FTY720 (fingolimod) is the first oral drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of patients with the relapsing-remitting form of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Evidence suggests that the therapeutic benefit of FTY720 occurs by preventing the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes thereby inhibiting the infiltration of disease-causing lymphocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesized that FTY720 treatment would affect lymphocyte migration to the CNS and influence disease severity in a mouse model of viral-induced neurologic disease.
Mice were infected intracranially with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. Infected animals were treated with increasing doses (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) of FTY720 and morbidity and mortality recorded. Infiltration of inflammatory virus-specific T cells (tetramer staining) into the CNS of FTY720-treated mice was determined using flow cytometry. The effects of FTY720 treatment on virus-specific T cell proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic activity were also determined. The severity of neuroinflammation and demyelination in FTY720-treated mice was examined by flow cytometry and histopathologically, respectively, in the spinal cords of the mice.
Administration of FTY720 to JHMV-infected mice resulted in increased clinical disease severity and mortality. These results correlated with impaired ability to control viral replication (P < 0.05) within the CNS at days 7 and 14 post-infection, which was associated with diminished accumulation of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (P < 0.05) into the CNS. Reduced neuroinflammation in FTY720-treated mice correlated with increased retention of T lymphocytes within draining cervical lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Treatment with FTY720 did not affect virus-specific T cell proliferation, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α or cytolytic activity. FTY720-treated mice exhibited a reduction in the severity of demyelination associated with dampened neuroinflammation.
These findings indicate that FTY720 mutes effective anti-viral immune responses through impacting migration and accumulation of virus-specific T cells within the CNS during acute viral-induced encephalomyelitis. FTY720 treatment reduces the severity of neuroinflammatory-mediated demyelination by restricting the access of disease-causing lymphocytes into the CNS but is not associated with viral recrudescence in this model.
FTY720; S1P receptor; virus; central nervous system; T lymphocytes; demyelination
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) mediated regulation of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs is recognized as the mechanism of FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) efficacy in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this study we describe a novel S1P1 agonist AKP-11, next generation of S1P1 agonist, with immunomodulatory activities in cell culture model and for therapeutic efficacy against an animal model of MS, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) but without the adverse effects observed with FTY720. Like FTY720, AKP-11 bound to S1P1 is internalized and activates intracellular AKT and ERKs cellular signaling pathways. In contrast to FTY720, AKP-11 mediated S1P1 downregulation is independent of sphingosine kinase activity indicating it to be a direct agonist of S1P1. The S1P1 loss and inhibition of lymphocyte egress by FTY720 leads to lymphopenia. In comparison with FTY720, oral administration of AKP-11 caused milder and reversible lymphopenia while providing a similar degree of therapeutic efficacy in the EAE animal model. Consistent with the observed reversible lymphopenia with AKP-11, the S1P1 recycled back to cell membrane in AKP-11 treated cells following its withdrawal, but not with withdrawal of FTY720. Accordingly, a smaller degree of ubiquitination and proteolysis of S1P1 was observed in AKP-11 treated cells as compared to FTY720. Consistent with previous observations, FTY720 treatment is associated with adverse effects of bradycardia and lung vascular leaks in rodents, whereas AKP-11 treatment had undetectable effects on bradycardia and reduced lung vascular leaks as compared to FTY720. Taken together, the data documents that AKP-11 treatment cause milder and reversible lymphopenia with milder adverse effects while maintaining therapeutic efficacy similar to that observed with FTY720, thus indicating therapeutic potential of AKP-11 for treatment of MS and related autoimmune disorders.
Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunomodulating drug that inhibits sphingosine-1-phosphate binding and blocks T-cell egress from lymph nodes. We analyzed the effect of FTY720 on the autoimmune T- and B-cell response in autoimmune arthritis and studied the mechanisms by which it alters the function of T cells.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 humanized mice were immunized with type II collagen (CII) and treated with FTY720 three times per week for 3 weeks. Arthritis was evaluated and autoimmune T- and B-cell responses were measured using proliferation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, HLA-DR tetramers, and flow cytometry. The functional capacity of regulatory T (Treg) cells from FTY720-treated mice was measured using an in vitro suppression assay, and the role of Treg cells in inhibiting arthritis in FTY720-treated mice was evaluated using mice treated with anti-CD25 to deplete Treg cells.
