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1.  Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections and Their Association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Cross-Sectional Study among Blood Donors in Ethiopia 
Background
Since the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy and the dramatic improvement in the prognosis of individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, liver disease due to chronic viral hepatitis has become as important cause of morbidity and mortality in co-infected individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the association of the virus with Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus infection. As Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus infections are highly prevalent and they are among the major public health concern in developing countries including Ethiopia investigating this problem is of paramount benefit. Although studies on co-infection of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus have clearly identified adverse effects of co-infection, the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus infection and the association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in developing countries including Ethiopia has not been know for sure.
Method
A cross sectional study was conducted from January 1 to 31, 2010, in Jimma University specialized hospital Blood Bank. The inclusion criteria of the study was adult who donated blood to Jimma University specialized hospital blood bank any time from establishment of the unit until January 2010 and whose record was retrieved. Accordingly 9,204 adults were included of which 6,063 were selected by lottery method. Data on socio-demographic variables (age and sex), laboratory test result for Hepatitis B surface Antigen, anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody, anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 antibody, and Rapid Plasma Reagin tests were collected using structured questionnaire. After the data were collected, they were entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS -16 for windows. P-Value of < 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant.
Results
The prevalence rate of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and syphilis infection were 2.1%, 0.2%, 2.1% and 0.7%, respectively. Sex and age had statistically significant association with Human Immunodeficiency and Hepatitis B virus infections where females were less likely to be infected. As age increases above 20 years, the risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Hepatitis B Virus increases. There was no association between Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Conclusion
the prevalence rate of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections among blood donors in Jimma University specialized hospital were lower as compared to previous studies, in addition there was no association between Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Thus, community based study should be conducted to confirm the relationship of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
PMCID: PMC3275856  PMID: 22434987
Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; HIV; blood donors; Southwest Ethiopia
2.  Detection of HBV Genotypes of Tumor Tissues and Serum by A Fluorescence Polarization Assay in North-Western China's Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients 
Virology Journal  2011;8:362.
Background
The understanding of the distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma may shed light into the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of the study is to investigate hepatitis B virus genotypes distribution, the high-risk genotypes and the occult infection in north-western China's hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Methods
Hepatitis B virus genotypes A-D of hepatocellular carcinoma tumor tissues and serum samples in 268 north-western China hepatocellular carcinoma patients were detected by fluorescence polarization assay. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum and matched primary tumor tissue samples were compared. Hepatitis B surface antigen and α-fetoprotein in serum were detected. Occult hepatitis B virus infections were analyzed. The relationship between hepatitis B virus genotypes and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed statistically using SPSS v.10.0.
Results
Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 83.6% of 268 patients, whereas serum hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 78.7%. The hepatitis B virus genotypes in serum were consistent with the results in matched tumor tissue. Intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotype B and C were detected respectively in 11.6% and 54.5% of the patients. Mixed intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes were detected in 13.4% of 268 patients. There was not mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade I. The patients with mixed HBV genotypes exhibited statistically significant different Edmondson grade than the patients with single type HBV infection (p < 0.05). Hepatitis B surface antigens were positive in 77.2% of 268 patients. Hepatitis B virus genotype C was detected in 64.7% of occult infected patients. There was no significant differences of patients' ages and α-fetoprotein level in different groups of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus genotypes (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
Hepatitis B virus genotype C was associated closely with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients in north-western China. There was a relatively high prevalence of mixed hepatitis B virus infection in Edmondonson grade III-IV.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-362
PMCID: PMC3152914  PMID: 21781311
hepatitis B virus genotype; hepatocellular carcinoma; fluorescence polarization; north-western China
3.  Liver Fat Content in Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship With Hepatic Perfusion and Substrate Metabolism 
Diabetes  2010;59(11):2747-2754.
OBJECTIVE
Hepatic steatosis is common in type 2 diabetes. It is causally linked to the features of the metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease. Experimental data have indicated that increased liver fat may impair hepatic perfusion and metabolism. The aim of the current study was to assess hepatic parenchymal perfusion, together with glucose and fatty acid metabolism, in relation to hepatic triglyceride content.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Fifty-nine men with well controlled type 2 diabetes and 18 age-matched healthy normoglycemic men were studied using positron emission tomography to assess hepatic tissue perfusion, insulin-stimulated glucose, and fasting fatty acid metabolism, respectively, in relation to hepatic triglyceride content, quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Patients were divided into two groups with hepatic triglyceride content below (type 2 diabetes-low) or above (type 2 diabetes-high) the median of 8.6%.
RESULTS
Type 2 diabetes-high patients had the highest BMI and A1C and lowest whole-body insulin sensitivity (ANOVA, all P < 0.001). Compared with control subjects and type 2 diabetes-low patients, type 2 diabetes-high patients had the lowest hepatic parenchymal perfusion (P = 0.004) and insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose uptake (P = 0.013). The observed decrease in hepatic fatty acid influx rate constant, however, only reached borderline significance (P = 0.088). In type 2 diabetic patients, hepatic parenchymal perfusion (r = −0.360, P = 0.007) and hepatic fatty acid influx rate constant (r = −0.407, P = 0.007) correlated inversely with hepatic triglyceride content. In a pooled analysis, hepatic fat correlated with hepatic glucose uptake (r = −0.329, P = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, type 2 diabetic patients with increased hepatic triglyceride content showed decreased hepatic parenchymal perfusion and hepatic insulin mediated glucose uptake, suggesting a potential modulating effect of hepatic fat on hepatic physiology.
doi:10.2337/db09-1201
PMCID: PMC2963532  PMID: 20693345
4.  Dissociation of Inositol-requiring Enzyme (IRE1α)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Activation from Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Conditional X-box-binding Protein-1 (XBP1) Knock-out Mice* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2011;287(4):2558-2567.
Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in causing hepatic insulin resistance.
Results: Fructose-fed XBP1 knock-out mice were protected from hepatic insulin resistance despite increased hepatic ER stress and JNK activation.
Conclusion: ER stress and hepatic JNK activation can be disassociated from hepatic insulin resistance.
Significance: Hepatic ER stress is not a direct causal factor in hepatic insulin resistance.
Hepatic insulin resistance has been attributed to both increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and accumulation of intracellular lipids, specifically diacylglycerol (DAG). The ER stress response protein, X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1), was recently shown to regulate hepatic lipogenesis, suggesting that hepatic insulin resistance in models of ER stress may result from defective lipid storage, as opposed to ER-specific stress signals. Studies were designed to dissociate liver lipid accumulation and activation of ER stress signaling pathways, which would allow us to delineate the individual contributions of ER stress and hepatic lipid content to the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. Conditional XBP1 knock-out (XBP1Δ) and control mice were fed fructose chow for 1 week. Determinants of whole-body energy balance, weight, and composition were determined. Hepatic lipids including triglyceride, DAGs, and ceramide were measured, alongside markers of ER stress. Whole-body and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Hepatic ER stress signaling was increased in fructose chow-fed XBP1Δ mice as reflected by increased phosphorylated eIF2α, HSPA5 mRNA, and a 2-fold increase in hepatic JNK activity. Despite JNK activation, XBP1Δ displayed increased hepatic insulin sensitivity during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, which was associated with increased insulin-stimulated IRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation, reduced hepatic DAG content, and reduced PKCϵ activity. These studies demonstrate that ER stress and IRE1α-mediated JNK activation can be disassociated from hepatic insulin resistance and support the hypothesis that hepatic insulin resistance in models of ER stress may be secondary to ER stress modulation of hepatic lipogenesis.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.316760
PMCID: PMC3268415  PMID: 22128176
Ceramide; Diacylglycerol; ER Stress; Gluconeogenesis; Glucose Metabolism; Insulin Resistance; Lipid Metabolism; Liver Metabolism; Protein Kinase C (PKC)
5.  Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus and its relation with hepatitis B virus and HIV. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;301(6761):1130-1133.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of transmission of hepatitis C virus in sexual partners of intravenous drug misusers and to examine the relation between the prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in homosexual men and intravenous drug misusers and their sexual partners. DESIGN--Serum samples collected between 1984 and 1988 were tested for hepatitis B virus markers and antibodies against hepatitis C virus by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for HIV antibody by enzyme immune analysis and western blotting. SETTING--Large referral university hospital with an external AIDS clinic in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. SUBJECTS--243 Intravenous drug misusers, 143 of their regular heterosexual partners, and 105 homosexual men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalences of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and HIV infections. RESULTS--In all, 178 of the 243 (73%) intravenous drug misusers, 16 out of 143 (11%) of their partners, and 17 of the 105 (16%) homosexual men had antibodies against hepatitis C virus. The presence of hepatitis C virus infection was unrelated to sex, age, the presence of HIV or hepatitis B virus infections, or the Centers for Disease Control stage of HIV. In sexual partners of intravenous drug misusers there were strong correlations between the presence of hepatitis C virus infection and that of HIV (p = 0.001) and hepatitis B virus (p = 0.013) infections. CONCLUSIONS--Intravenous drug misusers have a high risk of acquiring hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and HIV infections, but the presence of hepatitis C virus infection seems to be unrelated to the presence of the other two viruses. Homosexual men have a high prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B virus infections with a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, the presence of which is not related to that of the other two infections. Conversely, heterosexual partners of intravenous drug misusers have low prevalences of the three virus infections, but the presence of hepatitis C virus infection correlates significantly with the presence of HIV and hepatitis B infections. The rate of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus seems to be low, even in partners of people known to be seropositive for this virus.
PMCID: PMC1664292  PMID: 2174705
6.  Fulminant hepatic failure in acute hepatitis C: increased risk in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus 
Gut  1999;45(4):613-617.
BACKGROUND/AIMS—The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in fulminant hepatitis remains controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the risk of fulminant hepatitis C in relation to HCV genotypes and concurrent infection of other viruses.
PATIENTS—109 HCV RNA positive patients from 334 consecutive cases hospitalised to a medical centre in northern Taiwan for overt acute viral hepatitis were prospectively evaluated.
METHODS—HCV RNA was detected by a combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. HCV genotypes were analysed using a genotype specific probe based assay in the 5' untranslated region.
RESULTS—39 patients tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen but negative for IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, indicating concurrent chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Twelve patients were hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA positive. Genotyping of HCV disclosed 1b in 93, 1b mixed with 2a/2c or 1b mixed with 2b in 11, and not classified in five. Serum titres of HCV RNA were <105 copies/ml in 77, 105-107 copies/ml in 25, and >107 copies/ml in seven. Eleven patients (10.1%) had fulminant hepatitis as a complication. Development of fulminant hepatitis did not correlate with age and gender of the patients, concurrent HGV infection, HCV genotypes, or serum titre of HCV RNA. However, the incidence (95% confidence interval) of fulminant hepatitis in patients with underlying chronic HBV infection was 23.1% (9.9 to 36.3%), which is significantly higher than in those without (2.9% (−1.0 to 6.8%)). In 39 patients with concurrent chronic HBV infection, the clinical and virological characteristics showed no significant difference between those with fulminant hepatitis and those without.
