Parathyroid hormone- (PTH-) related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor, the PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), are widely expressed in the kidney, where PTHrP exerts a modulatory action on renal function. PTHrP is known to be upregulated in several experimental nephropathies such as acute renal failure (ARF), obstructive nephropathy (ON) as well as diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this paper, we will discuss the functional consequences of chronic PTHrP overexpression in the damaged kidney using a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing PTHrP in the renal proximal tubule. In both ARF and ON, PTHrP displays proinflammatory and profibrogenic actions including the induction of epithelia to mesenquima transition. Moreover, PTHrP participates in the mechanisms of renal hypertrophy as well as proteinuria in experimental DN. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, appears to be, at least in part, responsible for endogenous PTHrP upregulation in these pathophysiological settings. These findings provide novel insights into the well-known protective effects of Ang II antagonists in renal diseases, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been localized in human colon cancer tissue and cell lines. We have previously shown that PTHrP increases colon cancer cell proliferation, extracellular matrix adhesion, and cell-surface integrin α6β4 expression. Since cancer cell migration, invasion, and survival are crucial components of metastasis, and colon cancer has a high metastatic potential, in this study we used the human colon cancer cell line LoVo as a model system to study the effects of PTHrP on these parameters. PTHrP expression was modulated by stable transfection with a construct expressing PTHrP (−36 to +139). We report that PTHrP increases cell migration, invasion, and survival. PTHrP altered cell morphology, with PTHrP-overexpressing cells exhibiting increased spreading and several long protrusions. PTHrP also increased the steady-state mRNA levels of the integrin α6 and β4 subunits, indicating a direct and/or indirect effect of PTHrP on the transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional regulation of integrin α6 and β4 expression. Integrin α6β4 activates the phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway, leading to glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) deactivation. PTHrP overexpression also led to an increase in active Akt and inactive GSK-3 levels, indicating that the PTHrP-mediated upregulation of integrin α6β4 expression may activate the PI3-K pathway, resulting in increased cell survival, migration and invasion.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein; integrin α6β4; apoptosis; glycogen synthase kinase-3; laminin
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed by human colon cancer tissue and cell lines. Expression of PTHrP and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway components correlates with the severity of colon carcinoma. Here we observed a positive effect of endogenous PTHrP on LoVo (human colon cancer) cell proliferation, migration, invasion, integrin α6 and β4 expression, and p-Akt levels. There was a direct correlation between PTHrP expression and anchorage-independent cell growth. PTHrP significantly increased xenograft growth; tumors from PTHrP-overexpressing cells showed increased expression of integrins α6 and β4, and PI3-K pathway components. The higher expression of PTHrP in human colon cancer adenocarcinoma vs. normal colonic mucosa was accompanied by increased integrin α6 and β4 levels. Elevated PTHrP expression in colon cancer may thus upregulate integrin α6β4 expression, with consequent PI3-K activation. Targeting PTHrP might result in effective inhibition of tumor growth, migration and invasion.
