The Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR) is shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring situation dental anxiety in adults. The ISAR demonstrates differences that are known or expected between various population subgroups. Thus, significantly higher scores, indicating greater levels of anxiety, are reported by women compared with men; by hospital clinic patients compared with private practice patients; by occasional compared with regular users of dental care; by those with lower educational levels; and by those patients undergoing exodontia compared with patients having other dental procedures. Younger adults also report significantly higher anxiety scores during treatment than older adults. The ISAR is also significantly associated with other measures of anxiety and pain, and with a measure of dentistrated difficulty of extraction. Reliability is assessed favorably and present-time administration is found to improve ISAR accuracy over its retrospective use.
As increasing attention is paid to disparities in oral health care, cross-cultural means for assessing dental fear, a significant barrier to dental care, are in high demand. There is, however, a surprising shortage of Spanish-language dental fear measures in the literature, despite evidence of dental fear and avoidance in Spanish-speaking populations. The goals of the current series of studies were to develop and validate a Spanish-language version of the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). Magnitude estimation, a technique in which participants are asked to assign a number to indicate the perceived intensity of a stimulus or phrase, was used to compare the Spanish ISAR to the original English ISAR during the development studies. As a result of the 4 initial development studies, modifications were made to both the Spanish and English scales. Once 2 seemingly equivalent scales were established, validation studies were completed with native Spanish- and English-speaking dental patients. The results suggest that both the Spanish and modified English ISAR scales are valid measures of state anxiety associated with dental treatment. Additionally, the results of these studies highlight the importance of thoroughly testing translated measures to ensure they are accurately assessing that which they purport to measure.
Dental anxiety; Psychometrics; Visual analog scale; Translating
Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.
math anxiety; mathematics achievement; early math learning; math anxiety assessment
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction with out of hours care suitable for large scale service evaluation. DESIGN: Focus group meetings and semistructured interviews with patients to identify issues of importance to patients and possible questionnaire items; interviews and two pilot studies to test and identify new questionnaire items; modification or removal of items to eliminate ambiguity and reduce non-response and skewed responses; questionnaire survey of out of hours care. SETTING: Greater Manchester and Leicester. SUBJECTS: 11 general practice patients participated in the focus groups and 28 in the semistructured interviews; 41 in the preliminary interviews; 41 and 378 in the postal pilots; and 1466 in the survey of out of hours care. RESULTS: A 32 item questionnaire was developed. Component analysis indicated seven scales (satisfaction with communication and management, doctor's attitude, continuity of care, delay until visit, access to out of hours care, initial contact person, telephone advice) related to overall satisfaction and containing issues identified as important to patients. Levels of reliability were satisfactory, Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient exceeding 0.60 for all scales. CONCLUSION: A reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction has been developed, suitable for large scale evaluation of out of hours care.
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument to measure psychological morbidity in cancer patients. This study aimed to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the HADS.
The English language version of the HADS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 167 breast cancer patients and statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the HADS.
In general the Iranian version of the HADS was found to be acceptable to almost all patients (99%). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) has been found to be 0.78 for the HADS anxiety sub-scale and 0.86 for the HADS depression sub-scale. Validity as performed using known groups comparison analysis showed satisfactory results. Both anxiety and depression sub-scales discriminated well between sub-groups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their disease stage.
This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable, a reliable and valid measure of psychological distress among cancer patients.
Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context.
We examined the structural, convergent, and divergent validity and the reliability of the DS14 in the Ukrainian setting.
Healthy Ukrainian respondents (n = 250) completed the DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. A subsample (n = 57) completed the DS14 again after 4 weeks.
The prevalence of Type D personality was 22.4%. The two-factor structure and the validity of the DS14 were confirmed. The DS14 subscales were internally consistent (Cronbach’s α = 0.86/0.71; mean inter-item correlation = 0.48/0.27) and stable over a 4-week period (r = 0.85/0.63). Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on anxiety (p < 0.001), depressive symptoms (p < 0.001), and negative affect (p < 0.001), and lower scores on positive affect (p < 0.001) compared to non-Type D individuals.
Preliminary evidence suggests that the Ukrainian DS14 is a valid and reliable measure. Future studies are warranted to test the utility of the scale in cardiac patients in the Ukraine, including whether Type D also predicts adverse health outcomes beyond the boundaries of Western Europe.
