Rationale: Prolonged exposure to 100% O2 causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury and death. We previously demonstrated that the murine chitinase-like protein, breast regression protein (BRP)–39 and its human homolog, YKL-40, inhibit cellular apoptosis. However, the regulation and roles of these molecules in hyperoxia have not been addressed.
Objectives: We hypothesized that BRP-39 and YKL-40 (also called chitinase-3–like 1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of HALI.
Methods: We characterized the regulation of BRP-39 during HALI and the responses induced by hyperoxia in wild-type mice, BRP-39–null (−/−) mice, and BRP-39−/− mice in which YKL-40 was overexpressed in respiratory epithelium. We also compared the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 in premature newborns with respiratory failure.
Measurements and Main Results: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39 in vivo in the murine lung and in vitro in epithelial cells. They also demonstrate that BRP-39−/− mice have exaggerated permeability, protein leak, oxidation, inflammatory, chemokine, and epithelial apoptosis responses, and experience premature death in 100% O2. Lastly, they demonstrate that YKL-40 ameliorates HALI, prolongs survival in 100% O2, and rescues the exaggerated injury response in BRP-39−/− animals. In accord with these findings, the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 were lower in premature infants treated with hyperoxia for respiratory failure who subsequently experienced bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death compared with those that did not experience these complications.
Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39/YKL-40, and that BRP-39 and YKL-40 are critical regulators of oxidant injury, inflammation, and epithelial apoptosis in the murine and human lung.
BRP-39; YKL-40; hyperoxygen; BPD; HALI
Supplemental oxygen is frequently prescribed. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), which manifests as acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and leads to bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborns (NBs). Nitric oxide (NO), NO synthases (NOSs), and angiopoietin (Ang) 2 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HALI. However, the mechanisms of the contributions of NOS/NO and the relationship(s) between NOS/NO and Ang2 have not been addressed. In addition, the relevance of these moieties in adults and NBs has not been evaluated. To address these issues, we compared the responses in hyperoxia of wild-type (NOS [+/+]) and NOS null (−/−) young adult and NB mice. When compared with NOS2+/+ adult controls, NOS2−/− animals manifest exaggerated alveolar–capillary protein leak and premature death. These responses were associated with enhanced levels of structural cell death, enhanced expression of proapoptotic regulatory proteins, and Ang2. Importantly, silencing RNA knockdown of Ang2 decreased the levels of cell death and the expression of proapoptotic mediators. These effects were at least partially NOS2 specific, and were development dependent, because survival was similar in adult NOS3+/+ and NOS3−/− mice and NB NOS2+/+ and NOS2−/− mice, respectively. These studies demonstrate that NOS2 plays an important protective role in HALI in adult animals. They also demonstrate that this response is mediated, at least in part, by the ability of NOS2 to inhibit hyperoxia-induced Ang2 production and thereby decrease Ang2-induced tissue injury.
cytokines; hyperoxia; lung
Overexpression of IL-6 markedly diminishes hyperoxic lung injury, hyperoxia-induced cell death, and DNA fragmentation, and enhances Bcl-2 expression. We hypothesized that changes in the interactions between Bcl-2 family members play an important role in the IL-6–mediated protective response to oxidative stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that IL-6 induced Bcl-2 expression, both in vivo and in vitro, disrupted interactions between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors, and suppressed H2O2-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In addition, IL-6 overexpression in mice protects against hyperoxia-induced lung mitochondrial damage. The overexpression of Bcl-2 in vivo prolonged the survival of mice exposed to hyperoxia and inhibited alveolar capillary protein leakage. In addition, apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation was substantially reduced in these animals. This IL-6–mediated protection was lost when Bcl-2 was silenced, demonstrating that Bcl-2 is an essential mediator of IL-6 cytoprotection. Finally, Bcl-2 blocked the dissociation of Bak from mitofusion protein (Mfn) 2, and inhibited the interaction between Bak and Mfn1. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-6 induces Bcl-2 expression to perform cytoprotective functions in response to oxygen toxicity, and that this effect is mediated by alterations in the interactions between Bak and Mfns.
