Objective. To increase pharmacy students’ knowledge of and confidence in counseling patients regarding emergency contraception and to identify any barriers to counseling patients about emergency contraception.
Design. Approximately 200 third-year pharmacy students participated in the Women’s Health Therapeutics workshop at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Students observed a 5-minute skit of a counseling session on emergency contraception and then were asked to pair up with a classmate and practice counseling each other regarding the use of emergency contraception following a checklist of key points.
Assessment. One hundred eighty-nine students completed pre- and post-workshop survey instruments. Students’ knowledge scores increased from 86% to 93% (p<0.001). Approximately 25% of the students stated they were confident in counseling patients on emergency contraception before completing the active-learning exercise compared to 58.5% after (p<0.001). The most common barrier to counseling that students identified on the pre- and post-workshop survey was lack of knowledge.
Conclusion. Participation in an active-learning exercise significantly increased pharmacy students’ knowledge of and confidence in counseling patients regarding emergency contraception and significantly reduced several barriers to counseling identified prior to participation.
pharmacy students; active learning; emergency contraception
Students in a middle-class and in an economically lower-class high school were surveyed regarding their attitudes and behavior with respect to sexuality, contraception, and pregnancy. A large majority of students approved of premarital intercourse for both sexes within the context of a loving relationship. The most important deterrent to sexual intercourse was fear of pregnancy. A majority of both sexes had had sexual intercourse. Forty percent of the sexually active had used no contraception on some occasions, and many of the remainder had used poor methods such as withdrawal or rhythm. The pregnancy rate was high—at least 20 percent in several of the sexually active subgroups.
Parents were an infrequent source of information about sex. On the other hand, there was some evidence that students exposed to a sex education program retained useful information if it was relevant to their situation, and if they were appropriately motivated.
A model for integrating the various aspects of this subject area is offered.
To estimate the interest in using intrauterine contraception among women seeking emergency contraception or walk-in pregnancy testing.
We surveyed 412 women who requested emergency contraception or pregnancy testing at four family planning clinics in Pittsburgh, PA. The 41-item survey assessed knowledge of, attitudes towards, and interest in using intrauterine contraception (IUD). Data were analyzed using χ2 and Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression methods.
The response rate was 85%. Twelve percent (95% CI 9%-15%) of women surveyed expressed interest in same-day insertion of an IUD and 22% (95% CI 18%-26%) wanted more information about IUDs. Interest in same-day IUD insertion increased with higher education level, prior unwanted pregnancy, and experience with barriers to use of contraception.
Same-day IUD insertion may be a reasonable way to increase the use of highly-effective contraception among women seeking emergency contraception or walk-in pregnancy testing.
Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions.
This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills.
Materials and Methods:
The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used.
Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test).
The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.
Family planning; contraception; population control; maternal; mortality; maternal health; abortion; induced; unsafe; pregnancy; unwanted; family planning services; national program; Pakistan; developing nation; less developed nation; Muslim
Background & Objective
The authors examined college students’ perceptions regarding emergency contraception (EC) provision in light of the then-pending U.S. Food and Drug Administration decision regarding over-the-counter (OTC) status of EC.
We randomly sampled 7,000 male and female students who were enrolled full-time at the University of Michigan during the Winter 2006 semester. A total of 1,585 (22.6%) students responded to our web-based survey, and were included in these descriptive analyses.
Nearly all (94%) respondents knew of EC. When asked whether EC should be made available OTC, 60% of respondents agreed, 23% disagreed, and 17% were unsure. If EC were to be made available OTC, 34% of respondents indicated that they (or their partner) would purchase EC in advance of need while 44% stated that they would purchase it only after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Advance discussion and provision of EC is underutilized. Only 10% of all female respondents indicated that their current health care provider had spoken to them about EC in a routine health visit and just 5% of female respondents were offered a supply of EC in advance of need.
Continued efforts are needed to ensure timely access to EC in this population.
contraception; postcoital; students; college; pregnancy; unplanned
Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using the convenience sampling between May to July, 2007. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview. Participants were asked about socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes related to ECPs, and source of information about ECPs. Data analysis was performed with chi-square test and logistic regression (p < .05).