Anxiety; Cross-cultural validity; Depression; Positive affect; Type D personality
The objective of this study was to develop a semantically labeled hedonic scale (LHS) that would yield ratio-level data on the magnitude of liking/disliking of sensation equivalent to that produced by magnitude estimation (ME). The LHS was constructed by having 49 subjects who were trained in ME rate the semantic magnitudes of 10 common hedonic descriptors within a broad context of imagined hedonic experiences that included tastes and flavors. The resulting bipolar scale is statistically symmetrical around neutral and has a unique semantic structure. The LHS was evaluated quantitatively by comparing it with ME and the 9-point hedonic scale. The LHS yielded nearly identical ratings to those obtained using ME, which implies that its semantic labels are valid and that it produces ratio-level data equivalent to ME. Analyses of variance conducted on the hedonic ratings from the LHS and the 9-point scale gave similar results, but the LHS showed much greater resistance to ceiling effects and yielded normally distributed data, whereas the 9-point scale did not. These results indicate that the LHS has significant semantic, quantitative, and statistical advantages over the 9-point hedonic scale.
category-ratio scale; labeled hedonic scale; magnitude estimation; 9-point hedonic scale
Objective: Preoperative anxiety influences the result of the treatment in patients. To assess preoperative anxiety the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)  was developed. The APAIS measures anxiety and the need-for-information with 6 items, with good reliability and validity. This article presents the first test of the German version of this screening instrument.
Methods: The German version of the APAIS was tested on 68 patients questioned before surgery on the lower extremities in the Orthopaedic Department of a University Hospital.
From 68 patients, 47 (69%) were female and the average age was 55 years. Besides the APAIS, several additional questionnaires with similar or divergent content were administered for testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the APAIS (HADS, SCL-9-K, KASA, COSS, STOA).
Results: The two scales anxiety and need-for-information could be replicated by a factor analysis and had high reliability (anxiety: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.92; need-for-information: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.86). As expected the scales of the APAIS correlated highly with different standard questionnaires which measure anxiety (KASA, STOA) and low with questionnaires of divergent contents (HADS depression, COSS). The APAIS-scales are independent of sex, age or previous surgeries. Patients with a higher need-for-information show higher anxiety (r=0.59) prior to surgery.
Conclusions: During its first trial the German version of the APAIS proved to be a reliable and valid instrument. Furthermore, it is a good screening instrument to assess preoperative anxiety and need-for-information in clinical practice, especially due to its brevity. In further studies the predictive validity has to be examined in large heterogeneous samples.
preoperative anxiety; assessment; Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); validity; reliability
While theory and practice of sport have much to say about fear, stress and anxiety, they have little to say about courage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a Sport Courage Scale. Data were collected from two groups of male and female athletes aged from 13 to 22 in different individual and team sports. The first set of data (N = 380) was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 388) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses revealed a 5-factor structure of Sport Courage Scale that supported factorial validity and reliability of scale scores. These factors were labelled: “Determination”, “Mastery”, “Assertiveness”, “Venturesome”, and “Self-Sacrifice Behaviour”. Finally, evidence of test-retest reliability of scale scores was supported based on responses from 75 athletes. However, more research is needed to further improve the Sport Courage Scale.
courage; sport; scale development; risk
The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcriptional regulator of many genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and excretion. Reliable prediction of high affinity binders with this receptor would be valuable for pharmaceutical drug discovery to predict potential toxicological responses
Materials and Methods
Computational models were developed and validated for a dataset consisting of human PXR (PXR) activators and non-activators. We used support vector machine (SVM) algorithms with molecular descriptors derived from two sources, Shape Signatures and the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) application software. We also employed the molecular docking program GOLD in which the GoldScore method was supplemented with other scoring functions to improve docking results.
The overall test set prediction accuracy for PXR activators with SVM was 72% to 81%. This indicates that molecular shape descriptors are useful in classification of compounds binding to this receptor. The best docking prediction accuracy (61%) was obtained using 1D Shape Signature descriptors as a weighting factor to the GoldScore. By pooling the available human PXR data sets we revealed those molecular features that are associated with human PXR activators.
These combined computational approaches using molecular shape information may assist scientists to more confidently identify PXR activators.
docking; hybrid methods; machine learning; pregnane X receptor; shape signatures descriptors; support vector machine
The SPAN, which is acronym standing for its four components: Startle, Physiological arousal, Anger, and Numbness, is a short post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening scale. This study sought to develop and validate a Korean version of the SPAN (SPAN-K).