PTHrP; integrin α6β4; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; colon cancer
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which is responsible for producing hypercalcemia in patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, has recently been identified in several normal tissues. Because PTHrP, like parathyroid hormone (PTH), is known to exhibit vasodilatory properties, we investigated the expression and regulation of PTHrP mRNA in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC). We report here that PTHrP mRNA is expressed in SMC and is markedly induced by serum in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Addition of 10% fetal calf serum to serum-deprived, confluent cells, resulted in a marked induction of PTHrP mRNA by 2 h with a peak at 4-6 h. PTHrP was detected in SMC by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay of conditioned medium, and was shown to be up-regulated within 24 h after the addition of serum. The serum induction of PTHrP mRNA was blocked by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide indicating the need for protein synthesis to evoke the serum effect on PTHrP gene transcription. In addition, treatment with dexamethasone, which has been previously shown to reduce the constitutive expression of PTHrP in human cancer cells, also blunted the serum induction of PTHrP mRNA in SMC. Treatment of quiescent cells with the serum mitogens platelet-derived growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-I had no effect on PTHrP, whereas the vasoactive peptides endothelin, norepinephrine and thrombin stimulated PTHrP expression. Exogenous addition of recombinant PTHrP-(1-141) had no significant effect on SMC DNA synthesis as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. In summary, the abundance of PTHrP mRNA and the characteristics of its regulation in SMC suggest a major role for PTHrP as a local modulator in vascular smooth muscle.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) causes hypercalcemia in malignancy. However, the role and regulation of PTHrP in normal physiology is just beginning to be explored. PTHrP is found in the spleen and has several other features common to cytokines. Since endotoxin (LPS) causes many of its effects indirectly by inducing cytokines, studies were undertaken to determine whether LPS might also induce splenic PTHrP expression. LPS (100 ng/mouse) increased splenic PTHrP mRNA levels 3.6-fold in C3H/OuJ mice. This effect was maximal at 2 h and returned to baseline by 4 h. PTHrP peptide levels also increased 3.3-fold in splenic extracts in response to LPS (1 microgram/mouse). Murine TNF-alpha and human IL-1 beta, cytokines that mediate many of the effects of LPS, also increased splenic PTHrP mRNA levels. LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice, which produce minimal amounts of TNF and IL-1 in response to LPS, were resistant to LPS induction of splenic PTHrP mRNA, while TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta readily increased PTHrP mRNA levels in C3H/HeJ mice. Anti-TNF antibody blocked LPS induction of splenic PTHrP mRNA in C3H/OuJ mice by 68%, indicating that TNF is a mediator of the LPS induction of PTHrP levels. In contrast, an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was ineffective. The increase in PTHrP in the spleen during the immune response suggests that PTHrP may play an important role in immune modulation, perhaps by mediating changes in lymphocyte proliferation and/or function.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has a number of
cancer-related actions. While best known for causing hypercalcemia
of malignancy, it also has effects on cancer cell growth,
apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Studying the actions of PTHrP in
human cancer is complicated because there are three isoforms and
many derived peptides. Several peptides are biologically active at
known or presumed cell surface receptors; in addition, the
PTHrP-derived molecules can exert effects at the cell nucleus. To
address this complexity, we studied gene expression in a DU 145
prostate cancer cell line that was stably transfected with control
vector, PTHrP 1-173 and PTHrP 33-173. With this model, regulatory
effects of the amino-terminal portion of PTHrP would result only
from transduction with the full-length molecule, while effects
pertaining to distal sequences would be evident with either
construct. Analysis of the expression profiles by microarrays
demonstrated nonoverlapping groups of differentially expressed
genes. Amino-terminal PTHrP affected groups of genes involved in
apoptosis, prostaglandin and sex steroid metabolism, cell-matrix
interactions, and cell differentiation, while PTHrP 33-173 caused
substantial increases in MHC class I antigen expression. This work
demonstrates the distinct biological actions of the amino-terminus
compared to distal mid-molecule or carboxy-terminal sequences of
PTHrP in prostate carcinoma cells and provides targets for further
study of the malignant process.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is synthesized by diverse tissues, and its processing produces several fragments, each with apparently distinct autocrine and paracrine bioactivities. In bone, PTHrP appears to modulate bone formation in part through promoting osteoblast differentiation. The putative effect of PTH-like and PTH-unrelated fragments of PTHrP on human mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) is not well known. Human MSCs were treated with PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) or both (each at 10 nM) in osteogenic or adipogenic medium, from the start or after 6 days of exposure to the corresponding medium, and the expression of several osteoblastogenic and adipogenic markers was analyzed. PTHrP (1-36) inhibited adipogenesis in MSCs and favoured the expression of osteogenic early markers. The opposite was observed with treatment of MSCs with PTHrP (107-139). Moreover, inhibition of the adipogenic differentiation by PTHrP (1-36) prevailed in the presence of PTHrP (107-139). The PTH/PTHrP type 1 receptor (PTH1R) gene expression was maximum in the earlier and later stages of osteogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. While PTHrP (107-139) did not modify the PTH1R overexpression during adipogenesis, PTHrP (1-36) did inhibit it; an effect which was partially affected by PTHrP (7-34), a PTH1R antagonist, at 1 µM. These findings demonstrate that both PTHrP domains can exert varying effects on human MSCs differentiation. PTHrP (107-139) showed a tendency to favor adipogenesis, while PTHrP (1-36) induced a mild osteogenic effect in these cells, and inhibited their adipocytic commitment. This further supports the potential anabolic action of the latter peptide in humans.
