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6.  Doctor's Adventures 
British Medical Journal  1962;2(5299):242.
PMCID: PMC1925672
8.  A children’s asthma education program: Roaring Adventures of Puff (RAP), improves quality of life 
BACKGROUND:
It is postulated that children with asthma who receive an interactive, comprehensive education program would improve their quality of life, asthma management and asthma control compared with children receiving usual care.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the feasibility and impact of ‘Roaring Adventures of Puff’ (RAP), a six-week childhood asthma education program administered by health professionals in schools.
METHODS:
Thirty-four schools from three health regions in Alberta were randomly assigned to receive either the RAP asthma program (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Baseline measurements from parent and child were taken before the intervention, and at six and 12 months.
RESULTS:
The intervention group had more smoke exposure at baseline. Participants lost to follow-up had more asthma symptoms. Improvements were significantly greater in the RAP intervention group from baseline to six months than in the control group in terms of parent’s perceived understanding and ability to cope with and control asthma, and overall quality of life (P<0.05). On follow-up, doctor visits were reduced in the control group.
CONCLUSION:
A multilevel, comprehensive, school-based asthma program is feasible, and modestly improved asthma management and quality of life outcomes. An interactive group education program offered to children with asthma at their school has merit as a practical, cost-effective, peer-supportive approach to improve health outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2866218  PMID: 20422062
Asthma education; Childhood asthma; Program evaluation; Quality of life; School-based program
9.  Adventures in the Enormous: A 1.8 Million Clone BAC Library for the 21.7 Gb Genome of Loblolly Pine 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(1):e16214.
Loblolly pine (LP; Pinus taeda L.) is the most economically important tree in the U.S. and a cornerstone species in southeastern forests. However, genomics research on LP and other conifers has lagged behind studies on flowering plants due, in part, to the large size of conifer genomes. As a means to accelerate conifer genome research, we constructed a BAC library for the LP genotype 7-56. The LP BAC library consists of 1,824,768 individually-archived clones making it the largest single BAC library constructed to date, has a mean insert size of 96 kb, and affords 7.6X coverage of the 21.7 Gb LP genome. To demonstrate the efficacy of the library in gene isolation, we screened macroarrays with overgos designed from a pine EST anchored on LP chromosome 10. A positive BAC was sequenced and found to contain the expected full-length target gene, several gene-like regions, and both known and novel repeats. Macroarray analysis using the retrotransposon IFG-7 (the most abundant repeat in the sequenced BAC) as a probe indicates that IFG-7 is found in roughly 210,557 copies and constitutes about 5.8% or 1.26 Gb of LP nuclear DNA; this DNA quantity is eight times the Arabidopsis genome. In addition to its use in genome characterization and gene isolation as demonstrated herein, the BAC library should hasten whole genome sequencing of LP via next-generation sequencing strategies/technologies and facilitate improvement of trees through molecular breeding and genetic engineering. The library and associated products are distributed by the Clemson University Genomics Institute (www.genome.clemson.edu).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016214
PMCID: PMC3025025  PMID: 21283709
10.  Adventures in public data 
This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1095515 (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'). We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge)
Editorial preface
The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually decided to publish this "as is". We did this mostly because it was Peter's wish that this talk was published in this form and because we agreed with his notion that this format transmits the message just as well as a formal article as defined by our instructions for authors. We, the Editors, wish to make clear however that this is an exception that we made because we would like to preserve the temporal unity and message of this set of publications. Insisting on a formal publication would have meant losing this historical account as part of the thematic series of papers or disrupting the series. We hope that this will find the consent of our readership.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-3-34
PMCID: PMC3198951  PMID: 22017861
11.  Adventures with Cyanobacteria: A Personal Perspective 
Cyanobacteria, or the blue-green algae as they used to be called until 1974, are the oldest oxygenic photosynthesizers. We summarize here adventures with them since the early 1960s. This includes studies on light absorption by cyanobacteria, excitation energy transfer at room temperature down to liquid helium temperature, fluorescence (kinetics as well as spectra) and its relationship to photosynthesis, and afterglow (or thermoluminescence) from them. Further, we summarize experiments on their two-light reaction – two-pigment system, as well as the unique role of bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) on the electron-acceptor side of their photosystem II, PSII. This review, in addition, includes a discussion on the regulation of changes in phycobilins (mostly in PSII) and chlorophyll a (Chl a; mostly in photosystem I, PSI) under oscillating light, on the relationship of the slow fluorescence increase (the so-called S to M rise, especially in the presence of diuron) in minute time scale with the so-called state-changes, and on the possibility of limited oxygen evolution in mixotrophic PSI (minus) mutants, up to 30 min, in the presence of glucose. We end this review with a brief discussion on the position of cyanobacteria in the evolution of photosynthetic systems.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2011.00028
PMCID: PMC3355777  PMID: 22645530
Anacystis nidulans (Synechococcus elongatus – strain PCC 7942); Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803; P750; chlorophyll a fluorescence; red drop; Emerson enhancement effect; photosystem II; photosystem I
12.  Adventures in data citation: sorghum genome data exemplifies the new gold standard 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:223.