lung injury; mitochondria; apoptosis; cytochrome c; Bax
Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is characterized by a cell death response that is inhibited by IL-6. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) is an antiapoptotic negative regulator of the IL-6–mediated Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway. We hypothesized that SOCS-1 is a critical regulator and key mediator of IL-6–induced cytoprotection in HALI. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the expression of SOCS-1 and downstream apoptosis signal–regulating kinase (ASK)-1–Jun N-terminal kinase signaling molecules in small airway epithelial cells in the presence of H2O2, which induces oxidative stress. We also examined these molecules in wild-type and lung-specific IL-6 transgenic (Tg+) mice exposed to 100% oxygen for 72 hours. In control small airway epithelial cells exposed to H2O2 or in wild-type mice exposed to 100% oxygen, a marked induction of ASK-1 and pJun N-terminal kinase was observed. Both IL-6–stimulated endogenous SOCS-1 and SOCS-1 overexpression abolished H2O2-induced ASK-1 activation. In addition, IL-6 Tg+ mice exposed to 100% oxygen exhibited reduced ASK-1 levels and enhanced SOCS-1 expression compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, no significant changes in activation of the key ASK-1 activator, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1/tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor-2 were observed between wild-type and IL-6 Tg+ mice. Furthermore, the interaction between SOCS-1 and ASK-1 promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation both in vivo and in vitro. These studies demonstrate that SOCS-1 is an important regulator in IL-6–induced cytoprotection against HALI.
IL-6; apoptosis signal–regulating kinase-1; suppressor of cytokine signaling-1; lung injury; tumor necrosis factor receptor-1
Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia in neonates can cause hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), which is characterized by increased pulmonary permeability and diffuse infiltration of various inflammatory cells. Disruption of the epithelial barrier may lead to altered pulmonary permeability and maintenance of barrier properties requires intact epithelial tight junctions (TJs). However, in neonatal animals, relatively little is known about how the TJ proteins are expressed in the pulmonary epithelium, including whether expression of TJ proteins is regulated in response to hyperoxia exposure. This study determines whether changes in tight junctions play an important role in disruption of the pulmonary epithelial barrier during hyperoxic acute lung injury.
Newborn rats, randomly divided into two groups, were exposed to hyperoxia (95% oxygen) or normoxia for 1–7 days, and the severity of lung injury was assessed; location and expression of key tight junction protein occludin and ZO-1 were examined by immunofluorescence staining and immunobloting; messenger RNA in lung tissue was studied by RT-PCR; transmission electron microscopy study was performed for the detection of tight junction morphology.
We found that different durations of hyperoxia exposure caused different degrees of lung injury in newborn rats. Treatment with hyperoxia for prolonged duration contributed to more serious lung injury, which was characterized by increased wet-to-dry ratio, extravascular lung water content, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF):serum FD4 ratio. Transmission electron microscopy study demonstrated that hyperoxia destroyed the structure of tight junctions and prolonged hyperoxia exposure, enhancing the structure destruction. The results were compatible with pathohistologic findings. We found that hyperoxia markedly disrupted the membrane localization and downregulated the cytoplasm expression of the key tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the alveolar epithelium by immunofluorescence. The changes of messenger RNA and protein expression of occludin and ZO-1 in lung tissue detected by RT-PCR and immunoblotting were consistent with the degree of lung injury.
These data suggest that the disruption of the pulmonary epithelial barrier induced by hyperoxia is, at least in part, due to massive deterioration in the expression and localization of key TJ proteins.
Acute lung injury; Hyperoxia; Newborn; Permeability; Tight Junction
A hallmark of hyperoxic acute lung injury is the influx of inflammatory cells to lung tissue and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β; however, the mechanisms connecting hyperoxia and the inflammatory response to lung damage is not clear. The inflammasome protein complex activates caspase-1 to promote the processing and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that hyperoxia-induced K+ efflux activates the inflammasome via the purinergic P2X7 receptor to cause inflammation and hyperoxic acute lung injury. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the expression and activation of inflammasome components in primary murine alveolar macrophages exposed to hyperoxia (95% oxygen and 5% CO2) in vitro, and in alveolar macrophages isolated from mice exposed to hyperoxia (100% oxygen). Our results showed that hyperoxia increased K+ efflux, inflammasome formation, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and induction of caspase-1 and IL-1β cleavage both in vitro and in vivo. The P2X7 agonist ATP enhanced hyperoxia-induced inflammasome activation, whereas the P2X7 antagonist, oxidized ATP, inhibited hyperoxia induced inflammasome activation. In addition, when ATP was scavenged with apyrase, hyperoxia-induced inflammasome activation was significantly decreased. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA silencing of inflammasome components abrogated hyperoxia-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces K+ efflux through the P2X7 receptor, leading to inflammasome activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. These events would affect the permeability of the alveolar epithelium and ultimately lead to epithelial barrier dysfunction and cell death.
