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1.  Current Practice of Ophthalmic Anesthesia in Nigeria 
Purpose:
To assess the current techniques of ophthalmic anesthesia in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A cross sectional survey among Nigerian ophthalmology delegates attending the 36th Annual Scientific Congress of the Ophthalmology Society of Nigeria. Self administered and anonymous questionnaires were used and data were collected to include details of the institution, preferred local anesthesia techniques, the grade of doctor who administers the local anesthesia, complications, preferred facial block techniques (if given separately), and type of premedication (if used).
Results:
Out of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 81 forms were completed (response rate 67.5%). Out of the 74 who indicated their grade, 49 (66.2%) were consultants, 22 (29.7%) were trainees, and 3 (7.1%) were ophthalmic medical officers. For cataract surgery, peribulbar anesthesia was performed by 49.1% of the respondents, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia (39.7%). Others techniques used were topical anesthesia (5.2%), subtenon anesthesia (4.3%), subconjunctival anesthesia (2.6%), and intracameral anesthesia (0.9%). For glaucoma surgery, 47.2% of the respondents use peribulbar anesthesia, 32.1% use retrobulbar anesthesia, 9.4% used general anesthesia, and 6.6% used subconjunctival anesthesia. Among the trainees, 57.8% routinely perform retrobulbar anesthesia while 55.6% routinely perform peribulbar anesthesia. At least one complication from retrobulbar anesthesia within 12 months prior to the audit was reported by 25.9% of the respondents. Similarly, 16.1% of the respondents had experienced complications from peribulbar anesthesia within the same time period. Retrobulbar hemorrhage is the most common complication experienced with both peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia.
Conclusion:
Presently, the most common technique of local anesthesia for an ophthalmic procedure in Nigeria is peribulbar anesthesia, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia. Twelve months prior to the study, 25.9% of the respondents had experienced at least one complication from retrobulbar anesthesia and 16.1% from peribulbar anesthesia. Retrobulbar hemorrhage was the most common complication reported.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.120022
PMCID: PMC3841954  PMID: 24339686
Anesthesia; Ophthalmic; Peribulbar; Retrobulbar; Subtenon
2.  Satisfaction level with topical versus peribulbar anesthesia experienced by same patient for phacoemulsification 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(4):363-366.
Background:
Various studies have assessed patient satisfaction with topical versus peribulbar anesthesia with conflicting results. Aim of study was to determine satisfaction level in same patient who gets topical anesthesia in one eye and peribulbar block in another eye. We propose that evaluation of various indicators of patient satisfaction will enable better selection of cases for topical anesthesia in the future.
Methods:
Eighty patients scheduled for phacoemulsification were enrolled in prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Each patient scheduled twice for one eye under topical anesthesia and other in peribulbar block. Pain, discomfort and pressure during application of local anesthetic, during phacoemulsification and at 2 hours after procedure were assessed on standard scales. Before discharge patient satisfaction level was checked with Iowa satisfaction with anesthesia scale (ISAS). The Student's t-test was used to determine the significance of IOWA score in both groups. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results:
Feeling of pain, pressure and discomfort scores during administration of topical anesthesia were all significantly lower compared to peribulbar anesthesia (P=0.004, 0.000, 0.002, respectively). In contrast, intraoperative scores were significantly higher in the topical anesthesia group compared to peribulbar anesthesia (P=0.022, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Patient satisfaction measured with ISAS shows that peribulbar anesthesia with P=0.000 is strongly significant.
Conclusion:
Peribulbar anesthesia provided significantly better patient satisfaction in comparison with topical anesthesia when used for cataract surgery.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.105866
PMCID: PMC3591555  PMID: 23493723
Patient's satisfaction; phacoemulsification; topical versus peribulbar
3.  Efficacy of a topical anesthetic on pain and unpleasantness during scaling of gingival pockets. 
Anesthesia Progress  1994;41(2):35-39.
The efficacy of a topical anesthetic on pain and unpleasantness provoked by scaling of gingival pockets was investigated in 20 patients with mild chronic periodontitis. A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) and a placebo cream, both occluded by Orahesive Oral Bandages, were applied in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, split-mouth design, which enabled within-subject comparison of the anesthetic and the placebo in the upper and the lower jaw. Pretreatment interviews showed that approximately two-thirds of the patients considered gingival scaling to be associated with some degree of pain and unpleasantness. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS). Application of EMLA reduced both pain intensity and unpleasantness significantly compared to placebo cream. Median reductions in VAS pain intensity in the upper and lower jaw were 58.9% and 61.9%, and corresponding reductions in VAS unpleasantness were 31.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Generally, the patients accepted the anesthetic procedure well. The residual perception of pain and unpleasantness following topical anesthesia may be dependent on activation of nonanesthetized nociceptive fibers in the tooth pulp. However, the present study clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a topical anesthetic in a clinical situation, which may be recommended as a simple pharmacologic strategy to reduce pain and unpleasantness during scaling procedures.