Materials and Methods
Ninety-three PTSD patients (PTSD group), 73 patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (psychiatric control group), and 88 healthy participants (normal control group) were recruited for this study. Participants completed a variety of psychiatric assessments including the SPAN-K, the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability values for the SPAN-K were both 0.80. Mean SPAN-K scores were 10.06 for the PTSD group, 4.94 for the psychiatric control group, and 1.42 for the normal control group. With respect to concurrent validity, correlation coefficients were 0.87 for SPAN-K vs. CAPS total scores (p<0.001) and 0.86 for SPAN-K vs. DTS scores (p<0.001). Additionally, correlation coefficients were 0.31 and 0.42 for SPAN-K vs. STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of SPAN-K showed good diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87. The SPAN-K showed the highest efficiency at a cutoff score of 7, with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.81, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.88, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.73.
These results suggest that the SPAN-K had good psychometric properties and may be a useful instrument for rapid screening of PTSD patients.
PTSD; reliability; screening; SPAN; validity
Dyspnoea is a debilitating and distressing symptom that is reflected in different verbal descriptors. Evidence suggests that dyspnoea, like pain perception, consists of sensory quality and affective components. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument that measures overall dyspnoea severity using descriptors that reflect its different aspects.
81 dyspnoea descriptors were administered to 123 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 129 with interstitial lung disease and 106 with chronic heart failure. These were reduced to 34 items using hierarchical methods. Rasch analysis informed decisions regarding further item removal and fit to the unidimensional model. Principal component analysis (PCA) explored the underlying structure of the final item set. Validity and reliability of the new instrument were further assessed in a separate group of 53 patients with COPD.
After removal of items with hierarchical methods (n = 47) and items that failed to fit the Rasch model (n = 22), 12 were retained. The “Dyspnoea-12” had good internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.9) and fit to the Rasch model (χ2 p = 0.08). Items patterned into two groups called “physical”(n = 7) and “affective”(n = 5). In the separate validation study, Dyspnoea-12 correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety r = 0.51; depression r = 0.44, p<0.001, respectively), 6-minute walk distance (r = −0.38, p<0.01) and MRC (Medical Research Council) grade (r = 0.48, p<0.01), and had good stability over time (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9, p<0.001).
Dyspnoea-12 fulfills modern psychometric requirements for measurement. It provides a global score of breathlessness severity that incorporates both “physical” and “affective” aspects, and can measure dyspnoea in a variety of diseases.
The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings were replicated controlling for conceptually related variables, and anxiety interacted with anxiety response styles to predict greater depressive symptoms. In Study 3, anxiety response styles moderated the prospective association between anxiety and later depression in a generalized anxiety disorder sample. Results support a role for anxiety response styles in anxiety-depression co-occurrence, and show that hopeless/ruminative anxiety response styles can be measured with high reliability and convergent and divergent validity.
Depression; Anxiety; Comorbidity; Anxious rumination; Hopelessness; Response styles
This investigation examined the validity of newly developed Adult OMNI Elliptical Ergometer Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scales. Sixty men and women performed a graded exercise test on an elliptical ergometer. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded each stage from the Borg 15 Category Scale and two different OMNI scales. One scale employed an elliptical ergometer format of the OMNI Picture System of Perceived Exertion. The second scale modified verbal, numerical, and pictorial descriptors at the low end of the response range. Concurrent and construct validity were established by the positive relation between ratings of perceived exertion from each OMNI scale with VO2, HR and Borg Scale ratings of perceived exertion (men, r = .94–.97; women, r = .93–.98). Validity was established for both OMNI scales, indicating either metric can be used to estimate ratings of perceived exertion during partial weight bearing exercise.
A phenotype recognition model was developed for high throughput screening (HTS) of engineered Nano-Materials (eNMs) toxicity using zebrafish embryo developmental response classified, from automatically captured images and without manual manipulation of zebrafish positioning, by three basic phenotypes (i.e., hatched, unhatched, and dead). The recognition model was built with a set of vectorial descriptors providing image color and texture information. The best performing model was attained with three image descriptors (color histogram, representative color, and color layout) identified as most suitable from an initial pool of six descriptors. This model had an average recognition accuracy of 97.40±0.95% in a 10-fold cross-validation and 93.75% in a stress test of low quality zebrafish images. The present work has shown that a phenotyping model can be developed with accurate recognition ability suitable for zebrafish-based HTS assays. Although the present methodology was successfully demonstrated for only three basic zebrafish embryonic phenotypes, it can be readily adapted to incorporate more subtle phenotypes.
