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1.  MLA Certification: The Certification Program and Education for Medical Librarianship * 
The certification program was formally adopted by the Medical Library Association in 1948 in an attempt to establish standards for medical librarians. The program is reviewed, and some of its effects on education for medical librarians are discussed. At the time of its adoption the program defined the kind of education librarians in the field thought necessary for work in medical libraries. New techniques and a shortage of personnel demand consideration of new educational programs, and the Medical Library Assistance Act will provide the means for their establishment. The Association should assume leadership in determining what and where these programs should be and should evaluate its certification and standards programs as often as current needs require.
PMCID: PMC198486  PMID: 6016371
2.  "Current topics in health sciences librarianship": a pilot program for network-based lifelong learning. 
The long-term objective of this project is to make health sciences librarians more effective in their role by using emerging technologies to deliver timely continuing education (CE) programs to them regardless of their physical location. The goals of the one-year planning project at the William H. Welch Medical Library are to plan, implement, and evaluate a pilot CE program that includes (1) a three-day general-interest session organized in four tracks: Market Forces and Management, Information Technology and the Internet, Publishing and Copyright, and Education; (2) a one-day special topic session on the Informatics of the Human Genome Project; and (3) an electronic poster session in parallel with the general-interest session. The program will be offered in three simultaneous formats: (1) on-site, in a distance-learning classroom in Baltimore; (2) as a telecourse, in a similar classroom outside Washington, DC; and (3) online, via the World Wide Web. An electronic proceedings of the entire program will be published on the Web to serve as a continuously available CE resource for health sciences librarians. This paper gives an overview of the planning process, presents a status report on the programmatic and technical implementation of the pilot project at its midpoint, and discusses future directions for the program.
PMCID: PMC226191  PMID: 8913554
3.  Education for health sciences/biomedical librarianship: past, present, future. 
This paper offers an analysis of and some predictions for the fields of library education and medical librarianship. The recent past of education for medical/health sciences librarianship is outlined, with emphasis on the changing nature of the library school, its faculty, and its students. The present situation is described, with specific reference to faculty, curriculum, and accreditation issues. A future agenda is proposed, identifying the need for interdisciplinary and cooperative efforts within the larger realms of medical informatics, high technology, a variety of health professions, and the community of contemporary library practice.
PMCID: PMC227811  PMID: 3708197
4.  Research: the third dimension of librarianship. 
The rapid accumulation of data through increasingly sophisticated computer technology has created an unprecedented information explosion which might better be called an ignorance explosion. Data gathering emphasizing quantity rather than quality, speed of transmission rather than reliability or relevance, poses a challenge to the future of librarianship. Two concerns are discussed: (1) Relationship of technology to the information age. Librarians must be concerned with the methodology used in data collection, including the value judgments reflected in this activity. (2) Preparation of medical librarianship for the future. The profession will grow only as a result of individual effort, the recognition of people, and an appreciation of human values. Thus far, attempts to evaluate needs focus on technology while neglecting research into the human aspect. The author proposes that dimensions of the total professional model for medical librarianship must include research, as well as education and practice. The need to aid in the development of library researchers at the Ph.D. level through a National Library of Medicine program similar to that offered to researchers by the National Institutes of Health is stressed. By way of federal assistance and scholarships made available through national library associations, library research can become the vital and effective third dimension that will redefine the traditional concept of information storage and service in human terms, thus introducing a new relevance into the area of medical librarianship during the coming decades.
PMCID: PMC226407  PMID: 7356492
5.  Evaluation of a clinical medical librarianship program at a university Health Sciences Library. 
An evaluation of the clinical medical librarianship program at the University of Washington Health Sciences Library was undertaken to determine the benefits of the program to patient care and to the education of the recipients of the service. Results of a questionnaire reflected overwhelming acceptance of the clinical medical librarianship program. Guidelines for the establishment of a limited clinical medical librarianship program are described. A statistical cost analysis of the program is included.
PMCID: PMC199216  PMID: 938773
6.  Books and other endangered species: an inquiry into the values of medical librarianship. 
Major values of medical librarians, as exemplified in their periodical literature 1903-1977, are identified as "professionalism," "cooperation," "sense of community with health sciences practitioners," and "knowledge orientation." These values are examined in terms of interdisciplinary research into human values. Professionalism is studied in greater depth in relation to criteria on a scale of professionalism. Medical librarians have been most concerned with the criteria of organization, specialized education (with more emphasis on continuing education than on introductory medical library education), and service orientation. Indication of challenge to long-held values exists in the contradictions among certain related assumptions underlying our self-image, our current lack of standards, and changing societal views toward commitment to a single, life-long specialization. It is suggested that there is unexplored potential for support of our traditional values and the development of new ones by comparing them with the value systems of health scientists and educators of health sciences practitioners.