Only 22.4 percent of respondents had heard of ECPs and of these only 17.9 percent knew the correct time-frame for effective use. Most of the respondents (85%) agreed on the need for ECPs to be available in Laos and 66.8 percent stated that they would use them should the need arise, if they were available. Among those who said they would not use ECPs, 63.8 percent were concerned about possible health effects, or other side effects. Awareness of ECPs was associated with increasing age (OR = 2.78, p = .025) and male sex (OR = 2.91, p = .010).
There is needed to provide effective health education about the method, timing of use, and how to obtain ECPs through both informal, peer channels, and also through formal channels such as health care providers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes among female university students in South Africa regarding emergency contraceptives (EC).
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 582 female university students who were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find significant predictors for EC awareness.
The average age of the female students was 20.9 years (SD = 3.0) and 57.2% were presently sexually active. Overall, 49.8% of the participants reported having heard about EC prior to the study. Regarding sexual activities among the female students, 53.2% reported to have sex, and 21.2% of the sexually experienced students used EC prior to the study. Regarding the effectiveness of EC, 29.5% students said it could be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse, and 8% said it could be used just before sex. About two-thirds (61.8%) would recommend the use of EC and 63.2% would use it if they needed. The multivariate analysis indicated that students who were older (>20 years), presently sexually active, and living with their parents were more likely to be aware of EC (p<0.05).
The students’ knowledge and utilization of EC were low. Health education and promotion should be targeted towards these students, and the EC services should be offered on campus.
To examine the relationship between exposure to death and attitudes and knowledge about end-of-life care in graduating medical students.
Participants and methods
Survey of students graduating from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine between 2001 and 2006. Students reported their personal experience with death and their exposure to death and dying patients during medical school. They rated their agreement, on a 4-point Likert scale, with 8 attitude items that were previously used in a national survey. Knowledge about end-of-life care was assessed with a 15-item test about pain and symptom management, ethics, treatment appropriateness, and hospice.
Three hundred and eighty students completed the survey; the response rate was 47%. Seventy-six percent of students reported personal experience with death, and 73% reported caring for dying patients or witnessing a patient's death during their third-year clerkships. Students had positive attitudes about physicians' responsibility and ability to help dying patients and their families, but reported negative emotional reactions to end-of-life care. Students who reported personal or professional experience with death had more positive attitudes and higher knowledge scores than those who did not, p < 0.05.
Educational initiatives should maximize the time medical students spend caring for dying patients. Teaching students end-of-life care during the course of their clinical clerkships is an effective way to improve attitudes about end-of-life care. Schools should focus on developing emotionally supportive settings in which to teach students about death and dying.
Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion is one of the major worldwide health problems, which has many negative consequences on the health and well-being of women. Information about women's knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives plays a major role in the reduction of unwanted pregnancy; however, there are no studies about this issue in the study area. This study assessed Adama University female students' knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives.
A cross-sectional study design was employed from February 1 to 30/2009, on 660 regular undergraduate female students of Adama University. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between variables and emergency contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice. P-value less than 0.05 at 95% CI was taken for statistical significance.
Of the total, 660 respondents, 194(29.4%) were sexually active, 63(9.4%) had history of pregnancy and 49(7.4%) had history of abortion. About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods.
This study demonstrated lack of awareness, knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptives among Adama University female students. Hence behavioral change strategies should be considered by responsible bodies to improve knowledge and bring attitudinal change on use of emergency contraception.
emergency contraceptives; knowledge; attitude; practice; Ethiopia
To develop and validate an instrument that measures professionalism among pharmacy students and recent graduates.
A pharmacy professionalism survey instrument developed by a focus group was pretested and then administered to all first-year pharmacy students enrolled in the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy and to recent pharmacy graduates who were taking the preparation course for the Georgia Pharmacy Law Examination and North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination. Participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with each of 32 items using a 5-point Likert scale.
One hundred thirty first-year pharmacy students and 101 pharmacy graduates participated in the survey. Statistical analysis identified 6 factors (subscales), which were later named excellence, respect for others, altruism, duty, accountability, and honor/integrity, the 6 tenets of professionalism. Item to total correlations ranged from 0.25 to 0.57 on the 6 factors (subscales), and reliability estimates ranged from 0.72 to 0.85 for the 6 factors and total scale.