Scientific progress is driven by the availability of information, which makes it essential that data be broadly, easily and rapidly accessible to researchers in every field. In addition to being good scientific practice, provision of supporting data in a convenient way increases experimental transparency and improves research efficiency by reducing unnecessary duplication of experiments. There are, however, serious constraints that limit extensive data dissemination. One such constraint is that, despite providing a major foundation of data to the advantage of entire community, data producers rarely receive the credit they deserve for the substantial amount of time and effort they spend creating these resources. In this regard, a formal system that provides recognition for data producers would serve to incentivize them to share more of their data.
The process of data citation, in which the data themselves are cited and referenced in journal articles as persistently identifiable bibliographic entities, is a potential way to properly acknowledge data output. The recent publication of several sorghum genomes in Genome Biology is a notable first example of good data citation practice in the field of genomics and demonstrates the practicalities and formatting required for doing so. It also illustrates how effective use of persistent identifiers can augment the submission of data to the current standard scientific repositories.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-223
PMCID: PMC3392744  PMID: 22571506
13.  Leukocytosis, muscle damage and increased lymphocyte proliferative response after an adventure sprint race 
The effect of an adventure sprint race (ASR) on T-cell proliferation, leukocyte count and muscle damage was evaluated. Seven young male runners completed an ASR in the region of Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil. The race induced a strong leukocytosis (6.22±2.04×103 cells/mm3 before vs 14.81±3.53×103 cells/mm3 after the race), marked by a significant increase of neutrophils and monocytes (P<0.05), but not total lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. However, the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation was increased (P=0.025) after the race, which contradicted our hypothesis that ASR, as a high-demand competition, would inhibit T-cell proliferation. A positive correlation (P=0.03, r=0.79) was observed between the proliferative response of lymphocytes after the race and the time to complete the race, suggesting that the proliferative response was dependent on exercise intensity. Muscle damage was evident after the race by increased serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (24.99±8.30 vs 50.61±15.76 U/L, P=0.003). The results suggest that humoral factors and substances released by damaged muscle may be responsible for lymphocyte activation, which may be involved in muscle recovery and repair.
doi:10.1590/1414-431X20143187
PMCID: PMC4086176  PMID: 24676476
Strenuous exercise; Lymphocyte; Proliferation; Aspartate amino transferase; Immunosuppression
14.  Epidemiology of injuries in adventure racing athletes 
Objectives: To assess the demographics and training characteristics of adventure racing athletes in the United Kingdom, the prevalence and anatomical distribution of hazardous encounter, and overuse injury in this population, and the effects these injuries have on training.
Methods: A retrospective training and injury questionnaire for the previous 18 months was distributed to 300 adventure racing athletes at two national race meetings. The definition of an injury was "any musculoskeletal problem causing a stop in training for at least one day, reduction in training mileage, taking of medicine, or seeking of medical aid."
