AIM: To investigate whether patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at risk of sedation-related complications during diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
METHODS: A prospective study was performed in consecutive patients with OSA, who were confirmed with full-night polysomnography between July 2010 and April 2011. The occurrence of cardiopulmonary complications related to sedation during diagnostic EGD was compared between OSA and control groups.
RESULTS: During the study period, 31 patients with OSA and 65 controls were enrolled. Compared with the control group, a higher dosage of midazolam was administered (P = 0.000) and a higher proportion of deep sedation was performed (P = 0.024) in the OSA group. However, all adverse events, including sedation failure, paradoxical responses, snoring or apnea, hypoxia, hypotension, oxygen or flumazenil administration, and other adverse events were not different between the two groups (all P > 0.1). Patients with OSA were not predisposed to hypoxia with multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.068).
CONCLUSION: In patients with OSA, this limited sized study did not disclose an increased risk of cardiopulmonary complications during diagnostic EGD under sedation.
Conscious sedation; Obstructive sleep apnea; Endoscopy; Complications; Safety
Annoying snore is the principle symptom and problem in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, investigation has been hampered by the complex snoring sound analyses.
This study was aimed to investigate the energy types of the full-night snoring sounds in patients with OSAS.
Patients and Method
Twenty male OSAS patients underwent snoring sound recording throughout 6 hours of in-lab overnight polysomnogragphy. Snoring sounds were processed and analyzed by a new sound analytic program, named as Snore Map®. We transformed the 6-hour snoring sound power spectra into the energy spectrum and classified it as snore map type 1 (monosyllabic low-frequency snore), type 2 (duplex low-&mid-frequency snore), type 3 (duplex low- & high-frequency snore), and type 4 (triplex low-, mid-, & high-frequency snore). The interrator and test-retest reliabilities of snore map typing were assessed. The snore map types and their associations among demographic data, subjective snoring questionnaires, and polysomnographic parameters were explored.
The interrator reliability of snore map typing were almost perfect (κ = 0.87) and the test-retest reliability was high (r = 0.71). The snore map type was proportional to the body mass index (r = 0.63, P = 0.003) and neck circumference (r = 0.52, P = 0.018). Snore map types were unrelated to subjective snoring questionnaire scores (All P>0.05). After adjustment for body mass index and neck circumference, snore map type 3–4 was significantly associated with severity of OSAS (r = 0.52, P = 0.026).
Snore map typing of a full-night energy spectrum is feasible and reliable. The presence of a higher snore map type is a warning sign of severe OSAS and indicated priority OSAS management. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether snore map type can be used to discriminate OSAS from primary snoring and whether it is affected by OSAS management.
This report describes two episodes of significant uvular and oropharyngeal ulceration occurring during routine transoesophageal echocardiographic examination of the heart while intubated under general anaesthesia. Both patients were young and healthy and underwent anaesthesia without compromise, but experienced significant morbidity as a result of the ulceration.
Uvular and oropharyngeal ulceration has been described following endoscopy and intubation, but there are few reports of ulceration following transoesophageal echocardiography. Operator skill is often a factor. Physical trauma and local ischaemia may play a role in aetiology.
Patients experiencing sore throat following the procedure should be examined and observed in case of potentially fatal complications of airway compromise or uvular necrosis and infection. Particular care is required in patients undergoing day case procedures, as early discharge may lead to complications while the patient is at home.
The aim of this study was to analyze and report sites and patterns of obstruction observed during sleep endoscopy in a large group of patients and suggest consequent therapeutic prescriptions. 614 consecutive patients who approached the Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Sleep Disorders underwent sleep endoscopy. We used propofol to induce sleep, monitoring the value of bispectral index to evaluate the depth of sedation. For each patient, we recorded obstruction sites,obstruction patterns and the effects of the mandibular pull-up manoeuvre on both obstruction and snoring. We ascertained that, in almost all patients, the noise of snoring was generated at the oropharyngeal level. The obstruction at the oropharyngeal level, either in isolation or in combination with other structures, is far more common. The mandibular pull-up manoeuvre was effective in reducing or resolving the obstruction in a large number of patients, even though their AHI values were high. For those patients having an AHI over 15, we point out the various therapeutic indications gained from the sleep endoscopy examinations. Drug-induced (propofol) sleep endoscopy can be considered be a safe procedure, easily practicable, valid and reliable; we therefore consider it a fundamental clinical investigation that can be essential when choosing treatment.