The Pharmacy Professionalism Instrument measures the 6 tenets of professionalism and exhibits satisfactory reliability measures. Future studies using this scale in other pharmacy populations are needed.
pharmacy students; professionalism; survey development; validation
Objectives. To determine pharmacy students’ attitude toward and knowledge of reporting serious adverse drug events (ADEs) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Method. A 58-item survey questionnaire constructed to measure respondents’ intention to report ADEs (3 items), attitude toward reporting ADEs (20 items), knowledge of ADE reporting (9 items), and demographic data was administered to all third-year (final-year) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy.
Results. The majority of the 58 students who responded (91% response rate) intended (84%) and planned (85.3%) to report serious ADEs when they encounter them. Most respondents had favorable attitudes toward reporting serious ADEs to the FDA; respondents believed that reporting serious ADEs was valuable (5.6 ± 1.5, mean ± SD), good (3.0 ± 1.7), and beneficial (5.7 ± 1.5). Many students also believed that ADE reporting resulted in increased risk of malpractice, compromised relationships with physicians, broken trust with patients, disruption of the normal workflow, and was time consuming. Many students had inadequate knowledge on reporting ADEs.
Conclusion. Although pharmacy students had strong intentions and favorable attitudes toward ADE reporting, they had inadequate knowledge of how to report serious ADEs.
adverse drug events; adverse drug event reporting; pharmacovigilance; theory of planned behavior; drug safety
Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality.
A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon) was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire.
The response rate was 94.9% (664/700). General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664). However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664) believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000). Forty-nine students (7.4%) had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them.
Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraceptive pills.
This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of family medicine providers and their attitudes towards emergency contraception in a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A 21-item questionnaire containing the demographic profile of respondents and questions concerning knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception was distributed among participants. In total, 45 interviews were conducted, with a response rate of 100%, with faculty physicians (33%), residents (27%), medical officers (40%), 36% male and 64% female physicians; of them, the majority (64%) were married. Although the large majority (71%) of the respondents reported considerable familiarity with emergency contraception, objective assessment revealed deficiencies in their knowledge. About 38% of the participants incorrectly chose menstrual irregularity as the most common side-effect of progestin-only emergency contraception pills, and only 33% answered that emergency contraception was not an abortifacient while 42% were unsure. Forty percent of the physicians prescribed emergency contraception in the past. The large majority (71%) of the physicians were familiar with emergency contraception, yet deficiencies in knowledge inaccuracies were identified. Barriers to its use were identified as ‘it will promote promiscuity’ (31%), religious/ethical reasons (27%), liability (40%), teratogenicity (44%), and inexperience (40%). Overall attitudes regarding emergency contraception were positive; however, most (82%) physicians were unsatisfied with their current knowledge of emergency contraception, and there was a discrepancy between perceptions of physicians and actual knowledge. Interventions providing education to family physicians regarding emergency contraception is strongly recommended.
Cross-sectional studies; Descriptive studies; Emergency contraception; Family physician; Family planning; Knowledge, attitudes, practice; Perceptions; Pakistan
To assess prepharmacy students' perceptions of the professional role of pharmacists prior to enrollment in pharmacy school, and the association between perceptions and student demographics.
A 58-question survey instrument regarding pharmacists' roles, work experiences, and demographics was developed and administered to students (N = 127) enrolled in an organic chemistry laboratory experience at Purdue University.
Theory of planned behavior subscales (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control) were influenced by students' grade point average, gender, and application to pharmacy school, while unpaid work experience affected professional commitment. Students evaluated work experience related to their pharmacy studies more positively than non-pharmacy-related areas in the theory of planned behavior subscales.
Evaluating students' perceptions may be beneficial in helping pharmacy educators design their curricula, as well as allowing admissions committees to select the most qualified students to promote the development of positive perceptions toward the professional role of pharmacists. Grade point average (GPA) and application to pharmacy school were associated with significant differences for the theory of planned behavior and professional commitment subscales.
Perceptions; professional role; theory of planned behavior; prepharmacy; pharmacist
Objective. To assess US pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of adverse event reporting.
Methods. To gauge pharmacy students' impressions of adverse event reporting, a 10-question survey instrument was administered that addressed student perceptions of the reporting procedures of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as student understanding of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and its relationship to adverse event reporting.
Results. Two hundred twenty-eight pharmacy students responded to the survey. The majority of respondents believed that the FDA is more likely than a pharmaceutical company to take action regarding an adverse event. There were misconceptions relating to the way adverse event reports are handled and the influence of HIPAA regulations on reporting.