The angiogenic growth factor angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) destabilizes blood vessels, enhances vascular leak and induces vascular regression and endothelial cell apoptosis. We considered that Ang2 might be important in hyperoxic acute lung injury (ALI). Here we have characterized the responses in lungs induced by hyperoxia in wild-type and Ang2–/– mice or those given either recombinant Ang2 or short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to Ang2. During hyperoxia Ang2 expression is induced in lung epithelial cells, while hyperoxia-induced oxidant injury, cell death, inflammation, permeability alterations and mortality are ameliorated in Ang2–/– and siRNA-treated mice. Hyperoxia induces and activates the extrinsic and mitochondrial cell death pathways and activates initiator and effector caspases through Ang2-dependent pathways in vivo. Ang2 increases inflammation and cell death during hyperoxia in vivo and stimulates epithelial necrosis in hyperoxia in vitro. Ang2 in plasma and alveolar edema fluid is increased in adults with ALI and pulmonary edema. Tracheal Ang2 is also increased in neonates that develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Ang2 is thus a mediator of epithelial necrosis with an important role in hyperoxic ALI and pulmonary edema.
Aberrant tissue repair and persistent inflammation following oxidant-mediated acute lung injury (ALI) can lead to the development and progression of various pulmonary diseases, but the mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. Hyperoxia is widely used in the treatment of pulmonary diseases, but the effects of this oxidant exposure in patients undergoing recovery from ALI are not clearly understood. Nrf2 has emerged as a crucial transcription factor that regulates oxidant stress through the induction of several detoxifying enzymes and other proteins. Using an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced ALI (HALI), we have examined the role of oxidant stress in resolving lung injury and inflammation. We found that when exposed to sub-lethal (72 h) hyperoxia, Nrf2-deficient, but not wild-type mice, succumbed to death during recovery. When both genotypes were exposed to a shorter period of HALI (48 h), the lungs of Nrf2-deficient mice during recovery exhibited persistent cellular injury, impaired alveolar and endothelial cell regeneration, and persistent cellular infiltration by macrophages and lymphocytes. GSH supplementation in Nrf2-deficient mice immediately after hyperoxia remarkably restored their ability to recover from hyperoxia-induced damage in a manner similar to that of wild-type mice. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that the Nrf2-regulated transcriptional response, and particularly GSH synthesis, is critical for lung tissue repair and the resolution of inflammation in vivo and suggests that a dysfunctional Nrf2-GSH pathway may compromise these processes in vivo.
Oxidative stress; Nrf2; acute lung injury; DNA injury
Increased oxygen (O2) levels help manage severely injured patients, but too much for too long can cause acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. In fact, continuous hyperoxia has become a prototype in rodents to mimic salient clinical and pathological characteristics of ALI/ARDS. To identify genes affecting hyperoxia-induced ALI (HALI), we previously established a mouse model of differential susceptibility. Genetic analysis of backcross and F2 populations derived from sensitive (C57BL/6J; B) and resistant (129X1/SvJ; X1) inbred strains identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1-5) linked to HALI survival time. Interestingly, analysis of these recombinant populations supported opposite within-strain effects on survival for the two major-effect QTLs. Whereas Shali1 alleles imparted the expected survival time effects (i.e., X1 alleles increased HALI resistance and B alleles increased sensitivity), the allelic effects of Shali2 were reversed (i.e., X1 alleles increased HALI sensitivity and B alleles increased resistance). For in vivo validation of these inverse allelic effects, we constructed reciprocal congenic lines to synchronize the sensitivity or resistance alleles of Shali1 and Shali2 within the same strain. Specifically, B-derived Shali1 or Shali2 QTL regions were transferred to X1 mice and X1-derived QTL segments were transferred to B mice. Our previous QTL results predicted that substituting Shali1 B alleles onto the resistant X1 background would add sensitivity. Surprisingly, not only were these mice more sensitive than the resistant X1 strain, they were more sensitive than the sensitive B strain. In stark contrast, substituting the Shali2 interval from the sensitive B strain onto the X1 background markedly increased the survival time. Reciprocal congenic lines confirmed the opposing allelic effects of Shali1 and Shali2 on HALI survival time and provide unique models to identify their respective quantitative trait genes and to critically assess the apparent bidirectional epistatic interactions between these major-effect loci.