Sleep endoscopy; Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; Mandibular pull-up manoeuvre; Oral device
There is increasing interest in balanced propofol sedation (BPS) titrated to moderate sedation (conscious sedation) for endoscopic procedures. However, few controlled studies on BPS targeted to deep sedation for diagnostic endoscopy were found. Alfentanil, a rapid and short-acting synthetic analog of fentanyl, appears to offer clinically significant advantages over fentanyl during outpatient anesthesia.
It is reasonable to hypothesize that low dose of alfentanil used in BPS might also result in more rapid recovery as compared with fentanyl.
A prospective, randomized and double-blinded clinical trial of alfentanil, midazolam and propofol versus fentanyl, midazolam and propofol in 272 outpatients undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy for health examination were enrolled. Randomization was achieved by using the computer-generated random sequence. Each combination regimen was titrated to deep sedation. The recovery time, patient satisfaction, safety and the efficacy and cost benefit between groups were compared.
260 participants were analyzed, 129 in alfentanil group and 131 in fentanyl group. There is no significant difference in sex, age, body weight, BMI and ASA distribution between two groups. Also, there is no significant difference in recovery time, satisfaction score from patients, propofol consumption, awake time from sedation, and sedation-related cardiopulmonary complications between two groups. Though deep sedation was targeted, all cardiopulmonary complications were minor and transient (10.8%, 28/260). No serious adverse events including the use of flumazenil, assisted ventilation, permanent injury or death, and temporary or permanent interruption of procedure were found in both groups. However, fentanyl is New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) 103 (approximate US$ 4) cheaper than alfentanil, leading to a significant difference in total cost between two groups.
This randomized, double-blinded clinical trial showed that there is no significant difference in the recovery time, satisfaction score from patients, propofol consumption, awake time from sedation, and sedation-related cardiopulmonary complications between the two most common sedation regimens for EGD and colonoscopy in our hospital. However, fentanyl is NT$103 (US$ 4) cheaper than alfentanil in each case.
Institutional Review Board of Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital (IRB097-18) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-TRC-12002575)
Balanced propofol sedation; Alfentanil; Fentanyl; Deep sedation; Diagnostic endoscopy; Cost benefit
AIM: To compare deep sedation with propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl regimens during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
METHODS: After obtaining approval of the research ethics committee and informed consent, 200 patients were evaluated and referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were randomized to receive propofol-fentanyl or midazolam-fentanyl (n = 100/group). We assessed the level of sedation using the observer’s assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score and bispectral index (BIS). We evaluated patient and physician satisfaction, as well as the recovery time and complication rates. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software and included the Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test, measurement of analysis of variance, and the κ statistic.
RESULTS: The times to induction of sedation, recovery, and discharge were shorter in the propofol-fentanyl group than the midazolam-fentanyl group. According to the OAA/S score, deep sedation events occurred in 25% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 11% of the midazolam-fentanyl group (P = 0.014). Additionally, deep sedation events occurred in 19% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 7% of the midazolam-fentanyl group according to the BIS scale (P = 0.039). There was good concordance between the OAA/S score and BIS for both groups (κ = 0.71 and κ = 0.63, respectively). Oxygen supplementation was required in 42% of the propofol-fentanyl group and 26% of the midazolam-fentanyl group (P = 0.025). The mean time to recovery was 28.82 and 44.13 min in the propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl groups, respectively (P < 0.001). There were no severe complications in either group. Although patients were equally satisfied with both drug combinations, physicians were more satisfied with the propofol-fentanyl combination.
CONCLUSION: Deep sedation occurred with propofol-fentanyl and midazolam-fentanyl, but was more frequent in the former. Recovery was faster in the propofol-fentanyl group.
Endoscopy; Deep sedation; Anesthetic administration; Anesthetic dose; Adverse effects
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring and asthma are known comorbid conditions in men and non-pregnant women. This comorbidity has not been evaluated among pregnant women. We assessed the habitual snoring-asthma relationship among pregnant women.