Conclusions. Communication between the FDA and pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding adverse event reports is not well understood by pharmacy students. Education about adverse event reporting should evolve so that by the time pharmacy students become practitioners, they are well acquainted with the relevance and importance of adverse event reporting.
adverse event; adverse drug reaction; pharmacists; pharmacy students; adverse event reporting; FDA; HIPAA
To provide experiential rotation students with educational activities to enhance learning and patient communication skills with respect to nonprescription drug therapy.
A longitudinal project, a consultation guide, and a list of mini-projects were developed for a 4-week community pharmacy rotation experience. The longitudinal project was a nonprescription pocket formulary consisting of 4 disease states and their respective treatment options. The consultation guide was a 1-page data collection form intended to capture patient information regarding the use of nonprescription products in a thorough and brief manner. The mini-projects were questions to be answered while spending time in the nonprescription medication aisles.
Students were very creative in developing their formularies. They also became more familiar with using nonprescription product references and package labeling information. The consultation guide taught students to apply the “PQRSTA” mnemonic. It prompted discussion of self-care issues and served as a useful educational tool for the preceptor. The list of mini-projects forced students to become familiar with the many nonprescription products available, as well as product line extensions and duplication.
Students were able to apply and build upon what was learned during their didactic education. The activities provided an excellent means of enhancing patient counseling and problem-solving skills. Additionally, the preceptor relied on these activities to engage students in conversation pertaining to nonprescription products and self-care related issues.
self-care; nonprescription medication; community pharmacy; experiential rotation; counseling; community advanced pharmacy practice experience
Emergency contraception (EC) is a type of modern contraception which is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse when regular contraception is not in use. The importance of EC is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, EC need to be available and used appropriately as a backup in case regular contraception is not used, misused or failed. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University (AAU). This information will contribute substantially to interventions intended to combat maternal mortality.
A Cross-sectional quantitative study among 368 AAU undergraduate students was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression.
Among the total participants (n = 368), only 23.4% were sexually active. Majority (84.2%) had heard of EC; 32.3% had a positive attitude towards it. The main source of information reported by the respondents was Media (69.3%). Among those who were sexually active, about 42% had unprotected sexual intercourse. Among those who had unprotected sexual intercourse, 75% had ever used EC. Sexually active participants had significantly better attitude towards EC than sexually inactive participants (crude OR 0.33(0.15-0.71)); even after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, region, religion, ethnicity, marital status, department and family education and income (adj. OR 0.36(0.15-0.86)).
The study showed high EC awareness and usage in contrast to other studies in the city, which could be due to the fact that university students are relatively in a better educational level. Therefore, it is highly recommended that interventions intended to combat maternal mortality through contraceptive usage need to be aware of such information specific to the target groups.
Emergency contraception; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Addis Ababa University; Ethiopia
To describe the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) by doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students; determine the reliability of psychometric constructs that determine technology acceptance; and determine constructs that directly correlate with PDA use.
A survey instrument was developed containing descriptive and psychometric items and administered to PharmD students at 2 universities.
Over half of new users (58.1%) and experienced users (51.3%) reported using their PDA at least weekly. Eighty-four percent of experienced users used their PDA at least weekly to look up drug information. The most reliable scales were perceived usefulness (α = 0.92), perceived ease of use (α = 0.89), and attitude towards behavior (α = 0.84). Intention to use and self-reported use of PDAs were strongly correlated with perceived usefulness, attitude towards behavior, and compatibility.
The majority of pharmacy students used their PDAs at least weekly and find them most useful for looking up drug information.
personal digital assistant; pharmacy student; technology
Objective. To determine the attitudes of second-year pharmacy students toward older people in general and geriatric patients in particular after attending an Early Pharmacy Practice Experiences 2 course.
Methods. One hundred forty-four second-year pharmacy students completed the Geriatrics Knowledge Test and Attitudes Survey between 2008 and 2010.
Results. On 11 of 14 items, most students had a favorable opinion of older people and providing geriatric care (mean > 3.0 on a 5-point scale). For example, students believed that treatment of chronically ill elderly patients is not hopeless ( 4.2 ± 1.0) and that most older people are pleasant to be with ( 3.8 ± 1.0). Gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, having children, and rural or non-rural upbringing were not related to the students’ attitudes for most items.