CONCLUSIONS—Acute hepatitis C in patients with concurrent chronic HBV infection is associated with a substantial risk of fulminant hepatitis.


Keywords: acute hepatitis C; fulminant hepatitis; hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis G virus
PMCID: PMC1727691  PMID: 10486374
7.  Can current national surveillance systems in England and Wales monitor sexual transmission of hepatitis C among HIV-infected men who have sex with men? 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:7.
Background
Recent reports suggest an increase in sexually-transmitted hepatitis C infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in European cities. We investigated whether current national surveillance systems in England and Wales (E&W) are able to monitor sexual transmission of hepatitis C infection among HIV-infected MSM.
Methods
Routine laboratory reports of hepatitis C diagnoses and data from sentinel hepatitis C testing surveillance were matched to HIV diagnosis reports to determine: (i) the number of MSM diagnosed with HIV and hepatitis C (1996–2003); (ii) the number of HIV-diagnosed MSM tested for hepatitis C and found to be positive at sentinel sites (2003).
Results
(i) Between 1996–2003, 38,027 hepatitis C diagnoses were reported; 25,938 (68%) were eligible for matching with HIV diagnoses. Thirty-one men (four in London) had both a HIV and hepatitis C diagnosis where the only risk was sex with another man. Numbers of "co-diagnosed" MSM increased from 0 in 1996 to 14 in 2003. The majority of MSM (22/31) tested hepatitis C positive after HIV diagnosis. (ii) Of 78,058 test results from sentinel hepatitis C testing sites in 2003, 67,712 (87%) were eligible for matching with HIV diagnoses. We identified 242 HIV-diagnosed MSM who did not inject drugs who tested for hepatitis C in 2003; 11 (4.5%) tested hepatitis C positive (95%CI: 2.3%–8.0%). Applying this percentage to all MSM seen for HIV-related care in E&W in 2003, an estimated 680 MSM living with diagnosed HIV would have tested positive for sexually-transmitted hepatitis C (95%CI: 346–1208).
Conclusion
Matching routine laboratory reports of hepatitis C diagnoses with HIV diagnoses only identified 31 HIV infected MSM with sexually-transmitted hepatitis C infection. Clinical studies suggest that this is an underestimate. On the other hand, matching sentinel surveillance reports with HIV diagnoses revealed that in E&W in 2003 nearly 5% of HIV-diagnosed MSM tested hepatitis C positive where the only risk was sex with another man. Reports of sexually-transmitted hepatitis C infection were not confined to London. Enhanced surveillance is needed to monitor sexually-transmitted hepatitis C among HIV-infected MSM in E&W.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-7
PMCID: PMC1784083  PMID: 17233919
8.  Increased severity and morbidity of acute hepatitis in drug abusers with simultaneously acquired hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections. 
Hepatitis D virus (delta agent) markers were present in 111 (36%) of 308 intravenous drug abusers who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 52 of these having hepatitis D virus antigenaemia. IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgM) was present in 92 out of 95 subjects tested, indicating that hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infections had been acquired simultaneously. Hepatitis D virus markers were present in three out of four patients with fulminant hepatitis, and in 80 of 223 (36%) with mild or moderate hepatitis compared with four of 29 (14%) of those who were asymptomatic. These proportional differences were significant (p less than 0.001). Hepatitis D virus markers were present in twice as many patients positive for anti-HBc IgM requiring admission to hospital with acute hepatitis compared with outpatients attending a drug treatment centre. Tests on one patient showed complete disappearance of HBsAg, but hepatitis D antigen (HDAg or delta antigen) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were still present in serum samples. All five patients with chronic active hepatitis had hepatitis D antibody (anti-HD) compared with seven of 24 (29%) with chronic persistent hepatitis (p = 0.008). Blocking anti-HD persisted for long periods after simultaneous infections with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus but at lower titres than in patients with chronic liver disease.
PMCID: PMC1415608  PMID: 3922501
9.  Viral Hepatitis 
Western Journal of Medicine  1978;128(2):117-126.
Viral hepatitis may be classified into three or more forms including type A hepatitis, type B hepatitis, and a group denoted as non-A non-B hepatitis which may represent viral hepatitis of one or more causes. The differentiation of these forms of hepatitis is primarily serologic. The development of antibody to hepatitis A virus can be detected by radioimmunoassay as well as by other test systems. The serologic diagnosis of type B hepatitis rests on the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen or on the development of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen or hepatitis B surface antigen. The serologic diagnosis of non-A non-B hepatitis is a diagnosis of exclusion for assay systems for this form of disease are not yet available.
A prototype hepatitis B vaccine has been prepared and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Gamma globulin is now available that contains high titered antibody against hepatitis B virus. Normal immune globulin contains high titers directed against hepatitis A virus. Therefore, for documented exposure, effective prophylaxis is available for both of these forms of acute liver disease. The past decade has resulted in rapid advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute hepatitis and its extrahepatic manifestations. However, it is clear that specific treatment for acute hepatitis and the accurate description of the etiologic agents of non-A non-B hepatitis require exploration.