adipogenesis; bone; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenesis; parathyroid hormone-related protein
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed by human colon cancer tissue and cell lines; expression correlates with colon carcinoma severity. PTHrP is synthesized as a prepro isoform and contains two targeting sequences – a signal sequence and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The signal peptide (SP) directs PTHrP to the secretory pathway, where it exerts autocrine/paracrine effects. The NLS directs PTHrP to the nucleus/nucleolus, where it exerts intracrine effects. In this study, we used the human colon cancer cell line LoVo as a model system to study the effects of autocrine/paracrine and intracrine PTHrP action on cell growth and survival, hallmarks of malignant tumor cells. We report that PTHrP increases cell growth and survival, protects cells from serum-starvation-induced apoptosis, and promotes anchorage-independent cell growth via an intracrine pathway. Conversely, autocrine/paracrine PTHrP action decreases cell growth and survival. We also show an inverse relationship between secreted and nuclear PTHrP levels, in that cells overexpressing NLS-deleted PTHrP secrete higher PTHrP levels than those overexpressing the wild-type isoform. Conversely, SP deletion results in higher nuclear PTHrP levels. These observations provide evidence of a link between intracrine PTHrP action and cell growth and survival. Targeting PTHrP production in colon cancer may thus prove therapeutically beneficial.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein; LoVo (colon cancer cells); Apoptosis; Anchorage independence; Signal peptide; Nuclear localization signal
AIM--To assess parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) as a candidate biochemical marker of invasion of the mandible by oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS--Tumour PTHrP concentrations were quantitated by immunoassay, and PTHrP was detected by immunohistochemistry, in a cohort of 24 primary squamous cell carcinomas of the mandible. RESULTS--PTHrP was identified in all tumours examined, but no correlation was found between scores of the intensity and/or consistency of staining or tumour PTHrP concentrations and the histological classification of tumour invasion. CONCLUSION--Although PTHrP was present in all squamous tumours studied, there was no correlation between PTHrP expression and pattern of tumour invasion. However, tumour derived PTHrP may act locally to influence tumour growth and differentiation and resorption of bone.
Objective: To investigate immunolocalisation of parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in two sequential models of experimental cartilage damage (inflammatory and degenerative) in order to elucidate differences in chondrocyte response to the disease.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum to the N-terminal domain of PTHrP was used to detect this protein in two different rabbit models sharing progressive cartilage damage: antigen induced arthritis (AIA) and osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to partial medial meniscectomy. Cartilage specimens from early (2 days in AIA; 8 weeks in experimental OA) and late (3 weeks in AIA; 52 weeks in OA) disease were compared.
Results: Cell and matrix PTHrP staining in early AIA and OA was similar to that in controls. Late AIA cartilage showed a significant decrease in PTHrP positive cells and in the cartilage matrix. In contrast, at late OA stages, distinct PTHrP positivity was detected in proliferating cell clones, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining around cartilage damaged areas.
Conclusion: PTHrP staining of hyaline articular cartilage shows a different pattern during progression of each type of arthritis: an overall decrease associated with the inflammatory disease, and an increase in the proliferating chondrocyte clones with degenerative arthritis.
