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1.  A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members 
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006).
Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications.
doi:10.5688/ajpe767127
PMCID: PMC3448465  PMID: 23049099
academia; pharmacy practice; faculty; publications; scholarship
2.  Status of PharmD/PhD Programs in Colleges of Pharmacy: The University of Tennessee Dual PharmD/PhD Program 
Objectives
To describe the University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD program and assess the prevalence and characteristics of PharmD/PhD programs in the United States.
Methods
Survey instruments were mailed in May 2004 to UT dual-degree program participants and deans of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD students completed more than 30 hours of graduate credit before obtaining their PharmD and 72.2% agreed or strongly agreed that the program met their professional goals. More than 40% of US pharmacy colleges and schools have or plan to have PharmD/PhD programs. A wide variation exists in the level of integration, PhD concentrations offered, entrance requirements, and student benefits. Most schools with PharmD/PhD programs had few students enrolled in the program, but attrition rates were low (<20%) for 69% of the schools.
Conclusions
Dual-degree programs attract and retain pharmacy students in research programs and 47.6% of graduates entered academia and industry.
PMCID: PMC1636914  PMID: 17149422
dual-degree programs; faculty shortage; pharmacy education; PharmD/PhD; graduate education
3.  Pharmaceutical Science Faculty Publication Records at Research-Intensive Pharmacy Colleges and Schools 
Objective. To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members’ publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated.
Results. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members’ colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (p<0.01 for each). The median number of cumulative publications per faculty member was 34 (range, 0-370).
Conclusion. Significant differences exist in yearly and cumulative publication rates for faculty members and bibliometric indices among pharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.
doi:10.5688/ajpe769173
PMCID: PMC3508487  PMID: 23193337
publications; scholarship; faculty; pharmaceutical sciences; faculty member productivity
4.  Education, Training, and Academic Experience of Newly Hired, First-Time Pharmacy Faculty Members 
Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences.
Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78592
PMCID: PMC4064492  PMID: 24954932
faculty member; pharmacy education; training; hiring; survey
5.  College and School of Pharmacy Characteristics Associated With US News and World Report Rankings 
Objective. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report.
Methods. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model.
Results. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both).
Conclusion. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77355
PMCID: PMC3631730  PMID: 23610473
pharmacy education; ranking; assessment; teaching; publications; scholarship
6.  The Status of US Multi-campus Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To assess the current status of multi-campus colleges and schools of pharmacy within the United States.
Methods
Data on multi-campus programs, technology, communication, and opinions regarding benefits and challenges were collected from Web sites, e-mail, and phone interviews from all colleges and schools of pharmacy with students in class on more than 1 campus.
Results
Twenty schools and colleges of pharmacy (18 public and 2 private) had multi-campus programs; 16 ran parallel campuses and 4 ran sequential campuses. Most programs used synchronous delivery of classes. The most frequently reported reasons for establishing the multi-campus program were to have access to a hospital and/or medical campus and clinical resources located away from the main campus and to increase class size. Effectiveness of distance education technology was most often sited as a challenge.
Conclusion
About 20% of colleges and schools of pharmacy have multi-campus programs most often to facilitate access to clinical resources and to increase class size. These programs expand learning opportunities and face challenges related to technology, resources, and communication.
PMCID: PMC2972518  PMID: 21088729
multi-campus; distance education; administration
7.  Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Their Exposure to Postgraduate Training and Academic Careers During Pharmacy School 
Objective. To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought.
Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective.
Conclusions. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76339
PMCID: PMC3327237  PMID: 22544956
pharmacy faculty members; residency programs; fellowships; graduate education; careers
8.  The Prevalence and Characteristics of Dual PharmD/MPH Programs Offered at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of curriculum in dual doctor of pharmacy (PharmD)/master of public health (MPH) degree programs offered by US pharmacy programs.
Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed online to faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Of the 110 colleges and schools that responded, 23 (21%) offered a PharmD/MPH degree. Common characteristics of these 23 programs included current PharmD program structure (3 + 1 year), early curricular recruitment, small enrollment, and interdisciplinary coursework occurring online and in the classroom. The impact of the dual degree on the curriculum and longevity of the dual-degree programs varied. About 55% of responding programs without a formal dual-degree program reported that additional public health training was available.
Conclusion. Twenty-one percent of colleges and schools of pharmacy offer a combined PharmD/MPH dual degree. Most programs required an additional 1 or 2 semesters to complete both degrees.
doi:10.5688/ajpe776116
PMCID: PMC3748297  PMID: 23966719
pharmacy education; public health; masters of public health; dual degree
9.  Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001743.
Aaron Kesselheim and colleagues compared US medical students' survey responses regarding pharmaceutical company interactions with the schools' AMSA PharmFree scorecard and Institute on Medicine as a Profession's (IMAP) scores.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.
Methods and Findings
Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50–2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50–2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19–0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19–1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15–0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus privately funded school did not alter the association. Policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus were associated with students reporting having not received gifts and having not interacted with marketing representatives. Policy dimensions reflecting the regulation of industry involvement in educational activities (e.g., continuing medical education, travel compensation, and scholarships) were associated with perceived separation between faculty and industry. The study is limited by potential for recall bias and the cross-sectional nature of the survey, as school curricula and industry interaction policies may have changed since the time of the survey administration and study analysis.
Conclusions
As medical schools review policies regulating medical students' industry interactions, limitations on receipt of gifts and meals and participation of faculty in speaking bureaus should be emphasized, and policy makers should pay greater attention to less research-intensive institutions.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings, manufacturers may help to inform trainees and physicians about developments in health care, but they also create the potential for harm to patients and health care systems. These interactions may, for example, reduce trainees' and trained physicians' skepticism about potentially misleading promotional claims and may encourage physicians to prescribe new medications, which are often more expensive than similar unbranded (generic) drugs and more likely to be recalled for safety reasons than older drugs. To address these and other concerns about the potential career-long effects of interactions between medical trainees and industry, many teaching hospitals and medical schools have introduced policies to limit such interactions. The development of these policies has been supported by expert professional groups and medical societies, some of which have created scales to evaluate the strength of the implemented industry interaction policies.
Why Was This Study Done?
The impact of policies designed to limit interactions between students and industry on student behavior is unclear, and it is not known which aspects of the policies are most predictive of student behavior. This information is needed to ensure that the policies are working and to identify ways to improve them. Here, the researchers investigate which medical school characteristics and which aspects of industry interaction policies are most predictive of students' reported behaviors and beliefs by comparing information collected in a national survey of US medical students with the strength of their schools' industry interaction policies measured on two scales—the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers compared information about reported gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and the perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation collected from 1,610 medical students at 121 US medical schools with AMSA and IMAP scores for the schools evaluated a year earlier. Students at schools with the highest ranked interaction policies based on the AMSA score were 63% less likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools. Students at the highest ranked schools based on the IMAP score were about half as likely to accept gifts as students at the lowest ranked schools, although this finding was not statistically significant (it could be a chance finding). Similarly, students at the highest ranked schools were 70% less likely to interact with sales representatives as students at the lowest ranked schools. These associations became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for the amount of research funding each school received from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). Policies limiting gifts, meals, and being a part of speaking bureaus (where companies pay speakers to present information about the drugs for dinners and other events) were associated with students' reports of receiving no gifts and of non-interaction with sales representatives. Finally, policies regulating industry involvement in educational activities were associated with the perceived separation between faculty and industry, which was regarded as adequate by most of the students at schools with such policies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that policies designed to limit industry interactions with medical students need to address multiple aspects of these interactions to achieve changes in the behavior and attitudes of trainees, but that policies limiting gifts, meals, and speaking bureaus may be particularly important. These findings also suggest that the level of NIH funding plays an important role in students' self-reported behaviors and their perceptions of industry, possibly because institutions with greater NIH funding have the resources needed to implement effective policies. The accuracy of these findings may be limited by recall bias (students may have reported their experiences inaccurately), and by the possibility that industry interaction policies may have changed in the year that elapsed between policy grading and the student survey. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that limitations on gifts should be emphasized when academic medical centers refine their policies on interactions between medical students and industry and that particular attention should be paid to the design and implementation of policies that regulate industry interactions in institutions with lower levels of NIH funding.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001743.