PMCID: PMC1238013  PMID: 629050
10.  Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: systematic review and meta-analysis 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;332(7537):328-336.
Objective To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.
Data sources Electronic databases and hand searches.
Review methods Randomised clinical trials were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was undertaken on three outcomes: the relative risks of hepatitis B occurrence, antibody levels to hepatitis B surface antigen, and adverse events.
Results 29 randomised clinical trials were identified, five of which were considered high quality. Only three trials reported inclusion of mothers negative for hepatitis B e antigen. Compared with placebo or no intervention, vaccination reduced the occurrence of hepatitis B (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.40; four trials). No significant difference in hepatitis B occurrence was found between recombinant vaccine and plasma derived vaccine (1.00, 0.71 to 1.42; four trials) and between high dose versus low dose vaccine (plasma derived vaccine 0.97, 0.55 to 1.68, three trials; recombinant vaccine 0.78, 0.31 to 1.94, one trial). Compared with placebo or no intervention, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or the combination of plasma derived vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (immunoglobulin 0.50, 0.41 to 0.60, one trial; vaccine and immunoglobulin 0.08, 0.03 to 0.17, three trials). Compared with vaccine alone, vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (0.54, 0.41 to 0.73; 10 trials). Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin seem safe, but few trials reported adverse events.
Conclusion Hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and vaccine plus immunoglobulin prevent hepatitis B occurrence in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.
doi:10.1136/bmj.38719.435833.7C
PMCID: PMC1363909  PMID: 16443611
11.  Factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A 
The Korean Journal of Hepatology  2010;16(3):295-300.
Background/Aims
Most patients with acute viral hepatitis A have a favorable course, but a few of them suffer from severe forms of hepatitis such as fulminant hepatitis. This study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 713 patients with acute hepatitis A, who were divided into two groups: severe hepatitis A (N=87) and non-severe hepatitis A (N=626). Severe hepatitis was defined as fulminant hepatitis or prolongation of prothrombin time (INR≥1.5). Clinical variables were compared between the two groups.
Results
The incidence of fulminant hepatitis was 1.4% (10/713) in patients with acute hepatitis A. Thirty-three (4.6%) cases exhibited HBsAg positivity. In multivariate analyses, significant alcohol intake and the presence of HBsAg were significant predictive factors of fulminant hepatitis A, and significant alcohol intake and age were significant predictive factors of severe hepatitis A. HBeAg and HBV-DNA status did not affect the clinical course of hepatitis A in chronic hepatitis B carriers.
Conclusions
While most patients with acute hepatitis A have an uncomplicated clinical course, our data suggest that a more-severe clinical course is correlated with being older, significant alcohol intake, and chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection.
doi:10.3350/kjhep.2010.16.3.295
PMCID: PMC3304596  PMID: 20924212
Hepatitis A; Severity; Liver failure; Fulminant
12.  Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Hepatic Steatosis 
Objective: This study aimed to explore clinical and virological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with hepatic steatosis in order to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of hepatic steatosis.
Methods: A total of 360 CHB inpatients were recruited from Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University and divided into hepatic steatosis group and non- hepatic steatosis group. The body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) and hepatic histological changes were detected and compared between the two groups. The association of these factors with hepatic steatosis was evaluated in CHB patients.
Results: BMI, FPG, TG, TC, GGT, AST and HBV DNA showed statistically significant differences between two groups (P<0.01). The patients with hepatic steatosis had markedly higher BMI, FBG, TG and TC than those without steatosis did. No significant differences were found in ALT and HBeAg between two groups (P>0.05). In male patients, there was marked difference in the WHR between two groups (P < 0.01), which was not found in female patients (P > 0.05). The severity of hepatic steatosis increased in patients with hepatic steatosis, compared to those without steatosis (P < 0. 01), but the severities of inflammation and fibrosis in the non-hepatic steatosis group were dramatically higher than those in the hepatic steatosis group (P < 0. 01).
Conclusions: BMI, WHR, FBG, TG and TC appeared to be influencing factors of CHB combined with hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis in CHB patients was closely related to changes in anthropometric indices and metabolic factors but not HBV. It is necessary to improve these factors to effectively prevent hepatic steatosis in CHB patients.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5649
PMCID: PMC3619103  PMID: 23569427
Chronic hepatitis B; Hepatic steatosis; anthropometric index; Metabolic factor.
13.  Expression of hepatitis B virus 1.3-fold genome plasmid in an SV40 T-antigen-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line 
AIM: To investigate the expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) 1.3-fold genome plasmid (pHBV1.3) in an immortalized mouse hepatic cell line induced by SV40 T-antigen (SV40T) expression.
METHODS: Mouse hepatic cells were isolated from mouse liver tissue fragments from 3-5 d old Kunming mice by the direct collagenase digestion method and cultured in vitro. The pRSV-T plasmid was transfected into mouse hepatic cells to establish an SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line. The SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells were identified and transfected with the pHBV1.3 plasmid. The levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the supernatant were determined by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after transfection. The expressions of HBsAg and hepatitis B c antigen (HBcAg) in the cells were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. The presence of HBV DNA replication intermediates in the transfected cells and viral particles in the supernatant of the transfected cell cultures was monitored using the Southern hybridization assay and transmission electronic microscopy, respectively.