The infiltrated tissues from seven West Indian patients with HTLV-1 positive adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) have been analysed by immunocytochemical techniques for the presence of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a hormonal mediator of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Six of the seven were hypercalcaemic at some stage of the course of their disease. Four of the six evaluable patients showed evidence of specific cellular and extracellular expression of PTHrP protein in neoplastic tissues. This finding suggests that PTHrP may be involved in the production of hypercalcaemia in at least some cases of T cell lymphoma - proof of a causal relationship however must await the demonstration of tissue release of PTHrP resulting in raised circulating hormone levels.
Previously, we showed that expression of a dominant-negative form of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type II receptor in skeletal tissue resulted in increased hypertrophic differentiation in growth plate and articular chondrocytes, suggesting a role for TGF-β in limiting terminal differentiation in vivo. Parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP) has also been demonstrated to regulate chondrocyte differentiation in vivo. Mice with targeted deletion of the PTHrP gene demonstrate increased endochondral bone formation, and misexpression of PTHrP in cartilage results in delayed bone formation due to slowed conversion of proliferative chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Since the development of skeletal elements requires the coordination of signals from several sources, this report tests the hypothesis that TGF-β and PTHrP act in a common signal cascade to regulate endochondral bone formation. Mouse embryonic metatarsal bone rudiments grown in organ culture were used to demonstrate that TGF-β inhibits several stages of endochondral bone formation, including chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation, and matrix mineralization. Treatment with TGF-β1 also stimulated the expression of PTHrP mRNA. PTHrP added to cultures inhibited hypertrophic differentiation and matrix mineralization but did not affect cell proliferation. Furthermore, terminal differentiation was not inhibited by TGF-β in metatarsal rudiments from PTHrP-null embryos; however, growth and matrix mineralization were still inhibited. The data support the model that TGF-β acts upstream of PTHrP to regulate the rate of hypertrophic differentiation and suggest that TGF-β has both PTHrP-dependent and PTHrP-independent effects on endochondral bone formation.
chondrocyte differentiation; skeletal development; perichondrium; organ culture; transforming growth factor β receptors
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a mediator of cellular growth and differentiation as well as a cause of malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. Most of the actions of PTHrP have been attributed to its interaction with a specific cell surface receptor that binds the N-terminal domain of the protein. Here we present evidence that PTHrP promotes some of its cellular effects by translocating to the nucleolus. Localization of transiently expressed PTHrP to the nucleolus was dependent on the presence of a highly basic region at the carboxyl terminus of the molecule that bears homology to nucleolar targeting sequences identified within human retroviral (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1) regulatory proteins. Endogenous PTHrP also localized to the nucleolus in osseous cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, expression of PTHrP in chondrocytic cells (CFK2) delayed apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, and this effect depended on the presence of an intact nucleolar targeting signal. The present findings demonstrate a unique intracellular mode of PTHrP action and a novel mechanism by which this peptide growth factor may modulate programmed cell death.
Using RNA extracted from human tumour samples removed during surgery, we have analysed expression of mRNA for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and for the PTH/PTHrP receptor by RT-PCR in a panel of human breast and colon tumours. All but 1 of 18 breast tumour samples expressed PTHrP, whereas receptor expression was detected in 11 of these. Expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor was found in three out of four metastatic lesions, including one sample in which no receptor was detected in the primary tumour. PTHrP expression was also detected in five colon tumours, and receptor expression detected in two of these. These results demonstrate that PTHrP and the PTHrP receptor are also co-expressed in breast tumours in vivo and provide further evidence that PTHrP may be an important autocrine/paracrine growth factor in breast cancer.
The chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth zone are regulated by the Indian hedgehog (Ihh)-parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) axis. In weight-bearing joints, this growth zone comes to be subdivided by the secondary ossification center into distinct articular and growth cartilage structures. Here, we explored the cells of origin, localization, regulation of expression, and putative functions of Ihh and PTHrP in articular cartilage in the mouse.
We assessed Ihh and PTHrP expression in an allelic PTHrP-lacZ knockin mouse and several versions of PTHrP-null mice. Selected joints were unloaded surgically to examine load-induction of PTHrP and Ihh.