The UK General Medical Council provides guidance on financial and commercial arrangements and conflicts of interest as part of its good medical practice document, which describes what is required of all registered doctors in the UK
Information about the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Just Medicine campaign (formerly the PharmFree campaign) and about the AMSA Scorecard is available
Information about the Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) and about its Conflicts of Interest Policy Database is also available
“Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide” is a manual prepared by Health Action International and the World Health Organization that medical schools can use to train students how to recognize and respond to pharmaceutical promotion
The US Institute of Medicine's report “Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice” recommends steps to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest
The ALOSA Foundation provides evidence-based, non-industry-funded education about treating common conditions and using prescription drugs
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001743
PMCID: PMC4196737  PMID: 25314155
10.  Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait 
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning.
Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.
PMCID: PMC1636892  PMID: 17136159
pharmacy education; Jordan; Saudi Arabia; Kuwait
11.  Pharmacoepidemiology Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered by US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods
An electronic Web-survey was sent to all 89 US colleges and schools of pharmacy between October 2005 and January 2006 to examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered to professional (PharmD) and graduate (MS/PhD) students.
Results
The response rate was 100%. Of the 89 schools surveyed, 69 (78%) provided pharmacoepidemiology education to their professional students. A mean of 119 (±60) PharmD students per college/school per year received some pharmacoepidemiology education (range 1-60 classroom hours; median 10 hours). Thirty-five schools (39%) provided education to a mean of 6 (±5) graduate students (range 2-135 classroom hours; median 15 hours).
Conclusions
A majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer some pharmacoepidemiology education in their curriculum. However, the topics offered by each school and number of classroom hours varied at both the professional and graduate level.
PMCID: PMC1959224  PMID: 17786268
pharmacoepidemiology; epidemiology; curriculum
12.  Objective Structured Clinical Examinations in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs in the United States 
Objectives
To describe current objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) practices in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States.
Methods
Structured interviews were conducted with PharmD faculty members between September 2008 and May 2010 to collect information about awareness of and interest in OSCE, current OSCE practices, and barriers to OSCEs.
Results
Of 108 US colleges and schools of pharmacy identified, interviews were completed for a representative sample of 88 programs (81.5% participation rate). Thirty-two pharmacy programs reported using OSCEs; however, practices within these programs varied. Eleven of the programs consistently administered examinations of 3 or more stations, required all students to complete the same scenario(s), and had processes in place to ensure consistency of standardized patients' role portrayal. Of the 55 programs not using OSCEs, approximately half were interested in using the technique. Common barriers to OSCE implementation or expansion were cost and faculty members' workloads.
Conclusions
There is wide interest in using OSCEs within pharmacy education. However, few colleges and schools of pharmacy conduct OSCEs in an optimal manner, and most do not adhere to best practices in OSCE construction and administration.
PMCID: PMC2987288  PMID: 21179259
objective structured clinical examination (OSCE); assessment; testing; examination
13.  Pharmacoeconomics Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy provided to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in 2011.
Methods. E-mails requesting syllabi and information about courses covering pharmacoeconomic topics were sent to all US colleges and schools of pharmacy from which PharmD students had graduated in 2011 (n=103).
Results. Of 87 responding pharmacy colleges and schools, 85 provided pharmacoeconomics education in 2011. The number of hours dedicated to pharmacoeconomic-related topics varied from 2 to 60 per year (mean=20).
Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education is provided at almost all US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, variation in the number of teaching hours and topics covered demonstrates a lack of standardization in the PharmD curriculum. Pharmacy administrators and educators should invest more resources and tools to standardize training in this area.
doi:10.5688/ajpe777145
PMCID: PMC3776899  PMID: 24052648
pharmacoeconomics; pharmacy education; curriculum
14.  Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools 
Demography  2013;50(2):447-469.
Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.
doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0157-1
PMCID: PMC3568197  PMID: 23073751
Single-sex schools; Random assignment; Causal inferences; College entrance; College entrance exam scores
15.  The Science of Safety Curriculum in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To describe the integration of science of safety (SoS) topics in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A questionnaire that contained items pertaining to what and how SoS topics are taught in PharmD curricula was e-mailed to representatives at 107 US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. The majority of the colleges and schools responding indicated that they had integrated SoS topics into their curriculum, however, some gaps (eg, teaching students about communicating risk, Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Sentinel Initiative, utilizing patient databases) were identified that need to be addressed.
Conclusions. The FDA and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) should continue to collaborate to develop resources needed to ensure that topics proposed by the FDA in their SoS framework are taught at all colleges and schools of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757141
PMCID: PMC3175655  PMID: 21969727
medication safety; pharmacy education; curriculum; science of safety
16.  Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students 
Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students.
Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year.
Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)≥3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem.
doi:10.5688/ajpe787134
PMCID: PMC4174376  PMID: 25258439
self-efficacy; self-esteem; experiential learning; introductory pharmacy practice experience
17.  Pharmacogenomics in the Curricula of Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States 
Objectives
To assess the breadth, depth, and perceived importance of pharmacogenomics instruction and level of faculty development in this area in schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States.
Methods
A questionnaire used and published previously was further developed and sent to individuals at all US schools and colleges of pharmacy. Multiple approaches were used to enhance response.
Results
Seventy-five (83.3%) questionnaires were returned. Sixty-nine colleges (89.3%) included pharmacogenomics in their PharmD curriculum compared to 16 (39.0%) as reported in a 2005 study. Topic coverage was <10 hours for 28 (40.6%), 10-30 hours for 29 (42.0%), and 31-60 hours for 10 (14.5%) colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fewer than half (46.7%) were planning to increase course work over the next 3 years and 54.7% had no plans for faculty development related to pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions
Most US colleges of pharmacy include pharmacogenomics content in their curriculum, however, the depth may be limited. The majority did not have plans for faculty development in the area of pharmacogenomic content expertise.
PMCID: PMC2829155  PMID: 20221358
pharmacogenomics education; pharmacogenetics education; curriculum
18.  A survey of health professions students for knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about tuberculosis, 2005 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:219.
Background
In 2003 the NIH perceived a need to strengthen teaching about tuberculosis (TB) to health professions students. The National Tuberculosis Curriculum Consortium (NTCC) was funded to meet this need. The purpose of this study was to survey students enrolled in NTCC schools prior to NTCC-developed educational materials being made available to faculty.
Methods
A self-administered survey for students in NTCC schools to establish a baseline level of knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about tuberculosis.
Results
1480/2965 (50%) students in 28 programs in 20 NTCC schools completed the survey. If public health students are eliminated from totals (only 61 respondents of 765 public health students), the overall response proportion for the seven clinically-related disciplines was 64.5%. The majority (74%) were in schools of medicine (MD/DO), undergraduate nursing (BSN), and pharmacy (PharmD); others were in programs for physician assistants (PA), advanced practice nursing (NP/APN), respiratory therapy (RT), clinical laboratory sciences (MT/CLS), and public health (MPH). Almost 90% had attended at least one lecture about TB. Although 91.4% knew TB was transmitted via aerosols, about one-third did not know the method for administering tuberculin, or that Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine was not a contraindication to TB skin testing. Fewer than two-thirds knew that about 10% of people in the U.S.A. who have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and a normal immune system will develop TB disease, or that BCG is not part of the routine vaccination program in the U.S.A. because it complicates surveillance for new TB infection.
