliography, and the conclusions are those of the author.
The historical background of community-based medical schools is described with emphasis on the experiences of the University of South Dakota Lommen Health Sciences Library. The steps undertaken by the library to meet Liaison Committee for Medical Education accreditation standards required for a full four-year, M.D.-degree granting institution are outlined. The governance structure of the participating Libraries of the Affiliated Teaching Hospitals Council is described. Special problems and their solutions are discussed in the context of providing service to a medical school which is decentralized on a statewide basis.
A library can represent the most valuable personal service which a medical society can offer to a physician; yet, libraries unfortunately are taking a lessening role in medical societies. Surveys show that medical society libraries have declined in number from seventy-one in 1942 to forty-eight at the present time. This paper offers a positive plan of action with the objective of enabling libraries to regain a position of eminence in medical societies. It is pointed out that there are four vital elements in stimulating the growth and development of a library. These are the constant enhancement of resources; the promotion of library services; the rendering of prompt, valuable services; and ultimately, the recognition of the library through gifts, endowments, and expressions of appreciation.
The organization of a historical collection in a medical library presents many problems. Among these are space limitations, choice of material to be included, and classification. This paper discusses the organization of the historical collection particularly as it relates to books and journals in the Rudolph Matas Medical Library of Tulane University. The problem of classification is discussed at length. The principal classification systems are reviewed, particularly that of the National Library of Medicine Classification. The expansion of the NLM scheme to suit our purpose is presented. This includes classifying Americana imprints by subject rather than state, changing the termination date of Americana to 1900, grouping the history of specialties with books on the history of medicine, and recognizing the problem involved in reclassifying books on military medicine and surgery. The selection and arrangement of periodicals relating to the history of medicine is also discussed.
The strength and unity of the medical library profession spring largely from the existence of the National Library of Medicine. Its publications promise to bring much closer the standardization and consistency still lacking to the world of medical subject headings. The Wellcome Library headings are similar to those listed in the National Library of Medicine Subject Heading Authority List of 1960. However, references and additional headings are made to cover (1) superseded terms, (2) historical phenomena with distinctive names which are peculiar to an epoch, (3) subjects from social, religious, or other branches of history, and (4) eponyms. Old texts often describe disease ambiguously or use terminology which has since been superseded. The catalogue is in three parts—topographical, biographical, and topical. The quarterly Current Work has certain simplifications (e.g., elimination of some subheadings), and has recently introduced references both to cut down needless duplication and to facilitate consultation by the reader.
Dr. Janie Merkel is the director of Yale’s Chemical Genomics Screening Facility, a high-throughput screening laboratory that is part of the Yale University Center for Genomics and Proteomics. The Screening Facility connects Yale researchers with industry-quality robotic machinery and a diverse group of compound libraries, which have been used successfully to link therapeutic targets with potential therapies.
The passing of Yale School of Medicine’s 2010 Bicentennial occasions a moment of reflecting on the past, present, and future of medical education and research at Yale and beyond. Last June, a ribbon-cutting ceremony inaugurated the opening of the Cushing Center in the Cushing-Whitney Medical Library. Named after Harvey Cushing, an early 20th-century neurosurgeon and former Yale College alum, the dual education/exhibition space now houses hundreds of gross brain specimens constituting the Cushing Tumor Registry. Originally a personal collection, Cushing donated his numerous medical specimens, photographs, and other medical relics from his deathbed, relinquishing the brains to Yale only under the condition that a suitable space be erected to preserve the many specimens. Some 70 years later and after nearly being destroyed, Cushing’s wish is fully realized: The once desiccated, hidden brains have been painstakingly restored and are now on view in the Cushing Center. The brains express Cushing’s singular and spectral worldview as a surgeon, artist, athlete, soldier, book collector, and historian.
Harvey Cushing; anatomy; brains; ghosts; hauntings; surgery; death; collection; history; humanities
An interlibrary loan system in Japan was established by the Japanese Medical Library Association in 1927. Since then the members of the Association have increased from five to forty-eight—all forty-six medical school libraries and two dental school libraries. The Association's service has been enlarged, particularly since World War II. The number of interlibrary loans among member libraries has increased greatly, especially since 1954, thanks to the development of union lists and photoduplication service. Today, more than 80 percent of the requests are filled with photocopied materials. On the other hand, the growth of medical literature has made interlibrary cooperation very necessary, especially internationally. An agreement was made in 1948 concerning photoduplication service between the Japanese Medical Library Association and the National Library of Medicine.