The embryonic growth zone appears to serve as the source of PTHrP-expressing proliferative chondrocytes that populate both the forming articular cartilage and growth plate structures. In articular cartilage, these cells take the form of articular chondrocytes in the mid-zone. In PTHrP-knockout mice, mineralizing chondrocytes encroach upon developing articular cartilage but appear to be prevented from mineralizing the joint space by Ihh-driven surface chondrocyte proliferation. In growing and adult mice, PTHrP expression in articular chondrocytes is load-induced, and unloading is associated with rapid changes in PTHrP expression and articular chondrocyte differentiation.
We conclude that the PTHrP-Ihh axis participates in the maintenance of articular cartilage. Dysregulation of this system might contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis.
BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved vasoactive peptide whose role and regulation in normal physiology remain an enigma. Recently, we demonstrated that low-dose endotoxin (LPS) induces intrasplenic, but not systemic, levels of PTHrP; and that tumor necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is the major mediator of this effect. We have therefore hypothesized that, with higher, lethal doses of endotoxin, PTHrP could be induced in multiple tissues to such a degree that it could contribute to the lethality of septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Northern blot analysis was used to measure PTHrP mRNA levels in vital organs of rats after administration of a near lethal dose (5 mg/250 g) of LPS (or vehicle alone). Plasma levels of PTHrP were also measured by immunoradiometric assay. The ability of the immunoglobulin fraction of two different PTHrP(1-34) antisera to protect from LPS-induced lethality was also studied in mice using survival analysis. RESULTS: In response to a near-lethal dose of endotoxin, PTHrP mRNA levels increased acutely in every vital organ examined (spleen, lung, heart, kidney, and liver). Circulating levels of PTHrP also increased, peaking 2 hr after administration of high-dose endotoxin. Passive immunization of mice with anti-PTHrP(1-34) antibody 6 hr prior to administration of a lethal dose of LPS protected mice from endotoxin-induced death (p < 0.00005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PTHrP belongs to the cascade of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced during lethal endotoxemia that is responsible for the toxic effects of LPS.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed by human prostatic tissues and cancer cell lines. PTHrP enhances tumor cell growth and metastasis in vivo and upregulates pro-invasive integrin α6β4 expression in vitro. Hallmarks of malignant tumor cells include resistance to apoptosis and anchorage-independent cell growth. In this study, we used the human prostate cancer cell lines C4-2 and PC-3 as model systems to study the effects of PTHrP on these processes. We report that PTHrP protects these cells from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and promotes anchorage-independent cell growth via an intracrine pathway. Conversely, autocrine/paracrine PTHrP action increases apoptosis in C4-2 cells and has no effect on apoptosis in PC-3 cells. The intracrine effects of PTHrP on apoptosis are mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway. PTHrP also affects the phosphorylation state of Akt substrates implicated in apoptosis suppression, including glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Bad. The pro-survival effects of PTHrP are accompanied by increases in the ratio of anti- to pro-apoptosis members of the Bcl-2 family and in levels of c-myc. PTHrP also increases NF-κB activity via a PI3-K-dependent pathway. Integrin α6β4 is known to activate PI3-K. Here we also show that knockdown of integrin α6β4 negates the PTHrP-mediated activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Taken together, these observations provide evidence of a link between PTHrP and the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway through integrin α6β4, resulting in the activation of survival pathways. Targeting PTHrP production in prostate cancer may thus prove therapeutically beneficial.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed by human colon cancer tissue and cell lines. Rac1 GTPase enhances colon cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we report a positive correlation between PTHrP expression and Rac1 activity in LoVo (human colon cancer) cells. The positive effects of PTHrP on Rac1 activity and on cell migration and invasion are mediated via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1. Knockdown of integrin α6β4, which is upregulated by PTHrP, negates the PTHrP-mediated increase in Rac1 activation. Integrin α6β4 signals synergistically with growth factor receptors to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway. Chemical inhibition of PI3-K negates the PTHrP-mediated effects on Tiam1 and Rac1 activity. Tumors from PTHrP-overexpressing LoVo cells also show increased expression of Tiam1. Taken together, these observations provide evidence of a link between PTHrP and Rac1 activity through integrin α6β4, resulting in enhanced cell migration and invasion. Targeting PTHrP production in colon cancer may thus prove therapeutically beneficial.