PMCID: PMC2148810  PMID: 8638858
4.  Dexmedetomidine sedation in painful posterior segment surgery 
Purpose
To present a case series on the use of dexmedetomidine (Precedex) sedation in painful posterior segment surgery performed under topical anesthesia, similar to its use in cataract surgery.
Methods
A prospective review of cases that had posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia and that needed sedation. Dexmedetomidine-loading infusion was 1 mcg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by a maintenance infusion (0.5 mcg/kg/h).
Results
Nine patients were operated on under topical anesthesia: two scleral buckle, five cryopexy, one scleral laceration, and one pars plana vitrectomy with very dense laser therapy in an albinotic fundus; six patients had retinal detachment. General or local anesthesia were not possible due to medical or ocular morbidities, use of anticoagulants, or the surgery plan changed intraoperatively when new pathologies were discovered. The surgeon achieved good surgical control in eight of nine cases, with one patient having ocular and bodily movements that were disturbing. Six patients had no pain, while three patients reported mild pain. No adverse effects were noted and all patients had successful surgical outcomes. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were well controlled throughout the procedures. The most frequent adverse reactions of dexmedetomidine reported in the literature in less than 5% (hypotension, bradycardia, and dry mouth) were not recorded in the present study.
Conclusion
When a surgeon has planned to do a pars plana vitrectomy under topical anesthesia and the surgical situation dictates the addition of cryopexy, scleral buckle, or intense laser retinopexy, then sedation with dexmedetomidine can help in the control of ocular pain in the majority of cases, with good intraoperative and immediate postoperative hemodynamic control with the possibility of supplemental rescue analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, a sedative analgesic, is devoid of respiratory depressant effects, and its use in posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia is reported here for the first time.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S39388
PMCID: PMC3526914  PMID: 23271889
dexmedetomidine; vitreoretinal surgery; topical anesthesia
5.  Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification 
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology  2010;3(3):136-139.
Purpose:
To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients’ and surgeon’s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.
Results:
None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon’s and the patients’ satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience.
Conclusion:
Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.
doi:10.4103/0974-620X.71892
PMCID: PMC2992161  PMID: 21120050
Clear cornea phacoemulsification; patient and surgeon satisfaction; sedation; topical anesthesia
6.  A clinical trial of long-acting local anesthetics for periodontal surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(4):194-198.
The efficacy of long-acting local anesthetics for anesthesia during periodontal surgery and for analgesia during the immediate postoperative period was evaluated. The rationale for using long-acting local anesthetics such as etidocaine and bupivacaine is that they can provide surgical anesthesia and, because of their long duration, prevent discomfort that may occur for 4-6 hours postoperatively. Two clinical trials were performed. The first enrolled patients requiring bilateral periodontal surgery. Using a matched pair design and double-blind randomized study conditions, 2% lidocaine 1/100,000 epinephrine was compared with 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine for periodontal surgery. The time until complete recovery and the time until pain onset were found to be longer for the etidocaine surgeries. Postoperative pain appeared more severe, and the need for oral analgesics was greater for the lidocaine surgeries. Surgeons' rating of surgical bleeding was significantly greater for the etidocaine procedures. When matched bilateral surgeries were not available, a second double-blind randomized parallel trial was performed that compared 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine 1/200,000 epinephrine. No significant differences were seen in the quality of anesthesia, degree of bleeding, or postoperative pain between these two long-acting anesthetics.
PMCID: PMC2148673  PMID: 2096742
7.  Lidocaine Cyclodextrin complex Ophthalmic Drop, a New Topical Anesthetic Choice 
Background
Topical anesthesia is a safe and cost-effective method considered as the first-choice in many procedures. Due to the physiological characteristics of eye, most of the local anesthetics cannot efficiently penetrate through the conjunctiva deep to tenon. The aim of this pilot study was to find a new form of lidocaine to give a sufficient level of anesthesia.
Methods:
Lidocaine Cyclodextrin complex ophthalmic drop was produced and its pharmacological properties were studied [tested] in standard temperature and pressure. 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) with the mean age of 30.68±8.02 years enrolled in this clinical trial. All the patients were fully informed and signed the ethics committee consent forms. The patients were given tetracaine drop as the anesthetic: 3 drops separated 2 minute apart 10 min before the intervention. If we achieved a sufficient level of anesthesia, the procedure was done after. If the patient could not tolerate the procedure, the method was changed to lidocaine drop (administered after wash-out period like the first drop).The last option was conventional injection method if the patient could not tolerate the procedure with the second method either.We used this type of anesthesia for conventional procedures such as forced duction test, symblepharon, pterygium, and disport injection into extra-ocular muscles. All the procedures were done by one surgeon in a university hospital. We used a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale for pain and two 0 to 4 patient and physician satisfaction scales designed for this study.