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters.
The Medical Library at Yale University has developed an online free-text database containing Current Contents citations. The database was designed to be integrated into an emerging campus-wide information environment. To this end Current Contents at Yale was designed with a user interface familiar to the Yale community, an alerting service based on electronic mail, and search expansion using the National Library of Medicine's Meta-1 metathesaurus.
The Yale Medical Orchestra displayed exceptional talent and inspiration as it performed a timeless composition to celebrate Yale School of Medicine’s bicentennial anniversary during a December 2010 concert. Under the leadership of musical directors Robert Smith and Adrian Slywotzky, the richly emotional meditations of Mendelssohn, Dvorak, Schubert, and Yale’s own Thomas C. Duffy filled the minds and hearts of an audience as diverse as the orchestra. I intend to retrace the steps of that melodic journey in this essay, fully aware of the limits imposed on me to recreate the aural art form through the medium of text. While these symbols can be pale representations of the beauty and complexity of the music, I hope they will be the building blocks for the emotional experience of the audience. I describe the works’ inception and their salient musical features and then review what we know about the effects of melody, meter, and timbre on our brains. My intentions are to provide evidence to encourage the further use of music as a tool in medical practice, provide interest in the works explored by the Yale orchestra, support the orchestra itself, and investigate a personal passion.
Yale Symphony Orchestra; music therapy; sound perception; primary auditory cortex; Mozart effect
Healthflicks is a 2010-2011 National Network of Libraries of Medicine outreach project conducted in New Haven, CT, targeting health information literacy among urban teens through the creation of web videos. Students from a public magnet school with a health careers curriculum track volunteered. Yale University students were hired as video mentors. Partners included the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Hill Regional Career High School, the New Haven Free Public Library, and Yale University’s Office of New Haven and State Affairs. Outcomes included a Healthflicks YouTube channel and an ongoing partnership between an academic medical library and a high school with a health careers curriculum track.
Libraries will be changed by technological and social developments that are fueled by information technology, bioinformatics, and networked information. Libraries in highly focused settings such as the health sciences are at a pivotal point in their development as the synthesis of historically diverse and independent information sources transforms health care institutions. Boundaries are breaking down between published literature and research data, between research databases and clinical patient data, and between consumer health information and professional literature. This paper focuses on the dynamics that are occurring with networked information sources and the roles that libraries will need to play in the world of medical informatics in the early twenty-first century.
A historical account is given of the Houston Academy of Medicine--Texas Medical Center Library within its Texas Medical Center setting in Houston, Texas. Outlined are planning, financing, and construction of the new library, which consists in part of new building and in part of renovated interiors of an old building originally completed in 1954. A concise picture is given of the new library's interiors, showing its functional success for users and employees alike. An architectural summary is appended showing gross and net footages, source of funds, costs and capacities.
The Department of Cell Biology at the Yale University School of Medicine was established in 1983. It was preceded by the Section of Cell Biology, which was formed in 1973 when George E. Palade and collaborators came to Yale from the Rockefeller University. Cell Biology at Yale had its origins in the Department of Anatomy that existed from the beginning of classes at the Medical Institution of Yale College in 1813. This article reviews the history of the Department of Anatomy at Yale and its evolution into Cell Biology that began with the introduction of histology into the curriculum in the 1860s. The formation and development of the Section and Department of Cell Biology in the second half of the 20th century to the present time are described. Biographies and research activities of the chairs and key faculty in anatomy and cell biology are provided.
This paper, based on information received from a questionnaire to which 107 of the present 114 medical school libraries in the U.S. responded, shows the vast growth and expansion of such libraries. The 86 libraries which have been built, expanded, under construction of planned during 1966-1975 represent the greatest expansion in the history of medical school libraries. This "decade of revolution" can be attributed to the evergrowing resources, primary users, and services discussed in this paper. The survey results can also be useful to those institutions planning or remodelling such library facilities in the near future.