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1.  A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions 
Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles.
Using the “Principlism” framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements.
These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations.
The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.
PMCID: PMC4188052  PMID: 25349543
2.  Medical Librarianship in Nigeria--a review of the literature and comments on some problems and prospects. 
The literature of medical librarianship of Nigeria is reviewed. The staff structure of Nigerian univeristy libraries and, in particular, of the medical libraries attached to them is restrictive, unprogressive, and unconducive to the development of medical librarianship in Nigeria. These medical libraries should cease to be administered and regarded as just unavoidable appendages of the main university libraries. They should be independent, full-fledged libraries of their own, recognixed as full academic departments of their respective colleges or faculties, with their heads being in no way inferior in status to other heads of academic departments.The granting of faculty status to Nigerian unviersity librarians should go the whole way and let the principle of multiple professorships be applied to the staff structure of unviersity libraries. Efforts are being made to effect bibliographic organization of Nigerian medical literature. A national library of medicine for Nigeria, however, humble its beginning, should be established.
PMCID: PMC198885  PMID: 1139064
3.  Bringing the best of medical librarianship to the patient team 
This article introduces a series of articles examining the state of the medical library profession as practiced in the clinical context. It is widely understood that many changes across the spectrum of medical librarianship practice have been brought about by both technological advances and economic realities. These changes have created strains felt by many in the profession. Discussions of evolving roles for medical librarians that have gone on for years have taken on a new sense of urgency, not just because support of library services is at stake, but also because new opportunities, which many are eager to explore, await librarians. In June 2000, an editorial appearing in a mainstream medical journal proposed a reinvention of clinical librarianship that, if designed as presented in the editorial, would have a dramatic effect on current hospital-based library practice. This series of articles was developed in an effort to provide thoughtful consideration of the “informationist” model and to present new ways to look at the core competencies that define the profession.
PMCID: PMC64754  PMID: 11838456
4.  Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship* 
The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work.
Four sources of evidence are used to examine the rise of EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement.
These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice.
Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services.
PMCID: PMC3878930  PMID: 24415915
5.  Education for health sciences/biomedical librarianship: past, present, future. 
This paper offers an analysis of and some predictions for the fields of library education and medical librarianship. The recent past of education for medical/health sciences librarianship is outlined, with emphasis on the changing nature of the library school, its faculty, and its students. The present situation is described, with specific reference to faculty, curriculum, and accreditation issues. A future agenda is proposed, identifying the need for interdisciplinary and cooperative efforts within the larger realms of medical informatics, high technology, a variety of health professions, and the community of contemporary library practice.
PMCID: PMC227811  PMID: 3708197
6.  Research: the third dimension of librarianship. 
The rapid accumulation of data through increasingly sophisticated computer technology has created an unprecedented information explosion which might better be called an ignorance explosion. Data gathering emphasizing quantity rather than quality, speed of transmission rather than reliability or relevance, poses a challenge to the future of librarianship. Two concerns are discussed: (1) Relationship of technology to the information age. Librarians must be concerned with the methodology used in data collection, including the value judgments reflected in this activity. (2) Preparation of medical librarianship for the future. The profession will grow only as a result of individual effort, the recognition of people, and an appreciation of human values. Thus far, attempts to evaluate needs focus on technology while neglecting research into the human aspect. The author proposes that dimensions of the total professional model for medical librarianship must include research, as well as education and practice. The need to aid in the development of library researchers at the Ph.D. level through a National Library of Medicine program similar to that offered to researchers by the National Institutes of Health is stressed. By way of federal assistance and scholarships made available through national library associations, library research can become the vital and effective third dimension that will redefine the traditional concept of information storage and service in human terms, thus introducing a new relevance into the area of medical librarianship during the coming decades.
PMCID: PMC226407  PMID: 7356492
7.  Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey 
The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship.
The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code.
Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work.
Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians.
PMCID: PMC4188053  PMID: 25349544
8.  Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship 
Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship?
Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources.
Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association.
Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review.
Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design.
Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.
PMCID: PMC128954  PMID: 12398244
9.  An Annotated Bibliography of Education for Medical Librarianship, 1940-1968 
An attempt has been made in this bibliography to represent the various viewpoints concerning education for medical librarianship equally. The topics covered include: general background reading and readings for those interested in establishing courses in medical librarianship. The former includes annotations on the history and international aspects of the subject. The latter consists of annotations of articles on early courses and present courses in medical librarianship. A final area discussed is the Medical Library Association's Code for the Training and Certification of Medical Librarians.
PMCID: PMC200869  PMID: 4898629
10.  MLA Certification: The Certification Program and Education for Medical Librarianship * 
The certification program was formally adopted by the Medical Library Association in 1948 in an attempt to establish standards for medical librarians. The program is reviewed, and some of its effects on education for medical librarians are discussed. At the time of its adoption the program defined the kind of education librarians in the field thought necessary for work in medical libraries. New techniques and a shortage of personnel demand consideration of new educational programs, and the Medical Library Assistance Act will provide the means for their establishment. The Association should assume leadership in determining what and where these programs should be and should evaluate its certification and standards programs as often as current needs require.
PMCID: PMC198486  PMID: 6016371
11.  Library School Education for Medical Librarianship * 
This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored.
PMCID: PMC226952  PMID: 385086
12.  A leap forward in medical librarianship: a glimpse of the Biomedical Information Center and Network, People's Republic of China. 
Working with the World Health Organization, the People's Republic of China has taken a giant leap toward modernization of its medical libraries and information centers. The Biomedical Information Center and Network Project is helping to develop professional training programs, resources, new facilities, and a resource-sharing and document delivery network among Chinese medical libraries. The development of MEDLARS-like data base in the network is a final goal of the project. These changes will have a significant effect on future medical librarianship in China.