Treatment with FTY720 delayed the onset of arthritis and significantly reduced disease incidence. FTY720 did not prevent the generation of a CII-specific autoimmune T-cell response in vivo. However, as the treatment continued, these T cells became unresponsive to restimulation with antigen in vitro, and this anergic state was reversed by addition of interleukin 2. Measurements of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the lymph nodes revealed that the ratio of Treg to helper T (Th) cells increased twofold in the FTY720-treated mice, and in vitro assays indicated that the regulatory function of these cells was enhanced. That FTY720 stimulation of Treg cells played a major role in arthritis inhibition was demonstrated by a loss of disease inhibition and restitution of the T-cell proliferative function after in vivo depletion of the Treg cells.
While FTY720 affects the recirculation of lymphocytes, its ability to inhibit the development of autoimmune arthritis involves several mechanisms, including the enhancement of Treg cell function by increasing the Treg/Th ratio and increased regulatory function on a per-cell basis. FTY720 did not inhibit the development of the autoimmune T-cell response, but disease inhibition appeared to be mediated by Treg cell–mediated suppression of the CII-specific T cells. These data suggest that specific targeting of Treg cells with FTY720 may be a novel therapy for autoimmunity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0909-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Autoimmunity; Arthritis; Treg; Therapy; FTY720; Fingolimod; Type II collagen
FTY720 (fingolimod) is a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator that was highly effective in Phase II clinical trials for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). FTY720 is phosphorylated in vivo by sphingosine kinase-2 to form the active moiety FTY720-phosphate that binds to four of the five G protein-coupled S1P receptor subtypes. Studies using conditional S1P1 receptor-deficient and sphingosine kinase-deficient mice showed that the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes requires signalling of lymphocytic S1P1 receptors by the endogenous ligand S1P. The S1P mimetic FTY720-phosphate causes internalization and degradation of cell membrane-expressed S1P1, thereby antagonizing S1P action at the receptor. In models of human MS and demyelinating polyneuropathies, functional antagonism of lymphocytic S1P1 slows S1P-driven egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, thereby reducing the numbers of autoaggressive TH17 cells that recirculate via lymph and blood to the central nervous system and the sciatic/ischiatic nerves. Based on its lipophilic nature, FTY720 crosses the blood–brain barrier, and ongoing experiments suggest that the drug also down-modulates S1P1 in neural cells/astrocytes to reduce astrogliosis, a phenomenon associated with neurodegeneration in MS. This may help restore gap-junctional communication of astrocytes with neurons and cells of the blood–brain barrier. Additional effects may result from (down-) modulation of S1P3 in astrocytes and of S1P1 and S1P5 in oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, FTY720 may act through immune-based and central mechanisms to reduce inflammation and support structural restoration of the central nervous system parenchyma. Beyond the autoimmune indications, very recent studies suggest that short-term, low-dose administration of FTY720 could help treat chronic (viral) infections. Differential effects of the drug on the trafficking of naïve, central memory and effector memory T cell subsets are discussed.
S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate); FTY720 (fingolimod); Multiple Sclerosis; autoimmunity; central nervous system; immunotherapy; infection
Background and purpose:
It has been suggested that intratracheal administration of the immunomodulator, FTY720, could have anti-inflammatory effects without causing a decrease in blood lymphocyte counts. However, the receptor responsible for this effect has not been defined.
We have described, in a mouse model of allergen-induced inflammation, the use of proton magnetic resonance imaging to non-invasively assess lung fluid accumulation and inflammation. Here, we used this model to investigate the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FTY720.
When given intranasally, FTY720 (3 and 10 µg·kg−1) inhibited by approximately 50% the allergen-induced accumulation of fluid in the lung detected by magnetic resonance imaging, but had no effect on the cellular inflammation in the airway space or on circulating blood lymphocytes. Inhibition of the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways was only observed at a dose of FTY720 that induced lymphopenia (100 µg·kg−1). Similar results were observed in S1P3-deficient mice. The effect of FTY720 was mimicked by intranasal treatment of wild-type mice with a S1P1-specific agonist, AUY954.
Conclusions and implications:
Thus, in contrast to previously published work, our results suggest that systemic exposure of FTY720 is necessary to obtain an airway anti-inflammatory effect. On the contrary, inhibition of the allergen-induced accumulation of fluid in the lung, via activation of the S1P1 receptor, is obtainable without systemic effects.
sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptor; plasma leakage; magnetic resonance imaging; mouse; asthma
The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) analogue FTY720 is therapeutically efficacious in multiple sclerosis and in the prevention of transplant rejection. It prevents the migration of lymphocytes to sites of pathology by trapping them within the peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches. However, evidence suggests that its clinical use may increase the risk of mucosal infections. We investigated the impact of FTY720 treatment on susceptibility to gastrointestinal infection with the mouse enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. This attaching and effacing bacterium induces a transient bacterial colitis in immunocompetent mice that resembles human infection with pathogenic Escherichia coli. FTY720 treatment induced peripheral blood lymphopenia, trapped lymphocytes in the MLNs, and prevented the clearance of bacteria when mice were infected with luciferase-tagged C. rodentium. FTY720-treated C. rodentium-infected mice had enhanced colonic inflammation, with significantly higher colon mass, colon histopathology, and neutrophil infiltration than vehicle-infected animals. In addition, FTY720-treated infected mice had significantly lower numbers of colonic dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that FTY720-treated infected mice had an impaired innate immune response and a blunted mucosal adaptive immune response, including Th1 cytokines. The data demonstrate that the S1P analogue FTY720 adversely affects the immune response to and clearance of C. rodentium.
Egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid tissues is a complex process in which Gαi-mediated signals play a decisive role. We show here that although FTY720, an agonist of the sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R), induces S1P1R internalization sufficiently in the presence or absence of Gαi2 or Gαi3, the drug blocks egress of wild type (WT) and Gαi3-deficent T cells, but not Gαi2-deficient T cells in both WT and Gαi2-deficient hosts. Intravital imaging of lymph nodes revealed that all three groups of T cells approached and engaged cortical sinusoids similarly in the presence or absence of FTY720. The cells also entered and departed the sinus at an almost identical frequency in the absence of the drug. However, after engagement of the sinus, most WT and Gαi3-deficient T cells retracted and migrated back into the parenchyma in FTY720-treated animals, due to a failure of the cells to establish adhesion on the sinus, whereas Gαi2-deficient T cells adhered firmly on the sinus that prevented their retraction, facilitating their transmigration of the lymphatic endothelial barrier. These data confirm egress of Gαi2−/− T cells independent of S1P-mediated chemotaxis and failure of FTY720 to close lymphatic stromal channels, and argue for the first time that FTY720 induces lymphopenia in part by impairing T cell adhesion to the sinus in a manner dependent on Gαi2.
FTY720 modulates lymphocyte trafficking through blood (PBL) and peripheral lymph nodes (PLN). Treatment with FTY720 causes retention of most blood lymphocytes in PLN. Long-term treatment can slow and/or prevent type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. B and T cells are both affected by FTY720 binding to S1P1 (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1). However, little has been done to elucidate which T cell subsets are differentially affected by FTY720 under healthy conditions, and how this affects disease pathogenesis in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). In healthy C57BL/6J (B6) mice, total CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were diminished by FTY720, but recently activated and memory subsets were spared and a constituted significantly higher percentage of remaining T cells in blood. FTY720 also lowered PBL counts in NOD mice, but less severely than in B6 mice. This is consistent with a different ratio of naïve, activated, and memory cells in NOD mice compared to B6 mice, as well as alterations in S1P1 and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) levels in PBLs and blood of NOD mice, respectively. To address the functional consequences of PBL T cell depletion, we studied the effects of FTY720 on disease progression in a timed adoptive transfer model of T1D. Continuous treatment with FTY720 eliminated T1D if treatment was started before splenocyte transfer. FTY20 treatment started after disease onset slowed disease progression. The inability to fully suppress memory and effector T cell circulation may explain why FTY720 is only partially effective in the NOD adoptive transfer model of T1D.
Type 1 diabetes; T cells; immunomodulation; FTY720; adoptive transfer
The immunomodulating agent FTY720 is a substrate for the sphingosine kinase and the phosphorylated form is able to bind to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. In this study, we show that exposure of renal mesangial cells to phospho-FTY720 leads to a rapid and transient activation of several protein kinase cascades, including the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases. The nonphosphorylated FTY720 also increased MAPK phosphorylation, but with a reduced potency and a more delayed time course. In addition, phospho-FTY720 and FTY720 are able to increase phosphorylation of Smad proteins which are classical members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling device, thus suggesting a crosstalk between FTY720 and TGF-β signalling.Pretreatment with the S1P3 receptor antagonist suramin inhibits FTY720 and phospho-FTY720-induced Smad phosphorylation, whereas pertussis toxin pretreatment, which blocks Gi/0 proteins, has no effect on Smad phosphorylation.Since TGF-β is a potent profibrotic cytokine in mesangial cells and upregulates the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and collagen as important hallmarks in the fibrotic sequelae, we investigated whether FTY720 and phospho-FTY720 are able to mimic these effects of TGF-β. Indeed, FTY720 and phospho-FTY720 markedly upregulate CTGF and collagen type IV protein expressions. In addition, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 is transcriptionally activated by FTY720, whereas cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 is down-regulated by FTY720.Depletion of the TGF-β receptor type II by the siRNA transfection technique blocks not only Smad phosphorylation but also CTGF upregulation. Similarly, Smad-4 depletion by siRNA transfection also abrogates CTGF upregulation induced by FTY720 and phospho-FTY720.In summary, our data show that FTY720 and phospho-FTY720 not only activate the Smad signalling cascade in mesangial cells, but also upregulate the expression of CTGF and collagen. These findings suggest that FTY720 may have additional effects besides the established immunomodulatory action and, importantly, a profibrotic activity has to be considered in future experimental approaches.