A cohort of women (N=1,335) were interviewed during pregnancy, and we ascertained participants’ asthma status and collected information about habitual snoring, before and during pregnancy. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Compared with non-asthmatics, the adjusted OR among asthmatics for snoring before pregnancy was 2.13 (95%CI 1.10–4.12). The odds of snoring during early pregnancy was 1.79-fold (OR=1.79; 95%CI 1.07–3.01). Associations were more pronounced among overweight (≥25 kg/m2) asthmatics (OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.27–12.75).
We report a cross-sectional association of habitual snoring and asthma among pregnant women. If confirmed, pregnant asthmatics may benefit from more vigilant screening and management of OSA or habitual snoring during pregnancy.
Asthma; Obstructive Sleep Apnea; Sleep Disordered Breathing; Habitual Snoring; Obesity; Pregnancy
Loud snoring is a common symptom in the general population. The evidence-based literature indicates that snoring may be associated with sleep fragmentation and sleep apnea, which may affect cognitive function and predispose to occupational injury. High rates of occupational injury occur on farms and may be related to personal and health factors. Thus, loud snoring may not be a trivial symptom and should be considered as important in medical assessments.
A prospective cohort study was conducted in Saskatchewan. Baseline questionnaires were completed for 5502 individuals by representatives from 2390 farms. Sleep patterns at baseline were categorized as the following: no reported sleep disorders; physician-diagnosed sleep apnea (treatment unknown); and loud snoring. Survival analyses were used to relate sleep patterns with subsequent injury.
A total of 6.7% (369 of 5502) of participants reported a possible sleep disorder. Of these, 69.4% (256 of 369) reported loud snoring only. Loud snoring was only associated with a consistent increase in risk (eg, HR 1.45 [95 CI 1.07 to 1.99 for work-related injury]) for five farm injury outcomes. Relationships between physician-diagnosed sleep apnea and time to first injury were not significant, presumably because a diagnosis of sleep apnea implied treatment for sleep apnea.
Sleep disorders are an important potential risk factor for occupational injury on farms. Substantial proportions of farm residents report loud snoring and this is related to subsequent injury. Some of these cases may represent sleep fragmentation or undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea. Identification and clinical management of sleep disorders related to snoring should be part of health assessments conducted by physicians.
Agriculture; Farming; Injury; Occupational health; Sleep disorders; Snoring
This study aimed to compare continuous intravenous infusion combinations of propofol-remifentanil and propofol-ketamine for deep sedation for surgical extraction of all 4 third molars. In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study, participants received 1 of 2 sedative combinations for deep sedation for the surgery. Both groups initially received midazolam 0.03 mg/kg for baseline sedation. The control group then received a combination of propofol-remifentanil in a ratio of 10 mg propofol to 5 μg of remifentanil per milliliter, and the experimental group received a combination of propofol-ketamine in a ratio of 10 mg of propofol to 2.5 mg of ketamine per milliliter; both were given at an initial propofol infusion rate of 100 μg/kg/min. Each group received an induction loading bolus of 500 μg/kg of the assigned propofol combination along with the appropriate continuous infusion combination . Measured outcomes included emergence and recovery times, various sedation parameters, hemodynamic and respiratory stability, patient and surgeon satisfaction, postoperative course, and associated drug costs. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in the study. Both groups demonstrated similar sedation parameters and hemodynamic and respiratory stability; however, the ketamine group had prolonged emergence (13.6 ± 6.6 versus 7.1 ± 3.7 minutes, P = .0009) and recovery (42.9 ± 18.7 versus 24.7 ± 7.6 minutes, P = .0004) times. The prolonged recovery profile of continuously infused propofol-ketamine may limit its effectiveness as an alternative to propofol-remifentanil for deep sedation for third molar extraction and perhaps other short oral surgical procedures, especially in the ambulatory dental setting.
Propofol; Ketamine; Remifentanil; Deep sedation; TIVA
This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.
Although awareness of sleep disorders is increasing, limited information is available on whole night detection of snoring. Our study aimed to develop and validate a robust, high performance, and sensitive whole-night snore detector based on non-contact technology.
Sounds during polysomnography (PSG) were recorded using a directional condenser microphone placed 1 m above the bed. An AdaBoost classifier was trained and validated on manually labeled snoring and non-snoring acoustic events.
Sixty-seven subjects (age 52.5±13.5 years, BMI 30.8±4.7 kg/m2, m/f 40/27) referred for PSG for obstructive sleep apnea diagnoses were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Twenty-five subjects were used for the design study; the validation study was blindly performed on the remaining forty-two subjects.