Rationale: Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by increased lung oxidant stress and apoptotic cell death. The contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis to the development of lung injury is unknown.
Objectives: To determine whether oxidant-mediated activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathway contributes to the development of acute lung injury.
Methods: Exposure of tissue-specific or global knockout mice or cells lacking critical components of the apoptotic pathway to hyperoxia, a well-established mouse model of oxidant-induced lung injury, for measurement of cell death, lung injury, and survival.
Measurements and Main Results: We found that the overexpression of SOD2 prevents hyperoxia-induced BAX activation and cell death in primary alveolar epithelial cells and prolongs the survival of mice exposed to hyperoxia. The conditional loss of BAX and BAK in the lung epithelium prevented hyperoxia-induced cell death in alveolar epithelial cells, ameliorated hyperoxia-induced lung injury, and prolonged survival in mice. By contrast, Cyclophilin D–deficient mice were not protected from hyperoxia, indicating that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore is dispensable for hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Mice globally deficient in the BH3-only proteins BIM, BID, PUMA, or NOXA, which are proximal upstream regulators of BAX and BAK, were not protected against hyperoxia-induced lung injury suggesting redundancy of these proteins in the activation of BAX or BAK.
Conclusions: Mitochondrial oxidant generation initiates BAX- or BAK-dependent alveolar epithelial cell death, which contributes to hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
cell death; epithelium; Bcl-2 proteins; acute respiratory distress syndrome
The tumor suppressor protein p53 activates growth arrest and pro-apoptotic genes in response to DNA damage. It is known that negative feedback by p21Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1 represses p53-dependent transactivation of PUMA. The current study investigates PUMA feedback on p53 during oxidative stress from hyperoxia and the subsequent effects on cell survival mediated through p21 and Bcl-XL. Deletion of PUMA in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells increased levels of p53 and p21 resulting in a larger G1 population during hyperoxia. P21-dependent increase in Bcl-XL levels protected PUMA-deficient cells against hyperoxic cell death. Bax and Bak were both able to promote hyperoxic cell death. Bcl-XL protection against hyperoxic death was lost in cells lacking Bax, not PUMA, suggesting that Bcl-XL acts to inhibit Bax-dependent death. These results indicate PUMA exerts negative feedback on p53 and p21, leading to p21-dependent growth suppressive and survival changes. Enhanced survival was associated with increased Bcl-XL to block Bax activated cell death during oxidative stress.
Free radicals; cell death
Rationale: Human data suggest that the incidence of acute lung injury is reduced in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes confers protection from lung injury are unknown.
Objectives: To determine whether leptin resistance, which is seen in humans with diabetes, protects mice from hyperoxic lung injury.
Methods: Wild-type (leptin responsive) and db/db (leptin resistant) mice were used in these studies. Mice were exposed to hyperoxia (100% O2) for 84 hours to induce lung injury and up to 168 hours for survival studies. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured in vivo.
Measurements and Main Results: Lung leptin levels were increased both in wild-type and leptin receptor–defective db/db mice after hyperoxia. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was decreased in db/db compared with wild-type mice. Hyperoxia increased lung permeability in wild-type mice but not in db/db mice. Compared with wild-type control animals, db/db mice were resistant to hyperoxia-induced mortality (lethal dose for 50% of mice, 152 vs. 108 h). Intratracheal instillation of leptin at a dose that was observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during hyperoxia caused lung injury in wild-type but not in db/db mice. Intratracheal pretreatment with a leptin receptor inhibitor attenuated leptin-induced lung edema. The hyperoxia-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines was attenuated in db/db mice. Despite resistance to lung injury, db/db mice had diminished alveolar fluid clearance and reduced Na,K-ATPase function compared with wild-type mice.