Results
The mean pain score was 7.53±0.90 in group 1 and 3.03±1.83 in group 2 (P=0.00). Patient and surgeon satisfaction in group 1 were 1.33±0.48 and 1.40±0.56 respectively; while 3.23±1.00 and 3.56±0.77 for group 2 (P=0.00). Tetracaine drop could not induce sufficient anesthesia for none of the patients. Cyclodextrin based lidocaine drop was successful except For two patients for whom we changed the anesthesia to Sub-conjunctival injection method.
Conclusion
Our newly manufactured cyclodextrin based lidocaine eye drop could successfully induce sufficient anesthesia for 28 of 30 patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are now being designed to find more clinical evidence about this method.
PMCID: PMC3482329  PMID: 23115719
Drug Delivery; Lidocaine; Cyclodextrin; Ophthalmicdrop; Symblepharon; Pterygium; Dysport
8.  A Comparison of Topical or Retrobulbar Anesthesia for 23-Gauge Posterior Vitrectomy 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:237028.
Background. To compare the efficacy and safety of topical anesthesia versus retrobulbar anesthesia in 23-gauge vitreoretinal surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 63 patients scheduled for 23 G posterior vitrectomy without scleral buckling procedures were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either topical (Group 1, n = 31) or retrobulbar anesthesia (Group 2, n = 32). Postoperatively, patients were shown a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) from 1 (no pain or discomfort) to 4 (severe pain or discomfort) to rate the levels of pain. Results. There was more discomfort in patients in Group 2 while anesthetic was administered (Group 1:  1.0 ± 0, Group 2: 2.3 ± 0.7, P = 0.0001). Between the two groups the level of pain during surgery (Group 1: 1.4 ± 0.5, Group 2: 1.5 ± 0.5; P = 0.85) was noted. There was also no significant difference between two groups postoperatively (Group 1: 1.2 ± 0.4, Group 2: 1.3 ± 0.4; P = 0.28). There were no complications in either group related to the anesthetic technique. No patient needed sedation or anesthesia supplement during the surgery or postoperative period. Conclusion. Topical anesthesia in posterior vitrectomy procedures is an effective and safe method that is alternative to retrobulbar anesthesia.
doi:10.1155/2014/237028
PMCID: PMC4251078  PMID: 25485143
9.  eLearning among Canadian anesthesia residents: a survey of podcast use and content needs 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:59.
Background
Podcasts are increasingly being used in medical education. In this study, we conducted a survey of Canadian anesthesia residents to better delineate the content needs, format preferences, and usage patterns among anesthesia residents.
Methods
10/16 Canadian anesthesia program directors, representing 443/659 Canadian anesthesia residents, allowed their residents to be included in the study. 169/659 (24%) residents responded to our survey. A 17-item survey tool developed by the investigators was distributed by email eliciting information on patterns of podcast use, preferred content, preferred format, and podcast adjuncts perceived to increase knowledge retention.
Results
60% (91/151) had used medical podcasts with 67% of these users spending up to 1 hour per week on podcasts. 72.3% of respondents selected ‘ability to review materials whenever I want’ was selected by the majority of respondents (72%) as the reason they found podcasts to be valuable. No clear preference was shown for audio, video, or slidecast podcasts. Physiology (88%) and pharmacology (87%) were the most requested basic science topics while regional anesthesia (84%), intensive care (79%) and crisis resource management (86%) were the most requested for procedural, clinical and professional topics respectively. Respondents stated they would most likely view podcasts that contained procedural skills, journal article summaries and case presentations and that were between 5-15 minutes in duration A significantly greater proportion of senior residents (81%) requested podcasts on ‘pediatric anesthesia’ compared to junior residents 57% (P = 0.007).
Conclusions
The majority of respondents are using podcasts. Anesthesia residents have preferred podcast content, types, length and format that educators should be cognizant of when developing and providing podcasts.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-59
PMCID: PMC3648490  PMID: 23617894
Podcasts; Residents; e-learning; Survey; Needs; Content; Anesthesia
10.  Incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery 
Purpose
To determine the incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery.
Patients and methods
This retrospective cohort study was approved by the ethical committee of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We reviewed the data of 44,339 patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery during the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2011. The data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, location of anesthesia performed, and outcomes. Data of patients who had received topical anesthesia or monitoring anesthesia care were excluded. Factors associated with cardiac arrest were identified by univariate analyses. Multiple regressions for the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the strength of factors associated with cardiac arrest. A forward stepwise algorithm was chosen at a P-value <0.05.