Recently, reliable and valid methods of assessing fear of death have been developed. In this study, three well established questionnaires (the Threat Index, the Death Anxiety Scale and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale) were used to assess and compare fear of death in a group of physicians (n = 30) with a group of non-physicians (n = 30). T-tests and hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed no significant differences between physicians' and non-physicians' fear of death as measured by the Threat Index and Templer's Death Anxiety Scale. The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale revealed that physicians were less fearful of death. More specifically, physicians demonstrated less fear on the Collett-Lester subscales, `fear of dying of self' and `fear of dying of others', than did non-physicians. These findings and those of earlier, contradictory research, are discussed.
Among adults, anxiety related to asthma has been acknowledged to influence asthma self-management. However, it has not been addressed in pediatric samples and there have been no measures developed to assess asthma-related anxiety in youth or parents. The objective of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of novel instruments assessing asthma-related anxiety: the Youth Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale (YAAS) and Parent Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale (PAAS). Scale items were analyzed for content validity. We determined the factor structure using exploratory factor analysis and tested the scales' psychometric properties with 285 Hispanic and African American early adolescents with uncontrolled asthma (mean age=12.8) and their parents (n=230) who participated in a larger randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an asthma intervention; control group families (134 youth and 103 parents) provided follow-up data to assess temporal stability. Both the YAAS and PAAS contained 2 factors with Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.90. The 2 factors, anxiety about asthma severity and about disease-related restrictions, were highly correlated within each measure. The measures displayed content and construct validity and demonstrated moderate temporal stability over 2–3 months (range: 0.36–0.42). The YAAS and PAAS have adequate psychometric properties and can meaningfully contribute to the assessment of asthma-related anxiety in adolescents and their parents, filling a clinical need in this population.
A set of benzophenone derivatives was evaluated for the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice and the mean survival time of mice for all the compounds was determined. The QSAR analysis was carried out for the fourteen benzophenone derivatives using different physicochemical descriptors. The multiple linear regression analysis was used to correlate the physicochemical descriptors with the antimalarial activity of the benzophenone derivatives from the training set and the best QSAR model was developed, which was further used to predict the antimalarial activity of other compounds from the class of benzophenones. To confirm the predictivity of the best QSAR model, a new set (test set) of six compounds was designed, synthesized and evaluated for the antimalarial activity. A good correlation between the experimental and predicted antimalarial activities was obtained for the test set compounds in the validation procedure, indicating the high predictivity of the developed QSAR model. Five benzophenone derivatives, which showed good antimalarial activity, were further studied for their drug-likeliness characteristic and per cent oral absorption using software “QikProp”. It was observed that all the five benzophenone derivatives were found to be good drug candidates and showed good oral absorption.
Antimalarial activity; benzophenone derivatives; physicochemical descriptors; QSAR; multiple linear regression analysis
In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS) anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA) test, the digital rectal examination (DRE), and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D) using two samples in different settings.
We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public).
The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics.
Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.
This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multidimensional Health Profile–Health Functioning Index (MHP-H), a 69-item self-report instrument designed to assess a variety of behaviors, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs presumed to influence health status and the pursuit of lay and professional health care. The MHP-H briefly measures adult health history, health habits, health care utilization, health beliefs and attitudes, and response to illness (help-seeking behaviors). A national sample of adults (N = 673) was assessed, comprising 3 age groupings (18–32, 33–50, and 51–89) crossed with gender and then further subdivided into several subsamples for purposes of reliability and validity assessment. In addition, a group of spouse “key informants” was also recruited. Preliminary validation of single-item indicators as well as confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item scales was achieved. The present findings support the psychometric and practical utility of the MHP-H and warrant its use by health psychologists in a variety of research and applied settings.
health behaviors; health attitudes; help seeking; national sampling; self-regulation
The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and their association with sociodemographic factors in Pakistan.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among people visiting Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. The point prevalence of anxiety amongst the sample population, which comprised of patients and their attendants, excluding all health care personnel, was assessed using the validated Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The questionnaire was administered to 423 people. Descriptive statistics were performed for mean scores and proportions.
The mean anxiety score of the population was 5.7 ± 3.86. About 28.3% had borderline or pathological anxiety. The factors found to be independently predicted with anxiety were, female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.36, p = 0.01); physical illness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.64, p = 0.026); and psychiatric illness (OR = 1.176, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.048). In the final multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2, 95% CI 1.28–3.22) and physical illness (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.97–2.48) were found to be significant.