RESULTS: The pRSV-T plasmid was used to immortalize mouse hepatocytes and an SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line was successfully established. SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells have the same morphology and growth characteristics as primary mouse hepatic cells can be subcultured and produce albumin and cytokeratin-18 in vitro. Immortalized mouse hepatic cells did not show the characteristics of tumor cells, as alpha-fetoprotein levels were comparable (0.58 ± 0.37 vs 0.61 ± 0.31, P = 0.37). SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells were then transfected with the pHBV1.3 plasmid, and it was found that the HBV genome replicated in SV40LT-immortalized mouse hepatic cells. The levels of HBsAg and HBeAg continuously increased in the supernatant after the transfection of pHBV1.3, and began to decrease 72 h after transfection. The expressions of HBsAg and HBcAg were observed in the pHBV1.3-transfected cells. HBV DNA replication intermediates were also observed at 72 h after transfection, including relaxed circular DNA, double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, a few 42 nm Dane particles, as well as many 22 nm subviral particles with a spherical or filamentous shape, were detected in the supernatant.
CONCLUSION: SV40T expression can immortalize mouse hepatic cells, and the pHBV1.3-transfected SV40T-immortalized mouse hepatic cell line can be a new in vitro cell model.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i44.8020
PMCID: PMC3848149  PMID: 24307795
SV40 T-antigen; Mouse hepatic cell; Hepatitis B virus 1.3-fold genome plasmids; Immortalized; Liposomes; Transfection
14.  Arterial and portal blood supply in cirrhosis: a functional evaluation 
Gut  1979;20(9):792-796.
The uptake of 125I albumin microaggregates (U-125I-AMA) from portal blood, during a single passage through the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, has been found to be generally decreased in cirrhosis. To investigate if a similar phenomenon occurs for the colloid flowing through the hepatic artery, the U-125I-AMA was first calculated in normal dogs after injection of a mixture of 51Cr red blood cells (51Cr-RBC) and 125I-AMA into the hepatic artery by comparing hepatic indicator dilution curves (IDC) obtained with both indicators. In nine dogs, the U-125I-AMA from hepatic artery blood was generally over 90%, as previously reported for the same colloid flowing through the portal vein in another group of normal dogs. This approach was then applied in nine patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who underwent combined umbilicoportal vein, hepatic vein, and hepatic artery catheterisation because of severe portal hypertension. Hepatic indicator dilution curves were obtained in the nine patients after injection of a mixture of 51Cr-RBC and 125I-AMA into the portal vein and the hepatic artery. The U-125I-AMA from portal and hepatic artery blood was measured by comparing 51Cr-RBC and 125I-AMA hepatic IDC. U-125I-AMA varied between 5·2 and 90·5% after portal vein injection and between 13·7 and 90·1% after hepatic artery injection; not difference was found between paired values. In all patients the extraction of indocyanine green (E-ICG) was calculated during a continuous infusion and significant correlations were found between E-ICG and U-125I-AMA from portal blood (r=0·931; p <0·001) or from hepatic artery blood (r=0·861; p <0·005). The decreased uptakes can be related to intrahepatic shunts or sinusoidal changes responsible for ineffective phagocytosis and restricted access of dye to parenchymal cells. These data indicate that in cirrhosis the hepatic artery and portal vein blood is cleared of colloid and ICG in a similar fashion and suggest nearly identical blood supply to the regenerative nodules by the hepatic artery and portal vein. Thus U-125I-AMA from hepatic artery or portal vein blood, as well as the E-ICG, may be used to estimate the functional hepatic blood supply in cirrhosis; this may prove to be useful in the prognosis of patients before portacaval shunts.
PMCID: PMC1412639  PMID: 387541
15.  Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans 
BACKGROUND
Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites.
OBJECTIVE
Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans.
DESIGN
A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008.
PARTICIPANTS
Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern California and Washington, DC areas (N = 1,704).
MAIN MEASURES
Variables included self-reports of sociodemographics, health care factors, and hepatitis B-related behaviors, knowledge, beliefs, and communication with others. The main outcome variable was self-reported receipt of hepatitis B testing.
KEY RESULTS
The cooperation rate was 63.1% and the response rate was 27.4%. Only 62% of respondents reported having received a hepatitis B test and 26%, hepatitis B vaccination. Only 54% knew that hepatitis B could be transmitted by sexual intercourse. In multivariable analyses, factors negatively associated with testing included: age 30–49 years, US residence for >10 years, less Vietnamese fluency, lower income, and believing that hepatitis B can be deadly. Factors positively associated with testing included: Northern California residence, having had hepatitis B vaccination, having discussed hepatitis B with family/friends, and employer requested testing. Physician recommendation of hepatitis B testing (OR 4.46, 95% CI 3.36, 5.93) and respondent's request for hepatitis B testing (OR 8.37, 95% CI 5.95, 11.78) were strongly associated with test receipt.
CONCLUSION
Self-reports of hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans remain unacceptably low. Physician recommendation and patient request were the factors most strongly associated with test receipt. A comprehensive effort is needed to promote hepatitis B testing in this population, including culturally-targeted community outreach, increased access to testing, and physician education.
doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1285-1
PMCID: PMC2881980  PMID: 20306150
hepatitis B; Vietnamese Americans; testing
16.  The prevalence of hepatitis B co-infection in a South African urban government HIV clinic 
Objective
There are an estimated 350 million hepatitis B carriers worldwide. In South Africa the prevalence of monoinfection with hepatitis B has been estimated to range from 1% in urban areas to approximately 10% in rural areas. The exact prevalence of hepatitis B in the HIV-infected population has not been well established. Hepatitis B screening is not standard practice in government HIV clinics. Co-infection with hepatitis B and HIV can influence antiretroviral treatment and prognosis of both diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B/HIV coinfection.