Results
The incidence (within 24 hours) of perioperative cardiac arrest in patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 163 per 10,000. Factors associated with 24-hour perioperative cardiac arrest in emergency surgery were age of 2 years or younger (RR =1.46, CI =1.03–2.08, P=0.036), ASA physical status classification of 3–4 (RR =5.84, CI =4.20–8.12, P<0.001) and 5–6 (RR =33.98, CI =23.09–49.98, P<0.001), the anatomic site of surgery (upper intra-abdominal, RR =2.67, CI =2.14–3.33, P<0.001; intracranial, RR =1.74, CI =1.35–2.25, P<0.001; intrathoracic, RR =2.35, CI =1.70–3.24, P<0.001; cardiac, RR =3.61, CI =2.60–4.99, P<0.001; and major vascular; RR =3.05, CI =2.22–4.18, P<0.001), respiratory or cardiovascular comorbidities (RR =1.95, CI =1.60–2.38, P<0.001 and RR =1.38, CI =1.11–1.72, P=0.004, respectively), and patients in shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR =2.62, CI =2.07–3.33, P<0.001).
Conclusion
The perioperative incidence of cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery was high and associated with multiple factors such as young age (≤2 years old), cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities, increasing ASA physical status classification, preoperative shock, and surgery site. Perioperative care providers, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses, should be prepared to manage promptly this high risk group of surgical patients.
doi:10.2147/RMHP.S67935
PMCID: PMC4159363  PMID: 25214804
risk factors; retrospective cohort; anesthetic care; perioperative cardiac arrest; emergency surgery
11.  Anesthesia for intra-articular corticosteroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A survey of pediatric rheumatologists 
Objective
To determine the methods of anesthesia currently being used by pediatric rheumatologists when performing intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI).
Study design
A questionnaire was emailed to all members of the Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance, a pediatric rheumatology research network in North America. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions ranging from procedure technique, treatments prescribed for topical anesthesia and oral analgesia, and factors that might affect procedural pain.
Results
Seventy-four of 161 physicians (46%) responded to the questionnaire. On average, each physician injected 33 children (median 25, range 1-160) and 43 joints (median 30, range 1-150) yearly. Local anesthesia was used in children on average ≥ 8 years (range 2-16 years), with general anesthesia being more frequently used for younger children. All respondents used local anesthesia. The most commonly used methods of local anesthesia were EMLA® cream plus subcutaneous lidocaine (58.8%), ethyl chloride spray only (39.7%), EMLA® cream only (33.8%), subcutaneous lidocaine only (25%), and lidocaine iontophoresis only (11.8%). Buffering of the lidocaine was routinely done only 7.4% of the time.
Conclusion
Although pediatric rheumatologists in North America perform IACI on a large number of patients each year, a wide variety of methods are used to deliver local anesthesia with no accepted standard of care. More studies are needed to determine the optimal method of local anesthesia delivery to minimize pain associated with IACI.
doi:10.1186/1546-0096-8-3
PMCID: PMC2817647  PMID: 20142994
12.  Anesthesia Methods in Laser Resurfacing 
Seminars in Plastic Surgery  2012;26(3):117-124.
Laser resurfacing technology offers the ability to treat skin changes that are the result of the aging process. One of the major drawbacks of laser resurfacing technologies is the pain associated with the procedure. The methods of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to help minimize the pain include both noninvasive and invasive procedures. The noninvasive procedures can be divided into topical, cryoanesthesia, and a combination of both. The invasive methods of anesthesia include injected forms (infiltrative, nerve blocks, and tumescent anesthesia) and supervised anesthesia (monitored anesthesia care and general anesthesia). In this review, the authors summarize the types of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to aid the provider in offering the most appropriate method for the patient to have as painless a procedure as possible.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1329416
PMCID: PMC3580976  PMID: 23904819
laser; skin; resurfacing; anesthesia
13.  Meatotomy using topical anesthesia: A painless option 
Urology Annals  2015;7(1):67-70.
Aim:
Urethral meatotomy is an office procedure often done under local anesthesia with or without penile block or under short general anesthesia. Whatever may be the method, the patient has to bear the pain of injection. To avoid painful injections, in the present study, topical anesthesia in the form of eutectic mixture of prilocaine and lidocaine anesthetics (EMLA/Prilox) has been used to perform such procedures and its effectiveness determined.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 48 consecutive patients with meatal stenosis who attended urology outdoor were enrolled in this study. After exclusion, in 32 patients, 3-4 g of Prilox cream was applied over the glans and occlusive covering was maintained for 45 min before the procedure. Meatotomy was done in a standard manner with hemostat application at the stenosed segment for 2-3 min followed by ventral incision at meatus. The patient's pain perception was measured using visual analog score.