Further studies via nationally representative surveys need to be undertaken to fully grasp the scope of this emerging public health issue in Pakistan.
Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent.
We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH) scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153). The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency.
Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and specificity (79%). However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71%) and poor sensitivity for boys (50%).
The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.
In an educational setting, anxiety is often experienced by students when taking a test; which is called ‘test anxiety’. This study intends to investigate the effect of doing pranayama on test anxiety and test performance.
Materials and Methods:
The participants consisted of 107 MA students who were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The students of the experimental group practiced pranayama for one full semester. Sarason's (1980) test anxiety scale was given to both the control and experimental groups in the final session, before taking the examination.
After practicing pranayama, only 33% of the participants of the experimental group experienced high test anxiety, while this percentage was nearly twice in the control group (66.7%). Furthermore, the result of the t-test for test anxiety and test performance showed that the students of the experimental group had significantly lower mean test anxiety scores (M = 16.00) as compared to the students of the control group (M = 19.31). Also, the test performance scores of the experimental group were higher when compared with the control group. There was a negative correlation between the final test performance and test anxiety (r = −.204, P < .05).
Pranayama seems to have a significant positive effect on test anxiety and test performance. It could be used as an important technique by students prior to their examinations, to reduce their test anxiety and increase their test performance.
Pranayama; test anxiety; test performance
We report on the development of a novel location-based assessment of sensory symptoms in cancer (L-BASIC) instrument, and its initial estimates of reliability and validity. L-BASIC is structured so that patients provide a numeric score and an adjectival description for any sensory symptom, including both pain and neuropathic sensations, present in each of ten predefined body areas. Ninety-seven patients completed the baseline questionnaire; 39 completed the questionnaire on two occasions. A mean of 3.5 body parts was scored per patient. On average, 2.7 (of 11) descriptor categories were used per body part. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.74) for a 4-item scale that combined location-specific metrics. Temporal stability was adequate (κ>0.50 and r>0.60 for categorical and continuous variables, respectively) among patients without observed or reported subjective change in clinical status between L-BASIC administrations. We compared our 4-item scale against scores obtained from validated pain and quality-of-life (QOL) scales, and as expected, correlations were higher for pain-related than for QOL-related items. We detected differences in L-BASIC responses among patients with cancer-related head or neck pain, chemotherapy-related neuropathy and breast cancer-related lymphedema. We conclude that L-BASIC provides internally consistent and temporally stable responses, while acknowledging that further refinement and testing of this novel instrument are necessary. We anticipate that future versions of L-BASIC will provide reliable and valid syndrome-specific measurement of defined clinical pain and symptom constructs in the cancer population, which may be of particular value in assessing treatment response in patients with multiple such complaints.
Cancer pain; reliability; quality of life; location; neuropathy; description
The objective of this study was to develop the Somatic Stress Response Scale (SSRS), and then to use the scale in clinical practice. A preliminary survey was conducted using 109 healthy adults to obtain somatic stress responses. Then, 215 healthy subjects completed a preliminary questionnaire. A comparison was made regarding the somatic stress responses among 191 patients (71 with anxiety disorders, 73 with depressive disorders and 47 with somatoform disorders) and 215 healthy subjects. Factor analysis of the SSRS yielded five subscales: the cardiorespiratory response, somatic sensitivity, gastrointestinal response, general somatic response and genitourinary response subscales. The test-retest reliability for the five subscales and the total score was significantly high, ranging from .86 to .94. The Cronbach's α for the five subscales ranged from .72 to .92, and was .95 for the total score. By correlating the five subscales and the total score of the SSRS with the somatization subscale scores of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), convergent validity was calculated. The correlations were all at significant levels. Each of the disorder groups was significantly higher in scores of the cardiorespiratory response, gastrointestinal response, general somatic response and genitourinary response subscale, and in the total SSRS score than the healthy group. Only the depressive disorder group scored significantly higher on the somatic sensitivity subscale than the healthy group, and they also scored significantly higher on the genitourinary response subscale than the anxiety disorder group did. These results suggest that the SSRS is highly reliable and valid, and that it can be effectively utilized as a measure for research of the somatic symptoms related to stress. It also implies that somatic sensitivity and genitourinary responses are associated with depressive disorders.
Somatic stress response scale; reliability; validity; anxiety disorders; depressive disorder; somatoform disorders