PMCID: PMC227195  PMID: 6626800
13.  Evaluation of a clinical medical librarianship program at a university Health Sciences Library. 
An evaluation of the clinical medical librarianship program at the University of Washington Health Sciences Library was undertaken to determine the benefits of the program to patient care and to the education of the recipients of the service. Results of a questionnaire reflected overwhelming acceptance of the clinical medical librarianship program. Guidelines for the establishment of a limited clinical medical librarianship program are described. A statistical cost analysis of the program is included.
PMCID: PMC199216  PMID: 938773
14.  Books and other endangered species: an inquiry into the values of medical librarianship. 
Major values of medical librarians, as exemplified in their periodical literature 1903-1977, are identified as "professionalism," "cooperation," "sense of community with health sciences practitioners," and "knowledge orientation." These values are examined in terms of interdisciplinary research into human values. Professionalism is studied in greater depth in relation to criteria on a scale of professionalism. Medical librarians have been most concerned with the criteria of organization, specialized education (with more emphasis on continuing education than on introductory medical library education), and service orientation. Indication of challenge to long-held values exists in the contradictions among certain related assumptions underlying our self-image, our current lack of standards, and changing societal views toward commitment to a single, life-long specialization. It is suggested that there is unexplored potential for support of our traditional values and the development of new ones by comparing them with the value systems of health scientists and educators of health sciences practitioners.
PMCID: PMC199524  PMID: 708952
15.  The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226349  PMID: 9578936
16.  The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226437  PMID: 9803287
17.  The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226383  PMID: 9681172
18.  Medical librarianship: a systems perspective. 
Medical or health sciences librarianship is viewed as a system whose components are the professional school, the professional group, and the professional association. As an open system it imports energy from these components, or subsystems, and transforms this energy into professionally identifiable products. The subsystems, in influencing the character of the medical and health sciences library profession, are interdependent and interrelated. However, linkages between the subsystems are becoming defective due primarily to lack of communication, information, and feedback. Stronger and more vigorous interaction among the subsystems is needed.
PMCID: PMC226475  PMID: 7362921
19.  Clinical medical librarianship: a review of the literature. 
The history and evolution of clinical medical librarianship are analyzed and traditional and modified approaches, including LATCH, are reviewed. Cost and evaluation methods are outlined, indicating benefits and disadvantages of clinical medical librarian (CML) programs. The future of CMLs is explored.
PMCID: PMC227537  PMID: 3919792
20.  Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course. 
Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed.
PMCID: PMC226380  PMID: 9681169
21.  Reference Books and Computerized Information Services: Partners in Librarianship 
As a basis for thoughts on the roles of reference books and computerized information services in general, a comparison is made of the value to medical libraries of a comprehensive reference tool (the new dual media publication Biomedical Research in Progress) and a comprehensive information center file (the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, the national resource for information on research in progress). It is concluded that a detailed reference tool which is physically present for library users has several advantages, in particular the provision of both detailed and comprehensive retrieval of all biomedical research information at substantially less annual cost and with faster access time than is possible with comparable questions put to an information center. On the other hand, the information center is able to provide more up-to-date material in more flexible combinations. The recommendation is made that medical libraries avoid treating the comprehensive reference tool and the computerized information file as alternatives and instead view both as necessary and complementary to each other.
PMCID: PMC197719  PMID: 5054308
22.  Foundations of medical librarianship. 
The development of medical librarianship during the last forty years is examined as reflected in the changes of its resources, technology, education, and knowledge base. A shift from historical to scientific inquiry constitutes the direction of medical librarianship. Its nexus is the gathering of information and the transfer of knowledge. The social and human resources for this ongoing change and the basis for a quest for excellence is seen in the pool of talent represented by hospital librarians and the aspirations of the women's movement for equality.
PMCID: PMC199389  PMID: 332265
23.  A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship 
Objective: The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship.
Narrative: The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow.
Summary: Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as “boundary spanners,” incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.
PMCID: PMC1082936  PMID: 15858622
24.  Inventory of research methods for librarianship and informatics 
This article defines and describes the rich variety of research designs found in librarianship and informatics practice. Familiarity with the range of methods and the ability to make distinctions between those specific methods can enable authors to label their research reports correctly. The author has compiled an inventory of methods from a variety of disciplines, but with attention to the relevant applications of a methodology to the field of librarianship. Each entry in the inventory includes a definition and description for the particular research method. Some entries include references to resource material and examples.
PMCID: PMC314107  PMID: 14762467
25.  Evidence-based librarianship: an overview 
Objective: To demonstrate how the core characteristics of both evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based health care (EBHC) can be adapted to health sciences librarianship.
Method: Narrative review essay involving development of a conceptual framework. The author describes the central features of EBM and EBHC. Following each description of a central feature, the author then suggests ways that this feature applies to health sciences librarianship.
Results: First, the decision-making processes of EBM and EBHC are compatible with health sciences librarianship. Second, the EBM and EBHC values of favoring rigorously produced scientific evidence in decision making are congruent with the core values of librarianship. Third, the hierarchical levels of evidence can be applied to librarianship with some modifications. Library researchers currently favor descriptive-survey and case-study methods over systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other higher levels of evidence. The library literature nevertheless contains diverse examples of randomized controlled trials, controlled-comparison studies, and cohort studies conducted by health sciences librarians.
Conclusions: Health sciences librarians are confronted with making many practical decisions. Evidence-based librarianship offers a decision-making framework, which integrates the best available research evidence. By employing this framework and the higher levels of research evidence it promotes, health sciences librarians can lay the foundation for more collaborative and scientific endeavors.
PMCID: PMC35250  PMID: 11055296

Results 1-25 (185107)