Results:
Out of 32, only one patient that had inappropriate application of cream, had a perception of pain during the procedure. Rest all the patient had no discomfort during the procedure. Mean visual analog score was 1.8 which is not a significant percepted pain level. No patient had any major complication.
Conclusion:
Use of topical anesthesia in form of Prilox (EMLA) cream for meatotomy is safe and effective method that avoids painful injections and anxiety related to it and should be considered in most of such patients as an alternative of conventional penile blocks or general anesthesia.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.148622
PMCID: PMC4310121  PMID: 25657548
Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics; local anesthesia; meatal stenosis; meatotomy; topical anesthesia
14.  The efficacy and safety of topical EMLA cream application for minor surgery of the adult penis 
Urology Annals  2012;4(3):145-149.
Background and Objectives:
A variety of surgical procedures of the penis can be performed under local anesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of EMLA cream anesthetic in such procedures.
Materials and Methods:
In total 330 adult patients were subjected to minor penile surgery including: Complete circumcision (73), short frenulum plasty (168), meatotomy (14), fulguration of penile warts (56) and fulguration of urethral (meatal) warts (19). The level of anesthesia obtained by EMLA cream application along with any adverse effects was recorded.
Results:
The use of EMLA on mucosal lesions provided excellent level of local anesthesia in almost all patients (245/246, 99.5%). Anesthesia of skin lesions was in part influenced by the site of application. Circumcision patients showed the lowest efficacy of the EMLA cream as the majority (~80%) required some form of further anesthesia until the completion of the procedure. No significant adverse effects were noted. A transient erythema was present in almost all mucosal applications.
Conclusions:
The topical anesthetic EMLA cream is a useful, efficient and safe tool for minor surgical procedures of the penis at the office setting, with the exception of circumcision, where an additional type of anesthesia is likely to be necessary. Side effects can be kept to a minimum when the suggested doses are respected (especially at mucosal application) and the time allowed for action is carefully tailored to the site of application and the type of procedure.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.102658
PMCID: PMC3519104  PMID: 23248519
EMLA; penis; surgery; topical anesthesia
15.  A comparison of the efficacy of topical application of Lignocaine Hydrochloride 5% gel and Bupivacaine Hydrochloride 5% gel for extraction of teeth 
Background
With the advancements in dentistry the treatments are done with high perfections and patient comfort. Noninvasive, methods reduce fear and anxiety of the patient on phobia of syringes and injections. Topical anesthesia satisfies all the above criteria.
Aim and objective
Comparison of the efficacy of topical application of lignocaine hydrochloride 5% gel and bupivacaine hydrochloride 5% gel for extraction of teeth.
Materials and methods
Lignocaine hydrochloride 5% gel and bupivacaine hydrochloride 5% gel are prepared with carbopol (thickening agent). 510 extractions with lignocaine hydrochloride gel 5% and bupivacaine hydrochloride gel 5% in equal numbers was undertaken. Parameters of onset of anesthesia, peak effects, pain, and disappearance of numbness, local irritation, bleeding and periodontal status of teeth to be extracted were taken into consideration.
Results
Onset and peak effect were faster with 5% lignocaine hydrochloride gel. 5% bupivacaine hydrochloride gel had longer duration of analgesia. Patients experienced more pain with bupivacaine. Grade 1 mobile posterior teeth were painful during extraction.
Conclusion
5% lignocaine hydrochloride gel is better than 5% bupivacaine hydrochloride gel as a topical anesthetic for extraction of grade II and grade III mobile teeth.
doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0038-3
PMCID: PMC3244105  PMID: 22190770
Topical anesthesia; Lignocaine hydrochloride; Bupivacaine hydrochloride
16.  Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Sturge-Weber Syndrome Undergoing Oral Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  2006;53(1):17-19.