Conclusion
There is room for improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence about TB by health professions students surveyed. The NTCC-developed educational products may be used by faculty to improve student performance to be assessed with future surveys.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-219
PMCID: PMC2034553  PMID: 17725842
19.  Medicare Part D Community Outreach Train-the-Trainer Program for Pharmacy Faculty 
Objectives
To assess the train-the-trainer component of an initiative (Partners in D) to train pharmacy students to facilitate patient enrollment in the best Medicare Part D prescription drug plan (Part D).
Methods
Faculty members from 6 California colleges or schools of pharmacy were taught how to train pharmacy students about Medicare Part D and how to conduct outreach events targeting underserved patient populations. A preintervention and postintervention survey instrument was administered to determine participants' (1) knowledge of the Part D program; (2) skill using the Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Finder tool; and (3) confidence in their ability to train pharmacy students. Implementation of the Partners in D curriculum in faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy was also determined.
Results
Participants' knowledge of Part D, mastery of the Plan Finder, and confidence in teaching the material to pharmacy students all significantly improved. Within 8 weeks following the program, 5 of 6 colleges or schools of pharmacy adopted Partners in D coursework and initiated teaching the Partners-in-D curriculum. Four months afterwards, 21 outreach events reaching 186 Medicare beneficiaries had been completed.
Conclusions
The train-the-trainer component of the Partners in D program is practical and effective, and merits serious consideration as a national model for educating patients about Medicare Part D.
PMCID: PMC2703286  PMID: 19564996
Medicare Part D; Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Finder; train-the-trainer; faculty development
20.  Faculty Perceptions of Appropriate Faculty Behaviors in Social Interactions With Student Pharmacists 
Objective
To determine faculty and administrator perceptions about appropriate behavior in social interactions between pharmacy students and faculty members.
Methods
Four private and 2 public colleges and schools of pharmacy conducted focus groups of faculty members and interviews with administrators. Three scenarios describing social interactions between faculty members and students were used. For each scenario, participants reported whether the faculty member's behavior was appropriate and provided reasons for their opinions.
Results
Forty-four percent of those surveyed or interviewed considered interactions between faculty members and pharmacy students at a bar to be a boundary violation. Administrators were more likely than faculty members to consider discussing other faculty members with a student to be a boundary violation (82% vs. 46%, respectively, P <0.009). A majority (87%) of faculty members and administrators considered “friending” students on Facebook a boundary violation.
Conclusions
There was no clear consensus about whether socializing with students at a bar was a boundary violation. In general, study participants agreed that faculty members should not initiate friendships with current students on social networks but that taking a student employee to lunch was acceptable.
PMCID: PMC3138356  PMID: 21769146
faculty; students; social interactions; Facebook; behavior
21.  The Status of PhD Education in Economic, Social, and Administrative Sciences Between 2005 and 2008 
Objectives
To describe the funding, education, enrollment, and graduation patterns from economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Methods
Economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs were identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Web site. A 41-item online survey instrument was sent to the director of graduate studies of each identified program. Only programs offering a PhD degree were included in the study.
Results
Of the 26 programs surveyed, 20 (77%) provided useable responses to the survey instrument. Approximately 91% of PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming students with an average commitment of 2.9 years. On average, students were paid a stipend of $18,000 per year for commitments to research and teaching assistantships, each averaging approximately 2 years in length. Programs admitted an average of 3.5 students per year and graduated approximately 85% of entering students. The majority of students are non-US citizens and accept positions in either academic or industrial positions after graduation.
Conclusions
Most economic, social, and administrative sciences PhD programs guarantee funding to incoming PhD candidates. Programs offering funding packages significantly below the average may be at a competitive disadvantage. It is unclear whether the number of students graduating from PhD programs is adequate to fulfill academic and industrial needs.