Conclusions: These results indicate that leptin can induce and that resistance to leptin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury and hyperoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines in the lung.
alveolar fluid clearance; pulmonary edema; Na,K-ATPase; diabetes mellitus; oxygen
B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), key antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, respectively, have important roles in acute and chronic models of neurologic disease. Several studies have implicated Bax and Bcl-2 in mediating neurotoxicity in prion diseases. To determine whether diminishing apoptotic cell death is protective in an infectious prion disease model we inoculated mice that either were null for proapoptotic Bax or overexpressed antiapoptotic Bcl-2. Interestingly, genetic manipulation of apoptosis did not lessen the clinical severity of disease. Moreover, some disease parameters, such as behavioral alterations and death, occurred slightly earlier in mice that are null for Bax or overexpress Bcl-2. These results suggest that Bax and Bcl-2 mediated apoptotic pathways are not the major contributing factor to the clinical or pathological features of infectious prion disease.
PrP; home cage; amyloid; cell death; necrosis; transmissible
Oxidative stress contributes to disease and can alter endothelial cell (EC) function. EC from different vascular beds are heterogeneous in structure and function, thus we assessed the apoptotic responses of EC from lung and heart to oxidative stress. Since protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) is activated by oxidative stress and is an important modulator of apoptosis, experiments assessed the level of apoptosis in fixed lung and heart sections of PKCδ wild-type (PKCδ+/+) and null (PKCδ−/−) mice housed under normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (~95% O2). We noted a significantly greater number of TUNEL-positive cells in lungs of hyperoxic PKCδ+/+ mice, compared to matched hearts or normoxic organs. We found that 33% of apoptotic cells identified in hyperoxic lungs of PKCδ+/+ mice were EC, compared to 7% EC in hyperoxic hearts. We further noted that EC apoptosis was significantly reduced in lungs of PKCδ−/− hyperoxic mice, compared to lungs of PKCδ+/+ hyperoxic mice. In vitro, both hyperoxia and H2O2 promoted apoptosis in EC isolated from microvasculature of lung (LMVEC), but not from the heart (HMVEC). H2O2 treatment significantly increased p38 activity in LMVEC, but not in HMVEC. Inhibition of p38 attenuated H2O2-induced LMVEC apoptosis. Baseline expression of total PKCδ protein, as well as the caspase-mediated, catalytically active PKCδ cleavage fragment, was higher in LMVEC, compared to HMVEC. PKCδ inhibition significantly attenuated H2O2-induced LMVEC p38 activation.. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type PKCδ or the catalytically-active PKCδ cleavage product greatly increased H2O2-induced HMVEC caspase and p38 activation. We propose that enhanced susceptibility of lung EC to oxidant-induced apoptosis is due to increased PKCδ→p38 signaling, and we describe a PKCδ-centric pathway which dictates the differential response of EC from distinct vascular beds to oxidative stress.
Endothelium; apoptosis; heterogeneity; oxidative stress; ROS; PKCδ; p38
Every cell in the body expresses a set of proteins designed to trigger permeabilization of the mitochondria and cell death. Inactivation or inappropriate triggering of these pathways is increasingly recognized as a contributor to human disease. A study in this issue of the JCI demonstrates that IL-6 exerts its protective effect against the development of lung injury following exposure of mice to 95% O2 by increasing the expression of a Bcl-2–related protein, A1. This protein acts to prevent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and cell death following exposure to hyperoxia. The data in this study lend support to the hypothesis that inappropriate triggering of cell-death pathways may contribute to the development of hyperoxic pulmonary edema, lung injury, and respiratory failure.