PTHrP; integrin α6β4; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Tiam1; Rac1
Parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) is a secreted factor expressed in almost all normal fetal and adult tissues. It is involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, including serum calcium regulation. PTHrP is also associated with the progression of skeletal metastases, and its dysregulated expression in advanced cancers causes malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Although PTHrP is frequently expressed by breast tumors and other solid cancers, its effects on tumor progression are unclear. Here, we demonstrate in mice pleiotropic involvement of PTHrP in key steps of breast cancer — it influences the initiation and progression of primary tumors and metastases. Pthrp ablation in the mammary epithelium of the PyMT-MMTV breast cancer mouse model caused a delay in primary tumor initiation, inhibited tumor progression, and reduced metastasis to distal sites. Mechanistically, it reduced expression of molecular markers of cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis (factor VIII), antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, cell-cycle progression regulator cyclin D1, and survival factor AKT1. PTHrP also influenced expression of the adhesion factor CXCR4, and coexpression of PTHrP and CXCR4 was crucial for metastatic spread. Importantly, PTHrP-specific neutralizing antibodies slowed the progression and metastasis of human breast cancer xenografts. Our data identify what we believe to be new functions for PTHrP in several key steps of breast cancer and suggest that PTHrP may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a multifunctional protein that is often dysregulated in cancer. The human PTHrP gene is alternatively spliced into three isoforms, each with a unique 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR), encoding 139, 173 and 141 amino acid proteins. The regulation of PTHrP mRNA isoform expression has not been completely elucidated, but it may be affected by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In this study, we examined differences in the PTHrP mRNA isoform expression in two squamous carcinoma cell lines (SCC2/88 and HARA), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and spontaneous human lung cancer with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the effect of TGF-β1 on PTHrP mRNA isoform expression and stability was examined. Cell-type specific expression of PTHrP mRNA isoforms occurred between the various cell lines, normal human lung, and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). PTHrP isoform expression pattern was significantly altered between normal lung tissue and the adjacent lung cancer. In vitro studies revealed that TGF-β1 differentially altered the mRNA steady-state levels and mRNA stability of the PTHrP isoforms. Protein–RNA binding studies identified different proteins binding to the 3′-UTR of the PTHrP isoforms (139) and (141), which may be important in the differential mRNA stability and response to cytokines between the PTHrP isoforms. The data demonstrate that there is cell-type specific expression of PTHrP mRNA isoforms, and disruption of the normal regulation during cancer progression may in part be associated with TGF-β1-induced changes in PTHrP mRNA isoform expression and stability.
This study examined the effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) derived from human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on the tumor growth and osteoblast inhibition. Results revealed that knocking down PTHrP expression in the breast cancer cells strikingly inhibited the formation of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. PTHrP knockdown dramatically decreased the levels of cyclins D1 and A1 proteins and arrested the cell cycle progression at the G1 stage. PTHrP knockdown led to the cleavage of Caspase 8 and induced apoptosis of the tumor cells. Interestingly, knocking down PTHrP increased the levels of Beclin1 and LC3-II and promoted the formation of autophagosomes. Knocking down PTHrP expression significantly reduced the abilities of the breast cancer cells to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found that PTHrP activated its own expression through an autocrine mechanism in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these studies suggest that targeting PTHrP expression in the tumor cells could be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancers, especially those with skeletal metastases.