Conclusion. Although the majority of second-year pharmacy students had favorable attitudes toward older people and geriatric care, the lack of research in this area suggests that further studies are needed.
pharmacy students; geriatrics; attitudes; elderly patients; experiential education; survey
The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the most effective emergency contraceptive available but is largely ignored in clinical practice. We examined clinicians’ recommendation of the copper IUD for emergency contraception in a setting with few cost obstacles.
We conducted a survey among clinicians (n=1,246; response rate 65%) in a California State family planning program, where U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives are available at no cost to low-income women. We used multivariable logistic regression to measure the association of intrauterine contraceptive training and evidence-based knowledge with having recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception.
The large majority of clinicians (85%) never recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception, and most (93%) required two or more visits for an IUD insertion. Multivariable analyses showed insertion skills were associated with having recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception, but the most significant factor was evidence-based knowledge of patient selection for IUD use. Clinicians who viewed a wide range of patients as IUD candidates were twice as likely to have recommended the copper IUD for emergency contraception. While over 93% of obstetrician–gynecologists were skilled in inserting the copper IUD, they were no more likely to have recommended it for emergency contraception than other physicians or advance practice clinicians.
Recommendation of the copper IUD for emergency contraception is rare, despite its high efficacy and long-lasting contraceptive benefits. Recommendation would require clinic flow and scheduling adjustments to allow same-day IUD insertions. Patient-centered and high-quality care for emergency contraception should include a discussion of the most effective method.
To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior.
A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior.
Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation.
There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students.
online social networking; e-professionalism; Facebook; technology; professionalism
To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA).
A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television).
One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format.
Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum.
direct-to-consumer advertising; pharmacy students; prescription drug advertising
To determine pharmacy students' attitudes towards a required public health course and developing a public health program.
Two hundred ten first-year pharmacy students enrolled in a public health course at a large private pharmacy school were surveyed. A 24-item adjective rating scale and a 10-item scale were used to measure students' attitudes towards the course and developing a public health program.
Of 198 respondents, two-thirds found the course to be extremely or very appealing, of practical value, and only slightly demanding and difficult. The majority of the students indicated that establishing a public health program would be an opportunity to help the community and make a difference. Few students indicated that it would be a poor use of time or an example of busy work.
Pharmacy students had positive attitudes towards a required public health course and developing a public health program. Strategies to mold positive attitudes into actual behaviors of engaging in public health activities are needed.
public health; attitudes; pharmacy curriculum
To determine the contraceptive needs (including emergency contraception (EC)) of women seeking care from a publicly-funded sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic and to better understand women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards EC.
An anonymous survey was administered to 197 women seeking services at one Chicago Department of Public Health STI clinic.
After excluding women unlikely to become pregnant within the next year because of age, sexual orientation, hysterectomy, and those that desired pregnancy (n=47), data from 150 women were available for analysis. Thirteen percent were using “very effective” contraception (intrauterine contraception, implant, or sterilization) and 26% were using “effective” contraception (contraceptive pill, patch, ring or injectable). Approximately 23% (95% CI 16.5–30.0%) may have benefited from immediate use of EC as they reported at least one act of unprotected intercourse within the past 5 days.
Many women seeking care from public STI clinics are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. A substantial number of women have an immediate need of EC at the time of their clinical visit. Efforts are needed to improve provision of EC as well as effective ongoing contraception for this population.
contraception; sexually transmitted infection; post-coital contraception; morning after pill; public health clinic
To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of an elective service-learning course offered in cooperation with a charitable pharmacy providing services to the surrounding community.
The 33 students enrolled in the service-learning elective were given a 23-question preservice survey instrument and a 32-question postservice survey instrument. The survey instruments were designed to measure change in the students’ perceived knowledge and understanding regarding civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities.
Significant differences in responses on the presurvey and postsurvey instruments suggested changes in students’ attitudes and perceptions about the patients and the community in which they serve.
Results of the survey indicated that by exposing students to issues affecting individuals and the community during this elective, a positive change in the student's perception of their knowledge and understanding of broader issues facing the community was observed. Service-Learning courses provide additional opportunities for students to develop as competent, engaged, and caring health care professionals.
service-learning; civic involvement; cultural issues; social issues; health disparities