Measurements and Results
To train the proposed sound detector, >76,600 acoustic episodes collected in the design study were manually classified by three scorers into snore and non-snore episodes (e.g., bedding noise, coughing, environmental). A feature selection process was applied to select the most discriminative features extracted from time and spectral domains. The average snore/non-snore detection rate (accuracy) for the design group was 98.4% based on a ten-fold cross-validation technique. When tested on the validation group, the average detection rate was 98.2% with sensitivity of 98.0% (snore as a snore) and specificity of 98.3% (noise as noise).
Audio-based features extracted from time and spectral domains can accurately discriminate between snore and non-snore acoustic events. This audio analysis approach enables detection and analysis of snoring sounds from a full night in order to produce quantified measures for objective follow-up of patients.
Considering the growing trend of laryngeal surgeries and the need to protect the airway during and after surgery, among several therapeutic regimens to induce sedation, two regimens of propofol-fentanyl and propofol-midazolam were compared in microlaryngeal surgeries.
Forty ASA I-II class patients undergoing microlaryngeal surgeries and referring routinely for postoperative visits were randomly recruited into two groups. For all the patients, 0.5 mg/Kg of propofol was used as bolus and then, 50 mcg/Kg/min of the drug was infused intravenously. For one group, 0.03 mg/Kg bolus of midazolam and for the other group, 2 mcg/Kg bolus of fentanyl was administered in combination with propofol. Ramsay system was used in order to evaluate the effect of the two drugs in inducing sedation. The need for additional dose, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation, and also recovery time and adverse effects such as nausea/vomiting and recalling intra-operative memories, were assessed.
The patients in the two groups were not statistically different regarding the number of patients, age, sex, preoperative vital signs, the need for additional doses of propofol, systolic blood pressure and mean systolic blood pressure during laryngoscopy. However, mean systolic blood pressure 1 min after removal of laryngoscope returned faster to the baseline in midazolam group (p < 0.01). Mean heart rate returned sooner to the baseline in fentanyl group following removal of stimulation. Besides, heart rate showed a more reduction following administration of fentanyl (p < 0.02). Mean arterial blood oxygen saturation during laryngoscopy significantly decreased in fentanyl group (p < 0.05) compared to the other group. The time it took to achieve a full consciousness was shorter in midazolam group (p < 0.01). Nausea/vomiting was significantly more prevalent in fentanyl group while the patients in midazolam group apparently experienced more of amnesia, comparatively (p < 0.01).
Inducing laryngeal block and local anesthesia using propofol-midazolam regimen is not only associated with a more rapid recovery and less recalling of unpleasant memories, but also better in preventing reduction of arterial oxygen saturation during laryngoscopy compared with propofol-fentanyl regimen.
Sedation; Microlaryngeal surgery; Propofol; Midazolam; Fentanyl
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder with periodic reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. It is associated with loud snoring, disrupted sleep, and witnessed apneas. Treatment of OSA varies from simple measures such as oral appliances and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to surgical procedures like uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tracheostomy. Oral appliances are a viable nonsurgical treatment alternative in patients with OSA, of which mandibular advancement devices are most common. Edentulism which contributes to the worsening of OSA reduces the number of available therapeutic strategies and is considered a contraindication to oral appliance therapy. This clinical report describes the treatment of a 63-year-old edentulous OSA patient for whom a mandibular advancement device was designed.
Sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a serious sleep disorder, and snoring is one of its earliest and most consistent symptoms. We propose a new methodology for identifying two distinct types of snores: the so-called non-regular and regular snores. Respiratory sound signals from 34 subjects with different ranges of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI = 3.7–109.9 h−1) were acquired. A total number of 74,439 snores were examined. The time interval between regular snores in short segments of the all night recordings was analyzed. Severe SAHS subjects show a shorter time interval between regular snores (p = 0.0036, AHI cp: 30 h−1) and less dispersion on the time interval features during all sleep. Conversely, lower intra-segment variability (p = 0.006, AHI cp: 30 h−1) is seen for less severe SAHS subjects. Features derived from the analysis of time interval between regular snores achieved classification accuracies of 88.2 % (with 90 % sensitivity, 75 % specificity) and 94.1 % (with 94.4 % sensitivity, 93.8 % specificity) for AHI cut-points of severity of 5 and 30 h−1, respectively. The features proved to be reliable predictors of the subjects’ SAHS severity. Our proposed method, the analysis of time interval between snores, provides promising results and puts forward a valuable aid for the early screening of subjects suspected of having SAHS.