Design
This is believed to be the first prospective observational report on the prevalence of hepatitis B/HIV co-infection in South Africa. Patients on whom hepatitis B serological tests could not have been done previously were recruited from an HIV clinic in a regional hospital in Johannesburg. Standard hepatitis B serological tests were performed.
Results
Five hundred and two participants were screened. The cohort’s average age was 37±9 years and the average CD4 count was 128 cells/μl. Twenty-four (4.8%) were hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Nearly half (47%) of the participants showed some evidence of hepatitis B exposure. The risk of hepatitis B co-infection was not significantly different when analysed in terms of sex, race, CD4 count or age. Liver function tests were not a good predictor of hepatitis B infection.
Conclusion
The rate of hepatitis B infection, as defined by hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, in HIV-infected individuals in urban South Africa was 5 times the rate in people who were not HIV-infected. A 5% rate of hepatitis B/HIV co-infection is a reason to increase the accessibility of tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) for first-line treatment for this population.
PMCID: PMC3008405  PMID: 18785395
17.  Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Children in Endemic Areas of Turkey 
Hepatitis Monthly  2010;10(1):36-41.
Background and Aims
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are major worldwide public health problems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seroprevalence and epidemiological profile of hepatitis B and hepatitis C, to determine the impact of the national vaccination programme against hepatitis B on the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier and the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) occurrence rate among 0-14 year-old children in southeast Turkey.
Methods
The seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers was evaluated retrospectively in a group of 10,391 children who were admitted to a tertiary hospital, the Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, from January 2005 to December 2008, in order to obtain a better understanding of the regional hepatitis seroprevalence. Children were divided into three different age groups: pre-education period (0-6 years), primary school period (7-12 years) and secondary school period (13-14 years). Samples were analyzed for HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), anti-HBs positive/antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive, isolated anti-HBs and antibodies to Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results
The mean age of all participants was 8.5± 2 years (range, 0-14). The overall percentages for the prevalence of HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HCV were 8.1%, 2.1%, 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively. HBsAg seroprevalence differed significantly by age and gender (P < 0.001). HBeAg seroprevalence was high in the earliest years (P < 0.01). The overall prevalence of anti-HCV did not differ significantly by age (P > 0.5) but differed by gender (P < 0.001). The overall percentages for the prevalence of isolated anti-HBs and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive were 34.2% and 56.9%,respectively.
Conclusions
Our study sheds new light on hepatitis seroprevalence in southeastern Turkey. For example, 1) The seroprevalence of hepatitis B in southeast Turkey is still at its highest rate, according to the averages reported in other studies conducted in the same and different regions of Turkey; and it has not decreased, as reported previously. 2) HBeAg seroprevalence in the earliest years of childhood is high in our study; this is evidence for early acquisition of the infection.3) Isolated anti-HBs positive and anti-HBs positive/anti-HBc positive prevalence is high; given these features, it is obvious that despite the high incidence of vaccinated children, the prevalence of hepatitis B is increasing; and children acquire these viruses in their earliest years. 4) We found the overall prevalence of HCV infection unchanged. Our region has a low endemicity for HCV.
PMCID: PMC3270343  PMID: 22308124
Hepatitis B Virus; Hepatitis C Virus; Hepatitis Markers; Children; Seroprevalence
18.  Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey 
Background
Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses.
Results
The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis.
Conclusions
Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low endemicity for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C across Libya is not homogeneous, with indications of the effect of the higher rates in some neighbouring countries. Libya should adopt full coverage national plans and guidelines to face the future consequences of viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C virus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-17
PMCID: PMC3893419  PMID: 24405790
Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; Libya; Prevalence; HBsAg; Anti-HCV-Ab
19.  Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Critically ill Patient During Antituberculosis Therapy 
Hepatitis Monthly  2014;14(9):e18865.
Introduction:
Although hepatitis is frequently observed during antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy, acute viral hepatitis should be ruled out first, especially in the endemic areas. In addition to common types of viral hepatitis, ie, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may result in hepatitis in some cases.
Case Presentation:
Herein, we reported a critically ill patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis in the intensive care unit during the anti-TB therapy, which was misdiagnosed as anti-TB agents-induced hepatitis in the beginning. Further serologic tests and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of EBV hepatitis. In contrast to previously reported hepatitis by EBV, which had presented with transient liver dysfunction and self-limiting illness, hepatitis with progressive jaundice was followed by coagulopathy and encephalopathy in our case and the patient died of hepatic failure complications.