This case involves a possible complication of excessive bleeding or rupture of hemangiomas. Problems and anesthetic management of the patient are discussed. A 35-year-old man with Sturge-Weber syndrome was to undergo teeth extraction and gingivectomy. Hemangiomas covered his face and the inside of the oral cavity. We used intravenous conscious sedation with propofol and N2O-O2 to reduce the patient's emotional stress. It was previously determined that stress caused marked expansion of this patient's hemangiomas. Periodontal ligament injection was chosen as the local anesthesia technique. Teeth were extracted without excessive bleeding or rupture of hemangiomas, but the planned gingivectomies were cancelled. Deep sedation requiring airway manipulation should be avoided because there are possible difficulties in airway maintenance. Because this was an outpatient procedure, propofol was selected as the sedative agent primarily because of its rapid onset and equally rapid recovery. Periodontal ligament injection with 2% lidocaine containing 1 : 80,000 epinephrine was chosen for local anesthesia. Gingivectomy was cancelled because hemostasis was challenging. As part of preoperative preparation, equipment for prompt intubation was available in case of rupture of the hemangiomas. The typically seen elevation of blood pressure was suppressed under propofol sedation so that expansion of the hemangiomas and significant intraoperative bleeding was prevented. Periodontal ligament injection as a local anesthetic also prevented bleeding from the injection site.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006(2006)53[17:AMOAPW]2.0.CO;2
PMCID: PMC1586859  PMID: 16722280
Sturge-Weber syndrome; Hemangioma; Mental retardation; Anesthetic management; Oral surgery
17.  A novel lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel for topical ocular anesthesia 
Topical anesthetics play an important role in the practice of ophthalmology, both for procedures in the office and in the operating room. The need for safe, long-acting topical ocular anesthetic agents is ongoing, and has been highlighted by the increase of intravitreal administration of pharmacologic agents. Current practices for ocular anesthesia include subconjunctival injection of 2% aqueous lidocaine, topical 2% lidocaine drops and topical 0.5% tetracaine. Tetracaine is not yet FDA approved, and is associated with corneal epithelial toxicity and delayed epithelial healing after multiple administrations. Lidocaine jelly (2%) preparations have been reported to be beneficial in several systemic procedures, including those of the upper airway, dental, urogenital, and gastrointestinal. It has been theorized, and recent studies support the idea, that gel formulations of lidocaine may enhance anesthetic effect, and therefore be superior to anesthetic solutions for topical cataract surgery. The viscous nature of gel formulations is thought to lengthen contact time, resulting in better anesthesia at lower drug concentrations. Furthermore, several studies suggest that lidocaine is bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and may have a supplementary role in preventing and treating surgical site infections. Akten™, lidocaine 3.5% gel (Akorn, Buffalo Grove, IIlinois) was FDA approved for all ophthalmic procedures in October 2008. This gel is a preservative-free, lidocaine-based anesthetic gel consisting of 35 mg/mL of lidocaine hydrochloride. We describe the properties, including chemical structure, indications, evidence of support, use, adverse effects, and precautions, which we believe enable Akten to provide superior anesthesia, while minimizing side effects.
PMCID: PMC3417949  PMID: 22915870
Akten; lidocaine gel; topical anesthetic; ocular surgery
18.  Intracameral anesthesia for cataract surgery: a population-based study on patient satisfaction and outcome 
Purpose
To evaluate if the standard anesthetic regimen – topical combined with intracameral anesthesia without sedation – in a population-based cohort of unselected cataract surgery cases is adequate, optimal, and good practice, or if improvements are necessary.
Methods
We conducted a prospective, observational study on all cases of cataract surgery during a 1-year period at one institution (n=1249). Data were collected from the patients’ records. Outcome measures were use of preoperative sedation, type of anesthesia, complications, and adverse events. In a subgroup of patients (n=124) satisfaction with the anesthetic regimen was evaluated using a short questionnaire.
Results
Most cases (90%, 1125/1249) had combined topical and intracameral anesthesia without sedation. Patients who chose preoperative sedation (midazolam hydrochloride sublingually) were significantly younger and more often female (P=0.0001 and P=0.011, respectively). In the questionnaire subgroup, the median pain score after surgery was 0.7 (visual analog scale, 0–10). A pain score of 1.9 or less was reported by 76% of the patients. Patients reporting a pain score of 2 or more had sedation and additional anesthetics more often. No significant difference was found regarding age, sex, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, first or second eye surgery, or adverse intraoperative events for patients with pain scores of 1.9 or less and 2 or more.
Conclusion
This large population-based series of small-incision phacoemulsification surgery shows that combined topical and intracameral anesthesia without sedatives is well tolerated for most phacoemulsification patients. It is also effective in cases when complications or adverse events occur. It is important to be responsive to the individual patient’s needs and adjust operating procedures if necessary, as there were a few patients who experienced insufficient anesthesia.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S51409
PMCID: PMC3804568  PMID: 24204107
anesthesia; local/methods; phacoemulsification; cataract extraction; humans; prospective observational studies
19.  Should a mucoadhesive patch (DentiPatch) be used for gingival anesthesia in children? 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):3-8.