Sleep apnea; Snore sounds; Snore time interval
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity and remains underdiagnosed in women. Identification of high-risk groups among women is important for early detection and treatment.
To describe the prevalence of snoring in young women with atopy and to determine the risk factors for snoring in these individuals.
The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study is an ongoing prospective birth cohort study of infants with at least 1 atopic parent. Mothers of study participants were evaluated by questionnaire for snoring, respiratory symptoms, and smoking status. Women who snored were compared with those who did not snore. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for snoring.
Data were available on 677 women who had at least 1 live birth. Of these 677 women, 546 (81%) were white, 122 (18%) were African American, and 9 (1%) were biracial or Asian. The mean ± SD age of the cohort at the time of evaluation for snoring was 29.6 ± 5.6 years. Of the 677 women, 231 (34%) reported snoring at least 1 night per week, and snoring almost always (5–7 nights per week) was reported by 85 (13%). An almost 2-fold risk of snoring was associated with asthma (diagnosis and current symptoms) (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.8) and African American race (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.6) after controlling for income level and smoking status.
We found a high prevalence of snoring in young women with atopy and a significant association with asthma.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adverse and interdependent cognitive and cardiovascular consequences. Increasing evidence suggests that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and endothelin family (EDN) genes underlie mechanistic aspects of OSA-associated morbidities. We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS family (3 isoforms), and EDN family (3 isoforms) to identify potential associations of these SNPs in children with OSA.
A pediatric community cohort (ages 5–10 years) enriched for snoring underwent overnight polysomnographic (NPSG) and a fasting morning blood draw. The diagnostic criteria for OSA were an obstructive apnea-hypopnea Index (AHI) >2/h total sleep time (TST), snoring during the night, and a nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation <92%. Control children were defined as non-snoring children with AHI <2/h TST (NOSA). Endothelial function was assessed using a modified post-occlusive hyperemic test. The time to peak reperfusion (Tmax) was considered as the indicator for normal endothelial function (NEF; Tmax<45 sec), or ED (Tmax≥45 sec). Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was extracted and allelic frequencies were assessed for, NOS1 (209 SNPs), NOS2 (122 SNPs), NOS3 (50 SNPs), EDN1 (43 SNPs), EDN2 (48 SNPs), EDN3 (14 SNPs), endothelin receptor A, EDNRA, (27 SNPs), and endothelin receptor B, EDNRB (23 SNPs) using a custom SNPs array. The relative frequencies of NOS-1,-2, and −3, and EDN-1,-2,-3,-EDNRA, and-EDNRB genotypes were evaluated in 608 subjects [128 with OSA, and 480 without OSA (NOSA)]. Furthermore, subjects with OSA were divided into 2 subgroups: OSA with normal endothelial function (OSA-NEF), and OSA with endothelial dysfunction (OSA-ED). Linkage disequilibrium was analyzed using Haploview version 4.2 software.
For NOSA vs. OSA groups, 15 differentially distributed SNPs for NOS1 gene, and 1 SNP for NOS3 emerged, while 4 SNPs for EDN1 and 1 SNP for both EDN2 and EDN3 were identified. However, in the smaller sub-group for whom endothelial function was available, none of the significant SNPs was retained due to lack of statistical power.
Differences in the distribution of polymorphisms among NOS and EDN gene families suggest that these SNPs could play a contributory role in the pathophysiology and risk of OSA-induced cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, analysis of genotype-phenotype interactions in children with OSA may assist in the formulation of categorical risk estimates.