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Hyperoxia causes lung injury in animals and humans, and is an established model of ALI. Caveolin-1, a major constituent of caveolae, regulates numerous biological processes, including cell death and proliferation. Here we demonstrate that caveolin-1–null mice (cav-1−/−) were resistant to hyperoxia-induced death and lung injury. Cav-1−/− mice sustained reduced lung injury after hyperoxia as determined by protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histologic analysis. Furthermore, cav-1−/− fibroblasts and endothelial cells and cav-1 knockdown epithelial cells resisted hyperoxia-induced cell death in vitro. Basal and inducible expression of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were markedly elevated in lung tissue or fibroblasts from cav-1−/− mice. Hyperoxia induced the physical interaction between cav-1 and HO-1 in fibroblasts assessed by co-immunoprecipitation studies, which resulted in attenuation of HO activity. Inhibition of HO activity with tin protoporphyrin-IX abolished the survival benefits of cav-1−/− cells and cav-1−/− mice exposed to hyperoxia. The cav-1−/− mice displayed elevated phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38β expression in lung tissue/cells under basal conditions and during hyperoxia. Treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, decreased hyperoxia-inducible HO-1 expression in wild-type and cav-1−/− fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrated that cav-1 deletion protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, involving in part the modulation of the HO-1–cav-1 interaction, and the enhanced induction of HO-1 through a p38 MAPK–mediated pathway. These studies identify caveolin-1 as a novel component involved in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; caveolin-1; heme oxygenase-1
The functional significance of the Fas/Fas-ligand (FasL) system in hyperoxia-induced lung injury and alveolar disruption in newborn lungs in vivo remains undetermined. To assess the role of the Fas/FasL system, we compared the effects of hyperoxia (95% O2 from birth to Postnatal Day [P]7) in Fas-deficient lpr mice and wild-type mice. Alveolar disruption was more severe in hyperoxic lpr mice than in wild-type mice. In addition, a transient alveolarization defect was noted in normoxic lpr mice. Hyperoxia induced marked up-regulation of pulmonary Fas expression in wild-type mice, as well as elevated mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax, Bad, and Bak. Pulmonary apoptotic activity was similar in hyperoxic wild-type and lpr mice. In contrast, lung growth and proliferation, assessed by stereologic volumetry and Ki67 proliferation studies, were significantly higher in hyperoxic wild-type mice compared with lpr mice, suggesting the Fas/FasL system has a pro-proliferative role in hyperoxic conditions. Levels of the prosurvival MAPkinase, pERK1/2, were significantly higher in hyperoxic wild-type mice compared with lpr mice, while pAkt levels were similar. These data suggest that the primary role of the Fas/FasL system in hyperoxic newborn lungs is pro-proliferative, rather than pro-apoptotic, and likely mediated through a Fas-ERK1/2 pathway. Fas-induced proliferation and lung growth in hyperoxic newborn lungs may counteract, in part, the detrimental effects of apoptosis mediated by non-Fas pathways, such as pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 family members. The capacity of the Fas/FasL signaling pathway to mediate protective rather than destructive functions in hyperoxic newborn lungs highlights the versatility of this complex pathway.
CD95; oxygen toxicity; apoptosis; programmed cell death; bronchopulmonary dysplasia
In the newborn, alveolarization continues postnatally and can be disrupted by hyperoxia, leading to long-lasting consequences on lung function. We wanted to better understand the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible form of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and repair. Although it was not observed after 3 days of hyperoxia alone, when exposed to hyperoxia and allowed to recover in air (O2/air recovered), neonatal HO-1 knockout (KO) mice had enlarged alveolar spaces and increased lung apoptosis as well as decreased lung protein translation and dysregulated gene expression in the recovery phase of the injury. Associated with these changes, KO had sustained low levels of active β-catenin and lesser lung nuclear heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) protein levels, whereas lung nuclear hnRNPK was increased in transgenic mice over-expressing nuclear HO-1. Disruption of HO-1 may enhance hnRNPK-mediated inhibition of protein translation and subsequently impair the β-catenin/hnRNPK regulated gene expression required for coordinated lung repair and regeneration.
► HO-1KO has worsened lung structure after hyperoxia and in room air recovery. ► Protein synthesis is inhibited and cell cycle gene expression is dysregulated in the KO. ► In the WT neonatal lung, HO-1 protein localizes to the nucleus in hyperoxia. ► HO-1 interacts with hnRNPK in vitro and in vivo. ► This modulates protein synthesis and gene expression explaining lung abnormalities.
HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; KO, knockout; MEF, mouse embryonic fibroblasts; RAC, radial alveolar counts; O2/air, exposed to 95% oxygen for 3 days then recovered in air; hnRNPK, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein K; SP-B, surfactant protein B; SP-C, surfactant protein C; OGG1, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase; Heme oxygenase-1; Neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and repair; β-catenin/hnRNPK; DNA damage and repair; Cell proliferation
Recent studies indicate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL, one of five isoforms expressed by the Bcl-X gene, protects a variety of cell lines exposed to hyperoxia. However, its role in lung development and protection against oxidative stress in vivo is not known. Here, we show Bcl-XL is the predominant isoform expressed in the lung, and the only isoform detected in respiratory epithelium. Because loss of Bcl-XL is embryonically lethal, Bcl-XL was ablated throughout the respiratory epithelium by mating mice with a floxed exon II of the Bcl-X gene with mice expressing Cre under control of the surfactant protein-C promoter. Interestingly, the loss of Bcl-XL in respiratory epithelium was perinatally lethal in approximately 50% of the expected offspring. However, some adult mice lacking the gene were obtained. The epithelial-specific ablation of Bcl-XL did not disrupt pulmonary function, the expression of epithelial cell–specific markers, or lung development. However, it shifted the lung toward a proapoptotic state, defined by a reduction in antiapoptotic Mcl-1, an increase in proapoptotic Bak, and increased sensitivity of the respiratory epithelium to hyperoxia. Intriguingly, increased 8-oxoguanine lesions seen during hyperoxia were also evident as lungs transitioned to room air at birth, a time when perinatal lethality in some mice lacking Bcl-XL was observed. These findings reveal that the epithelial-specific expression of Bcl-XL is not required for proper lung development, but functions to protect respiratory epithelial cells against oxygen-induced toxicity, such as during hyperoxia and the lung's first exposure to ambient air.
apoptosis; development; oxidative stress
Hyperoxia plays an important role in the genesis of lung injury in preterm infants. Although alveolar type II cells are the main target of hyperoxic lung injury, the exact mechanisms whereby hyperoxia on fetal alveolar type II cells contributes to the genesis of lung injury are not fully defined, and there have been no specific measures for protection of fetal alveolar type II cells.
The aim of this study was to investigate (a) cell death response and inflammatory response in fetal alveolar type II cells in the transitional period from canalicular to saccular stages during 65%-hyperoxia and (b) whether the injurious stimulus is promoted by creating an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and (c) whether treatment with an anti-inflammatory cytokine may be effective for protection of fetal alveolar type II cells from injury secondary to 65%-hyperoxia.
Fetal alveolar type II cells were isolated on embryonic day 19 and exposed to 65%-oxygen for 24 h and 36 h. Cells in room air were used as controls. Cellular necrosis was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase-release and flow cytometry, and apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, and cell proliferation was studied by BrdU incorporation. Release of cytokines including VEGF was analyzed by ELISA, and their gene expressions were investigated by qRT-PCR.
65%-hyperoxia increased cellular necrosis, whereas it decreased cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner compared to controls. 65%-hyperoxia stimulated IL-8-release in a time-dependent fashion, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, showed an opposite response. 65%-hyperoxia induced a significant decrease of VEGF-release compared to controls, and similar findings were observed on IL-8/IL-10/VEGF genes expression. Preincubation of recombinant IL-10 prior to 65%-hyperoxia decreased cellular necrosis and IL-8-release, and increased VEGF-release and cell proliferation significantly compared to hyperoxic cells without IL-10.
The present study provides an experimental evidence that IL-10 may play a potential role in protection of fetal alveolar type II cells from injury induced by 65%-hyperoxia.
Hyperoxia-induced lung disease is associated with prominent intraalveolar fibrin deposition. Fibrin turnover is tightly regulated by the concerted action of proteases and antiproteases, and inhibition of plasmin-mediated proteolysis could account for fibrin accumulation in lung alveoli. We show here that lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia overproduce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and that PAI-1 upregulation impairs fibrinolytic activity in the alveolar compartment. To explore whether increased PAI-1 production is a causal or only a correlative event for impaired intraalveolar fibrinolysis and the development of hyaline membrane disease, we studied mice genetically deficient in PAI-1. We found that these mice fail to develop intraalveolar fibrin deposits in response to hyperoxia and that they are more resistant to the lethal effects of hyperoxic stress. These observations provide clear and novel evidence for the pathogenic contribution of PAI-1 in the development of hyaline membrane disease. They identify PAI-1 as a major deleterious mediator of hyperoxic lung injury.
In bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), alveolar septae are thickened with collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-positive myofibroblasts. Periostin, a secreted extracellular matrix protein, is involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesized that periostin expression is required for hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, an animal model for this disease. We also examined periostin expression in neonatal lung mesenchymal stromal cells and lung tissue of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and human infants with BPD. Two-to-three day-old wild-type and periostin null mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 days. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from tracheal aspirates of premature infants. Hyperoxic exposure of neonatal mice increased alveolar wall periostin expression, particularly in areas of interstitial thickening. Periostin co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting synthesis by myofibroblasts. A similar pattern was found in lung sections of infants dying of BPD. Unlike wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice did not show larger air spaces or α-smooth muscle-positive myofibroblasts. Compared to hyperoxia-exposed wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice also showed reduced lung mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin, elastin, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL4. TGF-β treatment increased mesenchymal stromal cell periostin expression, and periostin treatment increased TGF-β-mediated DNA synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation. We conclude that periostin expression is increased in the lungs of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and infants with BPD, and is required for hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by resistance to chemotherapy and overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. Molecular targeting of Bcl-XL and/or Bcl-2 in HNSCC cells has been shown to promote apoptosis signaling and to sensitize cells to chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, which is commonly used in the treatment of HNSCC. We report that induction of HNSCC apoptosis by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is accompanied by up-regulation of the proapoptotic proteins Bik and Bim, natural cellular inhibitors of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. Additionally, bortezomib treatment of HNSCC cells caused up-regulation of antiapoptotic Mcl-1L. Inhibition of Bik or Bim up-regulation using small interfering RNA markedly attenuated bortezomib-induced cell death. By contrast, small interfering RNA–mediated inhibition of Mcl-1L expression resulted in enhanced killing by bortezomib. Further investigation showed that the combination of bortezomib and cisplatin led to synergistic killing of HNSCC cells, with calculated combination indexes well below 1.0. Taken together, these results delineate a novel mechanism of HNSCC killing by bortezomib that involves up-regulation of Bik and Bik. Moreover, our findings suggest that the combination of bortezomib plus cisplatin, or bortezomib plus an inhibitor of Mcl-1L, may have therapeutic value in the treatment of HNSCC.
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, or SOD3) is the major extracellular antioxidant enzyme in the lung. To study the biologic role of EC-SOD in hyperoxic-induced pulmonary disease, we created transgenic (Tg) mice that specifically target overexpression of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) to alveolar type II and nonciliated bronchial epithelial cells. Mice heterozygous for the hEC-SOD transgene showed threefold higher EC-SOD levels in the lung compared with wild-type (Wt) littermate controls. A significant amount of hEC-SOD was present in the epithelial lining fluid layer. Both Tg and Wt mice were exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (>99% oxygen) for 48, 72, and 84 hours. Mice overexpressing hEC-SOD in the airways attenuated the hyperoxic lung injury response, showed decreased morphologic evidence of lung damage, had reduced numbers of recruited inflammatory cells, and had a reduced lung wet/dry ratio. To evaluate whether reduced numbers of neutrophil infiltration were directly responsible for the tolerance to oxygen toxicity observed in the Tg mice, we made Wt and Tg mice neutropenic using anti-neutrophil antibodies and subsequently exposed them to 72 hours of hyperoxia. Both Wt and Tg neutrophil-depleted (ND) mice have less severe lung injury compared with non-ND animals, thus providing direct evidence that neutrophils recruited to the lung during hyperoxia play a distinct role in the resultant acute lung injury. We conclude that oxidative and inflammatory processes in the extracellular lung compartment contribute to hyperoxic-induced lung damage and that overexpression of hEC-SOD mediates a protective response to hyperoxia, at least in part, by attenuating the neutrophil inflammatory response.
The in vivo morphology and phenotype of circulating cells that spontaneously contribute to new vessel formation in adults remain unclear. Here, we use high-resolution imaging and flow cytometry to characterize the morphology and phenotype of a distinct population of circulating mononuclear cells contributing to spontaneous new vessel formation after hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI). We identify a subpopulation of myeloid (CD11b/Mac1+) hematopoietic cells co-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ). Moreover, we show that these CD11b+VEGFR2+PDGFRβ+ circulating precursor cells (CPCs) contribute structurally to the luminal surface of capillaries reforming two weeks post-HALI. This indicates that these myeloid CPCs may function, at least transiently, as putative vascular precursors, and has important implications for capillary growth and repair in injury and in pathologies of the lung and other organs.
Hyperoxia; lung capillary injury/restoration; circulating precursor cell