PMCID: PMC2972521  PMID: 21088732
graduate education; academia; social and administrative sciences; doctor of philosophy
22.  Engaging External Senior Faculty Members as Faculty Mentors 
A small nonprofit private college with limited resources and a high proportion of junior faculty developed a nontraditional external faculty mentor program in the summer of 2011 in response to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty survey data regarding the professional development needs of pharmacy faculty members. Experienced faculty members with national reputations from other colleges and schools of pharmacy were hired as consultants to serve as mentors for assigned faculty members. Program goals were to provide directed, individual mentorship for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty members, expand peer review of faculty teaching prowess, and enhance monthly faculty development programming. The latter was based upon the specific needs assessment of the faculty. Program outcomes reported will include faculty satisfaction (AACP faculty survey data) changes over time, achievement of board certification for clinical faculty members and other credentialing, and other benchmarks, eg, publications, grant funding, service engagement (site development, professional organizations), after the implementation of the nontraditional faculty-mentoring program.
doi:10.5688/ajpe785101
PMCID: PMC4064478  PMID: 24954941
23.  Teaching Evaluation Practices in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To document teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods
A 51-item questionnaire was developed based on the instrument used in a previous study with modifications made to address changes in pharmacy education. An online survey service was used to distribute the electronic questionnaire to the deans of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Results
Completed surveys were received from 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy. All colleges/schools administered student evaluations of classroom and experiential teaching. Faculty peer evaluation of classroom teaching was used by 66% of colleges/schools. Use of other evaluation methods had increased over the previous decade, including use of formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, and review by teaching experts. While the majority (55%) of colleges/schools administered classroom teaching evaluations at or near the conclusion of a course, 38% administered them at the midpoint and/or conclusion of a faculty member's teaching within a team-taught course. Completion of an online evaluation form was the most common method used for evaluation of classroom (54%) and experiential teaching (72%).
Conclusion
Teaching evaluation methods used in colleges and schools of pharmacy expanded from 1996 to 2007 to include more evaluation of experiential teaching, review by peers, formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, review by teaching experts, and evaluation by alumni. Procedures for conducting student evaluations of teaching have adapted to address changes in curriculum delivery and technology.
PMCID: PMC2769525  PMID: 19885072
teaching; evaluation; assessment; survey
24.  A Pharmaceutical Industry Elective Course on Practice Experience Selection and Fellowship Pursuit by Pharmacy Students 
Objective. To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students’ selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships.
Methods. Two 2-credit-hour elective courses that explored careers within the prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical drug industries were offered for second- and third-year pharmacy students in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program.
Results. The impact of the courses on pharmacy students’ pursuit of a pharmaceutical industry fellowship was evaluated based on responses to annual graduating students’ exit surveys. A greater percentage (17.9%) of students who had taken a pharmaceutical industry elective course pursued a pharmaceutical industry fellowship compared to all PharmD graduates (4.8%). Of the students who enrolled in pharmaceutical industry APPEs, 31% had taken 1 of the 2 elective courses.
Conclusion. Exposure to a pharmaceutical industry elective course within a college or school of pharmacy curriculum may increase students’ interest in pursuing pharmaceutical industry fellowships and enrolling in pharmaceutical industry APPEs.
doi:10.5688/ajpe786126
PMCID: PMC4140492  PMID: 25147398
pharmacy; student; education; pharmaceutical industry
25.  Pharmacy Residency Match Rates and Predictors 
Objective. To determine acceptance rates to postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residencies and examine the impact of several variables on acceptance rate.
Methods. Residency match data for every US college and school of pharmacy with a graduating class between 2008 and 2011 were sorted by graduating class and applicant match rates into PGY1 residency programs. Data were analyzed to determine factors influencing PGY1 match rates.
Results. The graduating class match rate to PGY1 residencies was 14.2% for all colleges and schools, 16.0% for public colleges and schools, and 12.6% for private colleges and schools. Colleges and schools with a first graduating class greater than 20 years ago matched 16.7% of students to residency programs.
Conclusion. Whether the college or school was public rather than private was an influencing factor on both graduating class and applicant match rates. Years since first graduating class influenced applicant match rate only.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7710212
PMCID: PMC3872931  PMID: 24371336
residency; match; college of pharmacy; predictors

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