Results: The data were derived from the responses of 223 athletes. Advanced level athletes did 11 (4) sessions and 17 (8) hours of training a week (mean (SD)). An injury was reported in the previous 18 months by 73% of the respondents. The most common site of acute injury was the ankle (23%) and of chronic/overuse injury, the knee (30%), followed by the lower back, shin, and Achilles tendon (12% each). There were significant correlations (p<0.01) between the hours spent cycling per week and number of acute injuries, and between the number of days off per week and number of chronic/overuse injuries. Injuries resulted in an average of 23 days training cessation or reduction.
Conclusions: Acute injuries were sustained mainly as a result of the nature of the terrain over which athletes train and compete. In overuse injuries lack of adequate rest days was a significant contributing factor. Only a small proportion of training time was spent developing flexibility and core stability.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.003350
PMCID: PMC1724844  PMID: 15155432
15.  The Adventures of Dr. Duncan McNab McEachran in Western Canada 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1979;20(6):149-156.
Duncan McNab McEachran's early history and involvement in the formation of the Montreal Veterinary College as well as in livestock inspection were reviewed. His contribution to the beginning of the ranching industry in western Canada was explored in detail. In 1881, McEachran helped to establish the Cochrane Ranche, which was the first great ranch to be started in southern Alberta. He was employed as the ranch's resident general manager until 1883, in which year the Waldrond Ranch was established. McEachran was this ranch's president and general manager until approximately 1909. During this time, he came under considerable criticism from both The MacLeod Gazette and The Calgary Herald. As Dr. McEachran maintained his obligations to the ranches while he was directing the veterinary college in Montreal as well as chief inspector of livestock for Canada, it was concluded that this feat alone would rank him as a remarkable historical figure.
Images
PMCID: PMC1789563  PMID: 380798
16.  Adventures in vascular biology: a tale of two mediators 
I would like to thank the Royal Society for inviting me to deliver the Croonian Lecture. In so doing, the Society is adding my name to a list of very distinguished scientists who, since 1738, have preceded me in this task. This is, indeed, a great honour.
For most of my research career my main interest has been the understanding of the normal functioning of the blood vessel wall and the way this is affected in pathology. During this time, our knowledge of these subjects has grown to such an extent that many people now believe that the conquering of vascular disease is a real possibility in the foreseeable future.
My lecture concerns the discovery of two substances, prostacyclin and nitric oxide. I would like to describe the moments of insight and some of the critical experiments that contributed significantly to the uncovering of their roles in vascular biology. The process was often adventurous, hence the title of this lecture. It is the excitement of the adventure that I would like to convey in the text that follows.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1775
PMCID: PMC1609404  PMID: 16627292
prostacyclin; aspirin; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; free radicals; cardiovascular pathology
17.  QuickSilver Clinical Tracker – a Risk-Management Approach 
While many guidelines strive to automate the high-granular clinical thought process, the resulting risk stratification is often a lowgranular management class (i.e. low, medium or high risk). Furthermore, the “low hanging fruit” of guidelines is not in decision support, rather in the subsequent action tracking. Therefore, we believe that only a small amount of data is required to produce significant reminders. In our approach, the clinician risk-stratifies the patient and enters the guideline at the management level. We do not attempt to replicate the clinical thought process; rather we ask the question, “Now that you have decided, how can we help track your decisions?” A risk-management approach encapsulates salient guideline features and provides a framework for basic decision support and data tracking.
PMCID: PMC1479974  PMID: 14728492
18.  Quicksilver & Gold: Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2012;120(11):a424-a429.
doi:10.1289/ehp.120-a424
PMCID: PMC3556620  PMID: 23117138
19.  Mercury. A history of quicksilver 
Medical History  1977;21(4):461.
PMCID: PMC1082118
20.  Quick fixes for quicksilver. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1998;106(2):A74-A76.
Mercury pollution is a persistent and increasing problem in the environment. Along with some natural sources of the metal, major man-made sources of mercury pollution include incinerators, fossil fuel plants, and municipal sewage systems. The EPA estimated that in 1989, approximately 643,000 kg of mercury was discarded as municipal solid waste, with 84% of it landfilled.