Conclusions:
According to the presented case and subsequent literature review on fatal EBV hepatitis, clinicians should consider EBV infection in the differential diagnosis when hepatitis occurs in critically ill patients during the anti-TB therapy. Although hepatitis caused by EBV is mostly self-limited, some might be fetal.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.18865
PMCID: PMC4214122  PMID: 25368656
Epstein-Barr; Hepatitis; Antituberculosis
20.  Effect of Huazhuojiedu medicated serum on the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells and the expression of PI3K and p-Akt in rats 
To observe the effect of Huazhuojiedu medicated serum on the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells, as well as the expression of PI3K and p-Akt in rats, and to explore the underlying mechanism of Huazhuojiedu prescription against hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells harvested from rats were resuscitated and subcultured, followed by the intervention of Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose, Huazhuojiedu double dose, and positive drug (Compound Biejiaruangan Troche) medicated serum of rats. After in vitro culture, hepatic stellate cells were stimulated with 5 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1. At 24, 48, 72 hours, the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells was detected with MTT assay; at 48 hours, α-SMA mRNA and protein expression in hepatic stellate cells were determined with RT-PCR assay and western blot analysis, respectively, to evaluate the activation of hepatic stellate cells; in addition, PI3K and p-Akt protein expression levels were also assayed with western blot analysis at 48 hours. The results showed that, 24-hour transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation significantly promoted the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (P < 0.01). Each medicated serum inhibited the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (P < 0.01). Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose had the similar inhibition effect with positive drug (P > 0.05), and Huazhuojiedu double dose achieved more apparent inhibition effect (P < 0.01). After 48 and 72 hours of transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation, hepatic stellate cells still proliferated significantly (P < 0.01), which was inhibited by each medicated serum (P < 0.01). Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose showed a weaker inhibition effect than positive drug (P < 0.05), and Huazhuojiedu double dose exerted a strong inhibition effect (P < 0.05). After hepatic stellate cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 for 48 hours, the expression of α-SMA mRNA and protein in hepatic stellate cells was significantly increased (P < 0.01); the medicated serums significantly down-regulated α-SMA mRNA and protein expression, and inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells (P < 0.01). Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose showed the similar inhibition effect with positive drug (P > 0.05), and Huazhuojiedu double dose exerted a significant inhibition effect (P < 0.05), which was stronger than Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose (P < 0.05). After hepatic stellate cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 for 48 hours, PI3K and p-Akt protein expression levels were increased (P < 0.05); each medicated serum down-regulated the elevated expression levels of PI3K and p-Akt (P < 0.05). Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose had the similar down-regulation effect with positive drug (P > 0.05), and Huazhuojiedu double dose achieved more apparent inhibition effect on PI3K expression (P < 0.05). Huazhuojiedu double dose significantly decreased the PI3K and p-Akt protein expression compared with Huazhuojiedu equivalent dose (P < 0.05). Huazhuojiedu medicated serum inhibits the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in vitro, reduces the expression of PI3K and p-Akt protein, and the mechanisms of preventing hepatic fibrosis is mediated by the intervention on PI3K/Akt pathway.
PMCID: PMC4238479  PMID: 25419359
Huazhuojiedu prescription; medicated serum; hepatic stellate cells; PI3K; p-Akt
21.  How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(4):e5247.
Background
Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D, as evidenced by the decline of hepatitis D in recent years. Since the presence of hepatitis D is associated with suppressed HBV replication and possibly infectivity, it is reasonable to speculate that hepatitis D may facilitate the control of HBV.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We introduced a mathematical model for the transmission of HBV and hepatitis D, where individuals with dual HBV and hepatitis D infection transmit both viruses. We calculated the reproduction numbers of single HBV infections and dual HBV and hepatitis D infections and examined the endemic prevalences of the two viruses. The results show that hepatitis D virus modulates not only the severity of the HBV epidemic, but also the impact of interventions for HBV. Surprisingly we find that the presence of hepatitis D virus may hamper the eradication of HBV. Interventions that aim to reduce the basic reproduction number of HBV below one may not be sufficient to eradicate the virus, as control of HBV depends also on the reproduction numbers of dual infections.
Conclusions and Significance
For populations where hepatitis D is endemic, plans for control programs ignoring the presence of hepatitis D may underestimate the HBV epidemic and produce overoptimistic results. The current HBV surveillance should be augmented with monitoring of hepatitis D, in order to improve accuracy of the monitoring and the efficacy of control measures.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005247
PMCID: PMC2668760  PMID: 19381302
22.  Intrahepatic expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 antigens in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in relation to hepatitis B virus replication and hepatitis delta virus superinfection. 
Gut  1992;33(11):1544-1548.
Hepatocyte expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in relation to hepatitis B virus replication (hepatitis B virus-DNA in serum and HBcAg in the liver), histological activity and hepatitis delta virus superinfection was studied by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of liver specimens from 68 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. All 44 patients with chronic type B hepatitis had pre-S1 and pre-S2 display in the liver. The distribution of pre-S1 in the liver was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 12, and cytoplasmic in 31. The distribution of pre-S2 was membranous in one, mixed membranous and cytoplasmic in 26, and cytoplasmic in 17. Membranous expression of pre-S1 was significantly more prevalent in patients with active hepatitis B virus replication than in those without (13/28 v 0/16, p < 0.001), regardless of the histological activity, as was membranous expression of pre-S2 (27/28 v 0/16, p < 0.001). In contrast, a significantly higher extent of cytoplasmic expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 was noted in patients without active hepatitis B virus replication than in those with. Of 24 patients with chronic type D hepatitis virus, eight had active hepatitis B virus replication, and the other 16 did not. The distribution and quantitative expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in the liver in these patients also correlated significantly with the status of hepatitis B virus replication and, moreover, showed little or no difference from those without hepatitis delta virus infection. In conclusion, all patients with chronic type B hepatitis had synthesis and display of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in the liver. The distribution and quantitative expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2, however, were closely related to the status of hepatitis B virus replication, but not to the histological activity. Hepatocyte expression of pre-S1 and pre-S2 in chronic type D hepatitis also correlated significantly with status of hepatitis B virus replication, and was not modulated by concurrent hepatitis delta virus infection.