A local anesthetic-impregnated mucosal adhesive patch (DentiPatch) was compared with topical anesthetic (Hurricaine Dry Handle Swab) for gingival anesthesia before rubber dam clamp placement in children. Twenty-eight children needing sealants on their posterior teeth were enrolled in this study. Topical anesthesia was provided using either the mucoadhesive patch (20% lidocaine) or topical anesthetic (20% benzocaine). Subjects were randomized using a split mouth model. Either the patch or topical anesthetic was applied to the gingiva for 5 minutes or 1 minute, respectively. Subjects used a visual analog scale to describe their pain during the procedure. Linear regression and mixed linear models were used for data analysis. The visual analog scale results (pain scores) showed no significant difference between treatments. The mean per-child patch-sticking fraction was 29.7%. Patch adherence to oral mucosa increased with age in girls (P = .0045), but not in boys. The DentiPatch is as effective as, although not superior to, the Hurricaine Dry Handle Swab for gingival anesthesia before rubber dam clamp placement in children. These study results would not support the use of the DentiPatch for gingival anesthesia in children because of poor adherence to oral mucosa and the extra time necessary to apply and retain the device.
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PMCID: PMC2007396  PMID: 12779107
20.  Evaluation of the SEDline to improve the safety and efficiency of conscious sedation 
Brain function monitors have improved safety and efficiency in general anesthesia; however, they have not been adequately tested for guiding conscious sedation for periodontal surgical procedures. This study evaluated the patient state index (PSI) obtained from the SEDline monitor (Sedline Inc., San Diego, CA) to determine its capacity to improve the safety and efficiency of intravenous conscious sedation during outpatient periodontal surgery. Twenty-one patients at the periodontics clinic of Baylor College of Dentistry were admitted to the study in 2009 and sedated to a moderate level using midazolam and fentanyl during periodontal surgery. The PSI monitoring was blinded from the clinician, and the following data were collected: vital signs, Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), medications administered, adverse events, PSI, electroencephalography, and the patients' perspective through visual analogue scales. The data were correlated to evaluate the PSI's ability to assess the level of sedation. Results showed that the RSS and PSI did not correlate (r = −0.25) unless high values associated with electromyographical (EMG) activity were corrected (r = −0.47). Oxygen desaturation did not correlate with the PSI (r = −0.08). Satisfaction (r = −0.57) and amnesia (r = −0.55) both increased as the average PSI decreased. In conclusion, within the limits of this study, PSI appears to correlate with amnesia, allowing a practitioner to titrate medications to that effect. It did not provide advance warning of adverse events and had inherent inaccuracies due to EMG activity during oral surgery. The PSI has the potential to increase safety and efficiency in conscious sedation but requires further development to eliminate EMG activity from confounding the score.
PMCID: PMC3124903  PMID: 21738291
21.  Effect of pretreatment with ketorolac tromethamine on operative pain during periodontal surgery: A case-control study 
Background:
The efficacy of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, ketorolac tromethamine, was evaluated in pain control after periodontal surgery. This type of agent acts peripherally by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins and minimizing the local inflammatory response. Thus, there may be an advantage in pretreatment administration of ketorolac tromethamine, 10 mg, compared with placebo on operative pain during periodontal surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Two groups of 40 outpatients from the Department of Periodontology, Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, were selected for this study. Patients who were to undergo periodontal surgery were randomly given either one group 10 mg ketorolac immediately before surgery or the other group placebo tablets at least 30 minutes before administration of local anesthesia (LA). All procedures were performed under LA, and the total volume of anesthetic used was recorded. The duration of surgery from the time of incision to the placement of the last suture was recorded. At the completion of the surgery, patients were supplied with printed record forms and were asked to rate their subjective operative pain intensity using a visual analog scale.
Statistical analysis:
The data were analyzed using the student t test.
Results:
Results indicated that preoperative treatment with ketorolac significantly reduced initial pain intensity of operative pain as compared with placebo. No adverse reactions related to preoperative medication were observed.
Conclusions:
The results of this study showed that 10-mg ketorolac administered immediately before periodontal surgery was effective for alleviating the operative painful sequelae.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.82274
PMCID: PMC3134049  PMID: 21772723
Ketorolac; operative pain; pain/prevention and control; periodontal surgery
22.  Improvement of glycemic control after periodontal treatment by resolving gingival inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  Chronic inflammation aggravates glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increase or decrease in the release and activities of various inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α, interleukin (IL)‐6, and C‐reactive protein (CRP), are presumed to be responsible for inducing insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of non‐surgical periodontal treatment incorporating topical antibiotics on glycemic control and serum inflammatory mediators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:  Periodontal inflammation and periodontal tissue destruction were evaluated by bleeding on probing (BOP) and the probing pocket depth (PPD), respectively. A total of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis received periodontal treatment with the topical application of antibiotics four times within a 2‐month period. A periodontal examination, including PPD and BOP, and venous blood sampling were carried out at baseline and at 2 and 6 months after periodontal treatment. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum levels of high‐sensitivity (hs)‐CRP, TNF‐α and IL‐6 were analyzed.