PMCID: PMC1533006  PMID: 9456343
22.  Doctor Discontent 
OBJECTIVE
To examine the differences in physician satisfaction associated with open- versus closed-model practice settings and to evaluate changes in physician satisfaction between 1986 and 1997. Open-model practices refer to those in which physicians accept patients from multiple health plans and insurers (i.e., do not have an exclusive arrangement with any single health plan). Closed-model practices refer to those wherein physicians have an exclusive relationship with a single health plan (i.e., staff- or group-model HMO).
DESIGN
Two cross-sectional surveys of physicians; one conducted in 1986 (Medical Outcomes Study) and one conducted in 1997 (Study of Primary Care Performance in Massachusetts).
SETTING
Primary care practices in Massachusetts.
PARTICIPANTS
General internists and family practitioners in Massachusetts.
MEASUREMENTS
Seven measures of physician satisfaction, including satisfaction with quality of care, the potential to achieve professional goals, time spent with individual patients, total earnings from practice, degree of personal autonomy, leisure time, and incentives for high quality.
RESULTS
Physicians in open- versus closed-model practices differed significantly in several aspects of their professional satisfaction. In 1997, open-model physicians were less satisfied than closed-model physicians with their total earnings, leisure time, and incentives for high quality. Open-model physicians reported significantly more difficulty with authorization procedures and reported more denials for care. Overall, physicians in 1997 were less satisfied in every aspect of their professional life than 1986 physicians. Differences were significant in three areas: time spent with individual patients, autonomy, and leisure time (P ≤ .05). Among open-model physicians, satisfaction with autonomy and time with individual patients were significantly lower in 1997 than 1986 (P ≤ .01). Among closed-model physicians, satisfaction with total earnings and with potential to achieve professional goals were significantly lower in 1997 than in 1986 (P ≤ .01).
CONCLUSIONS
This study finds that the state of physician satisfaction in Massachusetts is extremely low, with the majority of physicians dissatisfied with the amount of time they have with individual patients, their leisure time, and their incentives for high quality. Satisfaction with most areas of practice declined significantly between 1986 and 1997. Open-model physicians were less satisfied than closed-model physicians in most aspects of practices.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016007452.x
PMCID: PMC1495236
health maintenance organizations; job satisfaction; physicians' practice patterns; United States; professional autonomy
24.  The Doctor–Patient Relationship and HIV-infected Patients' Satisfaction with Primary Care Physicians 
OBJECTIVE
To assess the extent to which perceptions of specific aspects of the doctor–patient relationship are related to overall satisfaction with primary care physicians among HIV-infected patients.
DESIGN
Longitudinal, observational study of HIV-infected persons new to primary HIV care. Data were collected at enrollment and approximately 6 months later by in-person interview.
SETTING
Two urban medical centers in the northeastern United States.
PARTICIPANTS
Patients seeking primary HIV care for the first time.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
The primary outcome measure was patient-reported satisfaction with a primary care physician measured 6 months after initiating primary HIV care. Patients who were more comfortable discussing personal issues with their physicians (P = .021), who perceived their primary care physicians as more empathetic (P = .001), and who perceived their primary care physicians as more knowledgeable with respect to HIV (P = .002) were significantly more satisfied with their primary care physicians, adjusted for characteristics of the patient and characteristics of primary care. Collectively, specific aspects of the doctor–patient relationship explained 56% of the variation in overall satisfaction with the primary care physician.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients' perceptions of their primary care physician's HIV knowledge and empathy were highly related to their satisfaction with this physician. Satisfaction among HIV-infected patients was not associated with patients' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV risk characteristics, alcohol and drug use, health status, quality of life, or concordant patient-physician gender and racial matching.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.03359.x
PMCID: PMC1495486  PMID: 10940132
HIV; satisfaction; doctor–patient relationship

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