PMCID: PMC199524  PMID: 708952
7.  Bringing the best of medical librarianship to the patient team 
This article introduces a series of articles examining the state of the medical library profession as practiced in the clinical context. It is widely understood that many changes across the spectrum of medical librarianship practice have been brought about by both technological advances and economic realities. These changes have created strains felt by many in the profession. Discussions of evolving roles for medical librarians that have gone on for years have taken on a new sense of urgency, not just because support of library services is at stake, but also because new opportunities, which many are eager to explore, await librarians. In June 2000, an editorial appearing in a mainstream medical journal proposed a reinvention of clinical librarianship that, if designed as presented in the editorial, would have a dramatic effect on current hospital-based library practice. This series of articles was developed in an effort to provide thoughtful consideration of the “informationist” model and to present new ways to look at the core competencies that define the profession.
PMCID: PMC64754  PMID: 11838456
8.  “... And Gladly Teach”: The American Hospital Association's Experience in Conducting Institutes on Hospital Librarianship 
As part of its overall educational program, the American Hospital Association has since 1959 conducted three institutes on hospital librarianship to meet the demand for more competent librarians in medical, nursing school, and patients' libraries. The purpose of such institutes is to teach the basic elements of library science to untrained personnel in hospital libraries.
Discussed are steps in initiating an institute; factors determining length, date, and place; financing; publicity; choice and responsibility of local advisory committee; program content; qualifications of instructors; characteristics of registrants; materials for distribution; evaluations. Details of the most recent institute are outlined. A summary of problems still facing this type of educational program and suggestions for future improvements conclude the paper.
PMCID: PMC198075  PMID: 14119309
9.  Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey 
The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship.
The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code.
Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work.
Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians.
PMCID: PMC4188053  PMID: 25349544
10.  Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship* 
The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work.
Four sources of evidence are used to examine the rise of EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement.
These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice.
Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services.
PMCID: PMC3878930  PMID: 24415915
11.  Telemedicine: history, applications, and impact on librarianship. 
This paper traces the uses of telecommunications in health care from the Civil War era to the present. Topics include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's involvement in the origins of current telemedicine systems and the impact of television. Applications of telemedicine discussed include remote consultation and diagnosis, specialty clinical care (including examples from anesthesia, dermatology, cardiology, psychiatry, radiology, critical care, and oncology), and others (including examples of patient education, home monitoring, and continuing education). The concluding section highlights how telemedicine affects health sciences librarianship, beginning with the development of online computerized literature searching. This section also discusses the medical resources available to health sciences librarians as a result of the Internet.
PMCID: PMC226126  PMID: 8938332
13.  Preparation for Medical Librarianship: Status and Potential * 
The educational programs for the preparation of health sciences information personnel are described and the lack of evaluative criteria or studies in relation to these programs is noted. The author recommends an extension of MLA's role in four areas of the educational process: curriculum design, teacher development, development of learning materials, and evaluation of the educational effort. Preconditions for the fulfillment of the projected MLA role are identified as unity of purpose, leadership by the headquarters staff, and money.
PMCID: PMC197687  PMID: 16017604
14.  Feasibility and marketing studies of health sciences librarianship education programs. 
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill evaluated five curricular models designed to improve education for health sciences librarianship. Three of the models enhanced existing degree and certificate programs, and two were new programs for working information professionals. Models were developed with input from experts and a Delphi study; the marketability of the models was tested through surveys of potential students and employers; and recommendations were made as a guide to implementation. The results demonstrated a demand for more specialized curricula and for retraining opportunities. Marketing data showed a strong interest from potential students in a specialized master's degree, and mid-career professionals indicated an interest in postmaster's programs that provided the ability to maintain employment. The study pointed to the opportunity for a center of excellence in health sciences information education to enable health sciences librarians to respond to their evolving roles.
PMCID: PMC226522  PMID: 9934529
15.  On the origin of a species: evolution of health sciences librarianship. 
The basic role of the health sciences librarian has not significantly changed throughout history. It has been- and remains-to collect information and organize it for effective use. What has changed is the environment in which this role is carried out and the tools used to accomplish the tasks. Over the one hundred-year history of the evolution of health sciences librarianship, we have used specialty education as the mechanism for differentiating ourselves from other types of librarianship and for acquiring the knowledge and skills to succeed in our profession. Changing conditions require a continual review of our specialty education and a willingness to modify it in order to prepare ourselves for changing environments. A review of specialty education for health sciences librarianship reveals that we have always adapted to new and changing conditions and will continue to do so in the future.