Children; OSA; Nitric oxide synthase (NOS); Endothelin (EDN); SNP; Polymorphisms
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become widely recognized only in the last few decades as a likely cause of significant morbidity among children. Many of the clinical characteristics of pediatric OSA, and the determinants of its epidemiology, differ from those of adult OSA. We systematically reviewed studies on the epidemiology of conditions considered part of a pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) continuum, ranging from primary snoring to OSA. We highlight a number of methodologic challenges, including widely variable methodologies for collection of questionnaire data about symptomatology, definitions of habitual snoring, criteria for advancing to further diagnostic testing, and objective diagnostic criteria for SDB or OSA. In the face of these limitations, estimated population prevalences are as follows: parent-reported “always” snoring, 1.5 to 6%; parent-reported apneic events during sleep, 0.2 to 4%; SDB by varying constellations of parent-reported symptoms on questionnaire, 4 to 11%; OSA diagnosed by varying criteria on diagnostic studies, 1 to 4%. Overall prevalence of parent-reported snoring by any definition in meta-analysis was 7.45% (95% confidence interval, 5.75–9.61). A reasonable preponderance of evidence now suggests that SDB is more common among boys than girls, and among children who are heavier than others, with emerging data to suggest a higher prevalence among African Americans. Less convincing data exist to prove differences in prevalence based on age. We conclude by outlining specific future research needs in the epidemiology of pediatric SDB.
sleep apnea, obstructive; snoring
Background. Ketamine sedation has been found superior by physician report to traditional sedation regimens for pediatric endoscopy. Goal. To objectively compare sedation with ketamine versus midazolam/fentanyl for children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Study. Patients received one of two regimens and were independently monitored using a standardized rating scale. Results. There were 2 episodes of laryngospasm during ketamine sedation. Univariate analyses showed patients sedated with ketamine (n = 17) moved more (median 25% of procedure time versus 8%, P = .03) and required similar low levels of restraint (0.83% versus 0.25%, P = .4) as patients sedated with midazolam/fentanyl (n = 20). Age-adjusted analyses suggested that patients sedated with ketamine were comparably more quiet (P = .002). Conclusions. A pilot trial of ketamine at our institution was associated with episodes of laryngospasm. In addition, children sedated with ketamine moved and required restraint similarly to patients sedated with midazolam/fentanyl. Physician perceptions may be affected by the fact that children who received ketamine were less likely to vocalize distress.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a treatment for gastric neoplasms and usually requires deep sedation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy profiles of deep sedation induced by continuous propofol infusion with or without midazolam during ESD.
A total of 135 patients scheduled for ESDs between December 2008 and June 2010 were included in this prospective study and were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the propofol group or the combination group (propofol plus midazolam).
The propofol group reported only one case of severe hypoxemia with no need of mask ventilation or intubation. Additionally, 18 cases of mild hypotension were observed in the propofol group, and 11 cases were observed in the combination group. The combination group had a lower mean total propofol dose (378 mg vs 466 mg, p<0.012), a longer mean recovery time (10.5 minutes vs 7.9 minutes, p=0.027), and a lower frequency of overall adverse events (32.8% vs 17.6%, p=0.042).
Deep sedation induced by continuous propofol infusion was shown to be safe during ESD. The combination of continuous propofol infusion and intermittent midazolam injection can decrease the total dose and infusion rate of propofol and the overall occurrence of adverse events.
Deep sedation; Propofol; Midazolam; Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal
The experience of the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty operation, performed on 24 patients for the relief of loud or heroic snoring, is presented. The operation successfully reduced the severity of snoring in 96% of patients. Postoperative complications were uncommon but included nasal regurgitation and intrapharyngeal adhesions in one patient. The role of the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty operation in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea is undecided but the authors do not perform this operation on such patients.
Ecballium elaterium (also known as squirting cucumber in the Mediterranean countries) is a weedy plant that belongs to the Cucurbitacea family. The roots and juice of its fruits were used traditionally against a wide range of diseases and symptoms, since it was known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The use of the extract, though, has been linked to allergic reactions and toxic effects. In this report, we present a case of severe uvular edema and hypoxemia due to a single use of Ecballium elaterium extract, and we discuss the possibility of life-threatening conditions resulting from the utilization of this particular plant as a remedy.
A male Caucasian presented to the ER with complaints of troubled breathing and retrosternal discomfort that started a few hours before arriving at the ER. The patient’s medical history revealed the use of Ecballium elaterium extract. Clinical examination confirmed severe uvular edema and hypoxemia. Administration of oxygen and IV drugs (Hydrocortisone) relieved the symptoms and improved the patient’s condition. After a 24-hour hospitalization the patient was discharged without further complaints.