Images
PMCID: PMC1379543  PMID: 1452081
23.  Role of hepatitis C virus in chronic liver disease occurring after orthotopic liver transplantation. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1995;72(5):403-407.
Paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients may develop chronic hepatitis after surgery. To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus in this pathology a cohort of 249 paediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied. Sixteen children (6.4%) were found to have chronic hepatitis C virus hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. All but one of them had serum transaminase values which were persistently raised two to eight times the upper limit of normal. Thirteen were positive for both serology and serum hepatitis C virus RNA. Serum hepatitis C virus RNA detection occurred five to 33 months before hepatitis C virus antibodies. Liver tissue hepatitis C virus RNA and hepatitis C virus core antigen were detected in five. In one patient, tissue hepatitis C virus core antigen was detected when other tests for hepatitis C were negative. Two patients had positive human cytomegalovirus serum antibodies and RNA before transplantation. Although serum hepatitis C virus RNA was not detected after transplantation, serum enzyme immunosorbent assay and tissue core antigen were still detectable in both patients. In another child, serum hepatitis C virus RNA was positive and hepatitis C virus core antigen was found on a liver biopsy specimen but antihepatitis C virus antibodies were negative as well as liver hepatitis C virus RNA. No patient developed severe liver disease or cirrhosis during a follow up of up to 72 months. It is concluded that hepatitis C virus is a significant cause of morbidity after paediatric orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis cannot rely on serological testing only. The patients remained stable on follow up, but longer prospective histological studies remain necessary to establish prognosis.
PMCID: PMC1511101  PMID: 7618905
24.  Effect of concurrent acute infection with hepatitis C virus on acute hepatitis B virus infection. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;307(6912):1095-1097.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible interference with acute hepatitis B virus infection by co-infection with hepatitis C virus. DESIGN--Analysis of stored sera collected for transfusion transmitted viruses study in 1970s. SETTING--Four major medical centres in the United States. PATIENTS--12 recipients of blood infected with hepatitis B virus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--In 1970s, presence of antibodies in hepatitis B virus and raised serum alanine aminotransferase concentration; detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus with new enzyme linked immunoassays. RESULTS--Five of the 12 patients were coinfected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B surface antigen was first detected at day 59 in patients infected with hepatitis B virus alone and at day 97 in those coinfected with hepatitis C virus (p = 0.01); median durations of antigenaemia were 83 and 21 days respectively (p = 0.05), and the antigen concentration was lower in the coinfected patients. Alanine aminotransferase patterns were uniphasic when hepatitis B virus infection occurred alone (range 479-2465 IU/l) and biphasic in patients with combined acute infection (no value > 380 IU/l; p = 0.0025). Four coinfected recipients developed chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The fifth patient was followed for only four months. CONCLUSIONS--Acute coinfection with hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus inhibits hepatitis B virus infection in humans, and onset of hepatitis B may reduce the severity of hepatitis C virus infection but not frequency of chronicity. Alanine aminotransferase concentration showed a biphasic pattern in dual infection.
Images
PMCID: PMC1679121  PMID: 8251805
25.  Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in entrants to Irish prisons: a national cross sectional survey 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2001;323(7323):1209.
Objectives
To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in entrants to Irish prisons and to examine risk factors for infection.
Design
Cross sectional, anonymous survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and oral fluid specimen for antibody testing.
Setting
Five of seven committal prisons in the Republic of Ireland.
Participants
607 of the 718 consecutive prison entrants from 6 April to 1 May 1999.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in prison entrants, and self reported risk factor status.
Results
Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen was 37/596 (6%; 95% confidence interval 4% to 9%), to hepatitis C virus was 130/596 (22%; 19% to 25%), and to HIV was 12/596 (2%; 1% to 4%). A third of the respondents had never previously been in prison; these had the lowest prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (4/197, 2%), to hepatitis C (6/197, 3%), and to HIV (0/197). In total 29% of respondents (173/593) reported ever injecting drugs, but only 7% (14/197) of those entering prison for the first time reported doing so compared with 40% (157/394) of those previously in prison. Use of injected drugs was the most important predictor of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and hepatitis C virus.
Conclusions
Use of injected drugs and infection with hepatitis C virus are endemic in Irish prisons. A third of prison entrants were committed to prison for the first time. Only a small number of first time entrants were infected with one or more of the viruses. These findings confirm the need for increased infection control and harm reduction measures in Irish prisons.
What is already known on this topicHigh rates of using injected drugs, initiation of use of injected drugs, and sharing injecting equipment occur in Irish prisonsInjecting drug users have high rates of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, and hepatitis C is endemic in injecting drug users and in Irish prisonersWhat this study addsThe prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, to hepatitis C, and to HIV in prison entrants who had previously been imprisoned was similar to that found in the recent national survey of Irish prisoners, but the prevalence of these antibodies was much lower in the third of prison entrants who had never previously been in prisonTattooing in prison is an independent risk factor for hepatitis C infection in prisoners who have never used injected drugs
PMCID: PMC59992  PMID: 11719410

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