PMCID: PMC226216  PMID: 9028565
16.  An Annotated Bibliography of Education for Medical Librarianship, 1940-1968 
An attempt has been made in this bibliography to represent the various viewpoints concerning education for medical librarianship equally. The topics covered include: general background reading and readings for those interested in establishing courses in medical librarianship. The former includes annotations on the history and international aspects of the subject. The latter consists of annotations of articles on early courses and present courses in medical librarianship. A final area discussed is the Medical Library Association's Code for the Training and Certification of Medical Librarians.
PMCID: PMC200869  PMID: 4898629
17.  Reference Books and Computerized Information Services: Partners in Librarianship 
As a basis for thoughts on the roles of reference books and computerized information services in general, a comparison is made of the value to medical libraries of a comprehensive reference tool (the new dual media publication Biomedical Research in Progress) and a comprehensive information center file (the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, the national resource for information on research in progress). It is concluded that a detailed reference tool which is physically present for library users has several advantages, in particular the provision of both detailed and comprehensive retrieval of all biomedical research information at substantially less annual cost and with faster access time than is possible with comparable questions put to an information center. On the other hand, the information center is able to provide more up-to-date material in more flexible combinations. The recommendation is made that medical libraries avoid treating the comprehensive reference tool and the computerized information file as alternatives and instead view both as necessary and complementary to each other.
PMCID: PMC197719  PMID: 5054308
18.  Library School Education for Medical Librarianship * 
This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored.
PMCID: PMC226952  PMID: 385086
19.  Foundations of medical librarianship. 
The development of medical librarianship during the last forty years is examined as reflected in the changes of its resources, technology, education, and knowledge base. A shift from historical to scientific inquiry constitutes the direction of medical librarianship. Its nexus is the gathering of information and the transfer of knowledge. The social and human resources for this ongoing change and the basis for a quest for excellence is seen in the pool of talent represented by hospital librarians and the aspirations of the women's movement for equality.
PMCID: PMC199389  PMID: 332265
20.  A leap forward in medical librarianship: a glimpse of the Biomedical Information Center and Network, People's Republic of China. 
Working with the World Health Organization, the People's Republic of China has taken a giant leap toward modernization of its medical libraries and information centers. The Biomedical Information Center and Network Project is helping to develop professional training programs, resources, new facilities, and a resource-sharing and document delivery network among Chinese medical libraries. The development of MEDLARS-like data base in the network is a final goal of the project. These changes will have a significant effect on future medical librarianship in China.
PMCID: PMC227195  PMID: 6626800
21.  The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226349  PMID: 9578936
22.  The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226437  PMID: 9803287
23.  The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. 
The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.
PMCID: PMC226383  PMID: 9681172
24.  Clinical medical librarianship: a review of the literature. 
The history and evolution of clinical medical librarianship are analyzed and traditional and modified approaches, including LATCH, are reviewed. Cost and evaluation methods are outlined, indicating benefits and disadvantages of clinical medical librarian (CML) programs. The future of CMLs is explored.
PMCID: PMC227537  PMID: 3919792
25.  A Prospective Cohort Study Investigating Factors Associated with Depression during Medical Internship 
Archives of general psychiatry  2010;67(6):557-565.
Although the prevalence of depression among medical interns substantially exceeds that of the general population, the specific factors responsible are not well understood. Recent reports of a moderating effect of a genetic polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter protein gene on the likelihood that life stress will precipitate depression may help to understand the development of mood symptoms in medical interns.
To identify psychological, demographic and residency program factors that associate with depression among interns and use medical internship as a model to study the moderating effects of this polymorphism using a prospective, within-subject design that addresses the design limitations of earlier studies.
Prospective cohort study
13 United States hospitals
740 interns entering participating residency programs
Main outcome measures
Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a series of psychological traits and 5-HTTLPR genotype prior to internship and then assessed for depressive symptoms and potential stressors at 3-month intervals during internship.
The PHQ-9 depression score increased from 2.4 prior to internship to a mean of 6.4 during internship (p<0.001). The proportion of participants who met PHQ-9 criteria for depression increased from 3.9% prior to internship to a mean of 25.7% during internship (p<0.001). A series of factors measured prior to internship (female sex, U.S. medical education, difficult early family environment, history of major depression, lower baseline depressive symptom score and higher neuroticism) and during internship (increased work hours, perceived medical errors and stressful life events) were associated with a greater increase in depressive symptoms during internship. In addition, subjects with at least one copy of a less transcribed 5-HTTLPR allele reported a greater increase in depressive symptoms under the stress of internship (p=0.002).
There is a marked increase in depressive symptoms during medical internship. Specific individual, internship and genetic factors are associated with the increase in depressive symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4036806  PMID: 20368500
Graduate; Medical; Education; Residency; Serotonin; Transporter

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