The use of Ecballium elaterium extract as a remedy can cause severe adverse effects that should not be ignored. Uvular edema is one of the most common and can lead, as shown above, to hypoxemia, which is a potentially life-threatening condition.
Ecballium elaterium; uvular edema; hypoxemia; allergic reaction; toxic effect
Obstructive sleep apnea is an underrecognized and underdiagnosed medical condition, with a myriad of negative consequences on patients' health and society as a whole. Symptoms include daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, and restless sleep. While the “gold standard” of diagnosis is by polysomnography, a detailed history and focused physical examination may help uncover previously undiagnosed cases. Undetected obstructive sleep apnea can lead to hypertension, heart disease, depression, and even death. Several modalities exist for treating obstructive sleep apnea, including continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliances, and several surgical procedures. However, conservative approaches, such as weight loss and alcohol and tobacco cessation, are also strongly encouraged in the patient with obstructive sleep apnea. With increased awareness, both the medical community and society as a whole can begin to address this disease and help relieve the negative sequelae that result from it.
Apnea; continuous positive airway pressure; polysomnography; snoring; uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
OBJECTIVE: To review the need for primary care physicians to screen for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Literature was reviewed via MEDLINE from 1993 to 2000, inclusive, using the search term "sleep apnea" combined with "epidemiology," "outcome," and "diagnosis and treatment." Citations in this review favour more recent, well controlled and randomized studies, but findings of pilot studies are included where other research is unavailable. MAIN MESSAGE: Obstructive sleep apnea is a disorder with serious medical, socioeconomic, and psychological morbidity, yet most patients with OSA remain undetected. Primary care physicians have a vital role in screening for these patients because diagnosis can be made only through overnight (polysomnographic) studies at sleep clinics. Physicians should consider symptoms of excessive or loud snoring, complaints of daytime sleepiness or fatigue, complaints of unrefreshing sleep, and an excess of weight or body fat distribution in the neck or upper chest area as possible indications of untreated OSA. CONCLUSION: Current research findings indicate that treating OSA patients substantially lowers morbidity and mortality rates and reduces health care costs. Primary care physicians need more information about screening for patients with OSA to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of those with the condition.
Most patients with obstructive sleep apnea have increased pharyngeal collapsibility (defined in the present study as an increased lung volume dependence of pharyngeal area), which predisposes them to upper airway occlusion during sleep. However, there are patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea who have low-normal pharyngeal collapsibility. The factors leading to nocturnal upper airway obstruction in such patients have not been ascertained. We studied 10 overweight male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea and low-normal pharyngeal collapsibility to determine the site of upper airway pathology in these patients. We found that all 10 patients exhibited paradoxical inspiratory narrowing of the glottis during quiet tidal breathing. This phenomenon was not observed in a matched group of 10 snoring, nonapneic male controls. We conclude that paradoxical glottic narrowing may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of upper airway obstruction in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea who have low-normal pharyngeal collapsibility.
The incidence of snoring and sleepiness is known to increase during pregnancy, and this might impact maternal health and obstetric outcome. However, the association between snoring and sleepiness during pregnancy is not fully understood. This study was aimed at investigating the development of snoring during pregnancy and prospectively assessing if there is an association between snoring and sleepiness or adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, mode of delivery, and fetal complications.
Consecutively recruited pregnant women (n = 500) received a questionnaire concerning snoring and sleep at the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who had rated their frequency of snoring at both occasions (n = 340) were divided into subgroups according to the development of snoring they reported and included in the subsequent analyses. Additional medical data were collected from the medical records.
The frequency of snoring was 7.9% in the 1st trimester and increased to 21.2% in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who snored already in early pregnancy had significantly higher baseline BMI (p = 0.001) than the women who never snored, but snoring was not associated with the magnitude of weight gain during pregnancy. Snoring women were more likely to experience edema in late pregnancy than the non-snorers. Women who started to snore during pregnancy had higher Epworth Sleepiness Scores than the non snorers in both early and late pregnancy. No significant association between obstetric outcome and snoring was found.
Snoring does increase during pregnancy, and this increase is associated with sleepiness, higher BMI at the start of pregnancy and higher prevalence of edema, but not with weight gain.
Pregnancy; Snoring; Sleepiness; Epworth sleepiness score; Body mass index; Edema; Pregnancy outcome