PTHrP; MDA-MB-231 cell; autophagy; osteoblast; osteoclast; osteolysis
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) acts on the mammary mesenchyme and is required for proper embryonic mammary development. In order to understand PTHrP’s effects on mesenchymal cells, we profiled gene expression in WT and PTHrP−/− mammary buds, and in WT and K14-PTHrP ventral skin at E15.5. By cross-referencing the differences in gene expression between these groups, we identified 35 genes potentially regulated by PTHrP in the mammary mesenchyme, including 6 genes known to be involved in BMP signaling. One of these genes was MMP2. We demonstrated that PTHrP and BMP4 regulate MMP2 gene expression and MMP2 activity in mesenchymal cells. Using mammary bud cultures, we demonstrated that MMP2 acts downstream of PTHrP to stimulate ductal outgrowth. Future studies on the functional role of other genes on this list should expand our knowledge of how PTHrP signaling triggers the onset of ductal outgrowth from the embryonic mammary buds.
parathyroid hormone-related protein; mammary development; ductal morphogenesis; oligonucleotide gene arrays; matrix metalloproteinase; epidermal appendage
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor type 1 (PTH1R) are extensively expressed in the kidney, where they are able to modulate renal function. Renal PTHrP is known to be overexpressed in acute renal injury. Recently, we hypothesized that PTHrP involvement in the mechanisms of renal injury might not be limited to conditions with predominant damage of the renal tubulointerstitium and might be extended to glomerular diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). In experimental DN, the overexpression of both PTHrP and the PTH1R contributes to the development of renal hypertrophy as well as proteinuria. More recent data have shown, for the first time, that PTHrP is upregulated in the kidney from patients with DN. Collectively, animal and human studies have shown that PTHrP acts as an important mediator of diabetic renal cell hypertrophy by a mechanism which involves the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and TGF-β1. Furthermore, angiotensin II (Ang II), a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, appears to be responsible for PTHrP upregulation in these conditions. These findings provide novel insights into the well-known protective effects of Ang II antagonists in renal diseases, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches.
Nearly 70% of breast cancer patients with advanced disease will develop bone metastases. Once established in bone, tumor cells produce factors that cause changes in normal bone remodeling, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). While enhanced expression of PTHrP is known to stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone, the environmental factors driving tumor cells to express PTHrP in the early stages of development of metastatic bone disease are unknown. In this study, we have shown that tumor cells known to metastasize to bone respond to 2D substrates with rigidities comparable to that of the bone microenvironment by increasing expression and production of PTHrP. The cellular response is regulated by Rho-dependent actomyosin contractility mediated by TGF-ß signaling. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) using both pharmacological and genetic approaches decreased PTHrP expression. Furthermore, cells expressing a dominant negative form of the TGF-ß receptor did not respond to substrate rigidity, and inhibition of ROCK decreased PTHrP expression induced by exogenous TGF-ß. These observations suggest a role for the differential rigidity of the mineralized bone microenvironment in early stages of tumor-induced osteolysis, which is especially important in metastatic cancer since many cancers (such as those of the breast and lung) preferentially metastasize to bone.
Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to bone, where they up-regulate their expression of the transcription factor GLI2 and the downstream osteolytic factor parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). The guanosine nucleotide 6-thioguanine (6-TG) inhibits PTHrP expression and blocks osteolytic bone destruction in mice inoculated with bone metastatic cells; however, the mechanism by which 6-TG inhibits PTHrP remains unclear. We hypothesized that 6-TG inhibition of PTHrP is mediated through GLI2 signaling.
Materials and Methods
Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and RWGT2 squamous-cell lung carcinoma cells were treated with 100 μM 6-TG and examined for GLI2 mRNA expression and stability by Q-PCR, promoter activity by luciferase assay, and protein expression by Western blot.
6-TG significantly blocked GLI2 mRNA and protein expression, but did not affect stability. Additionally, 6-TG directly inhibited GLI2 promoter activity, and when cells were transfected with constitutively expressed GLI2, the inhibitory effect of 6-TG on PTHrP expression was abolished.
Taken together, these data indicate that 6-TG regulates PTHrP in part through GLI2 transcription, and therefore the clinical use of 6-TG or other guanosine nucleotides may be a viable therapeutic option in tumor types expressing elevated levels of GLI proteins.
GLI2; PTHrP; osteolysis; breast cancer; 6-thioguanine