Results:  A generalized linear model showed significant associations between the change in the HbA1c values at 6 months after periodontal treatment, and the change in the BOP, baseline TNF‐α levels and the baseline mean PPD.
Conclusions:  As BOP is a marker of total gingival inflammation, these results suggest that non‐surgical periodontal therapy with topical antibiotics in patients with mild periodontitis might improve glycemic control by resolving periodontal inflammation. Such treatments might be insufficient for the amelioration of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients with severe periodontitis. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (no. UMIN000006693). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2012.00209.x, 2012)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00209.x
PMCID: PMC4019262  PMID: 24843597
Glycated hemoglobin; Periodontal disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
23.  Perioperative management and post-operative course in preterm infants undergoing vitreo-retinal surgery for retinopathy of prematurity: A retrospective study 
Background:
Premature infants scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia are more prone to cardio-respiratory complications. Risk factors include post-conception age (PCA), cardiac and respiratory disease, anemia and opioid administration. This retrospective study evaluates the perioperative management and post-operative course (apnea and bradycardia) in premature infants undergoing surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Materials and Methods:
We analyzed the pre-operative data, anesthesia chart and post-operative course of 52 former premature infants for 56 general anesthesia exposures for ROP surgery.
Results:
At the time of procedure, median PCA was 51 (36-60) weeks. 71% of the infants were above 46 weeks of PCA. Five infants had cardiac disease and four had a history of convulsion. Four infants had a pre-operative history of apneic spells. The airway was secured with either endotracheal tube (46) or supraglottic device (10). Fentanyl (0.5-1 μg/kg), paracetamol, topical anesthetic drops and/or peribulbar block were administered for analgesia. Extubation was performed in the operating room for 54 cases. Three infants had apnea post-operatively. Seven infants were shifted to neonatal intensive care unit either for observation or due to delayed recovery, persistent apneic spells and pre-existing cardio-respiratory disease.
Conclusion:
In the present study, intravenous paracetamol and topical anesthetics reduced the total intra-operative opioid requirement, which resulted in low incidence of post-operative apnea. Regional anesthesia may be considered in infants with high risk of post-operative apnea. Infants with PCA > 42 weeks and without any co-morbidity can be managed in post-anesthesia care unit.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.130050
PMCID: PMC4009651  PMID: 24803769
Anesthesia; neonatal intensive care; post-operative apnea; post-operative monitoring; preterm infants; retinopathy of prematurity
24.  Comparison of the Schirmer I test with and without topical anesthesia for diagnosing dry eye 
AIM
To determine the value of Schirmer I test (S I t) without anesthesia and with topical anesthesia for diagnosing dry eye (DE).
METHODS
Totally 220 eyes in 110 patients, male (44) and female (66), (39.56±12.67) years old diagnosed with DE were examined. S I t without anesthesia was performed firstly, and 15 minutes later, it was applied again in the same person after topical anesthesia with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride eye drops. The wetting strips counted <10mm per 5 minutes were defined positive, while ≤5mm per 5 minutes were defined strong positive.
RESULTS
The wetting length in S I t after topical anesthesia was significantly lower than that in S I t without anesthesia (P<0.001). The positive rate and strong positive rate of S I t after topical anesthesia were significantly higher than that of S I t without anesthesia (P<0.001). The positive rate and strong positive rate of S I t without anesthesia and the strong positive rate of S I t after topical anesthesia in patients with aqueous-deficiency dry eye (ADDE) were significantly higher than those in total patients whereas those in patients with evaporative dry eye (EDE) were significantly lower than those in total patients (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION
S I t after topical anesthesia with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride eye drops is more objective and reliable than that without anesthesia in reflecting the status of DE, and its diagnostic value in patients with ADDE was even higher, making itself a meaningful evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of DE.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.04.14
PMCID: PMC3428545  PMID: 22937509
dry eye; Schirmer I test; tears; topical anesthesia
25.  A randomized trial of topical anesthesia comparing lidocaine versus lidocaine plus xylometazoline for unsedated transnasal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy 
BACKGROUND:
The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy.
METHODS:
Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean ± SD, difference in mean, 95% CI.
RESULTS:
A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2±2.4 versus 3.9±2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI −0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4±2.1 versus 3.2±2.8, respectively [−0.80; 95% CI −1.54 to −0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4±1.8 min versus 3.5±2.2 min, respectively [−1.10; 95% CI −1.71 min to −0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2±1.8 min versus 3.9±2.2 min, respectively [−0.70 min; 95% CI −1.30 min to −0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19).
CONCLUSIONS:
LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required.
PMCID: PMC2886574  PMID: 20485707
Topical anesthesia; Transnasal endoscopy; Ultrathin

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