FTY720; mesangial cell; Smad; TGF-β2; CTGF; collagen
FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™), a structural analog of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is the first oral drug approved for treatment the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS), and its efficacy has been related to induced lymphopenia and consequent immunosuppression via modulation of S1P1 receptors (S1P1R). However, due to its lipophilic nature, FTY720 crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) and could act directly on neural cells. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of FTY720 as a neuroprotective agent using in vitro and in vivo models of excitotoxic neuronal death and examined if FTY720 exerts a direct action on neurons, or/and an indirect modulation of inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection.
Primary neuronal and organotypic cortical cultures were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to induce excitotoxic cell death (measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay or propidium iodide uptake, respectively). The effects of FTY720 treatment (10, 100 and 1,000 nM) on neuronal survival were examined. As an in vivo model of neuronal death and inflammation, we used intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of kainic acid (KA; 0.5 μg/2 μl) in Sprague–Dawley rats. FTY720 was applied icv (1 μg/2 μl), together with KA, plus intraperitoneally (ip; 1 mg/kg) 24 h before, and daily, until sacrifice 3 days after icv. Rats were evaluated for neurological score, neuronal loss in CA3 hippocampal region and activation of microglia at the lesion site. In addition, we tested FTY720 as a modulator of microglia responses using microglial cell cultures activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its effects in stress signalling pathways using western blotting for p38 and JNK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).
FTY720 was able to reduce excitotoxic neuronal death in vitro. Moreover, in vivo repeated FTY720 administration attenuated KA-induced neurodegeneration and microgliosis at the CA3 lesion site. Furthermore, FTY720 negatively modulates p38 MAPK in LPS-activated microglia, whereas it had no effect on JNK1/2 activation.
These data support a role for FTY720 as a neuroprotective agent against excitotoxin-induced neuronal death and as a negative modulator of neuroinflammation by targeting the p38 MAPK stress signalling pathway in microglia.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12974-015-0308-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
FTY720; Neurons; NMDA; Kainic acid; Neuroinflammation; Microglia; LPS
FTY720, an analogue of sphingosine-1-phosphate, is cardioprotective during acute injury. Whether long-term FTY720 affords cardioprotection is unknown. Here we report the effects of oral FTY720 on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in HypoE mice deficient in SR-BI receptor expression (ApoeR61h/h/SRB1–/– mice), a model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. We added FTY720 (0.3mg/kg/day) to the drinking water of C57BL/6J mice. After ex vivo cardiac I/R injury these mice had significantly improved left ventricular (LV) developed pressure and reduced infarct size compared with controls. Subsequently, ApoeR61h/h/SRB1–/– mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks were treated or not with oral FTY720 (0.05mg/kg/day). This sharply reduced mortality (P<0.02) and resulted in better LV function and less LV remodeling compared with controls without reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Oral FTY720 reduced the number of blood lymphocytes and increased the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells (Tregs) in the circulation, spleen and lymph nodes. FTY720-treated mice exhibited increased TGF-β and reduced IFN-γ expression in the heart. Also, CD4 expression was increased and strongly correlated with molecules involved in natural Treg activity, such as TGF-β and GITR. Our data suggest that long-term FTY720-treatment enhances LV function and increases longevity in mice with heart failure. These benefits resulted not from atheroprotection but from systemic immunosuppression and a moderate reduction of inflammation in the heart.
FTY720; S1P; ApoE; coronary atherosclerosis; heart failure; cardioprotection; immunosuppression
FTY720 (Fingolimod™), a synthetic analogue of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), activates four of the five EDG-family S1P receptors and is in a phase-III clinical study for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. (S)-FTY720-phosphate (FTY720-P) causes S1P1 receptor internalization and targeting to the proteasomal degradative pathway, and thus acts as a functional antagonist of S1P1 by depleting the functional S1P1 receptor from the plasma membrane. Here we describe the pharmacological characterization of two unsaturated phosphonate enantiomers of FTY720, (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate. (R)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate was a full agonist of S1P1 (EC50 20 ± 3 nM). In contrast, the (S) enantiomer failed to activate any of the five S1P GPCRs and was a full antagonist of S1P1,3,4 (Ki 384 nM, 39 nM, and 1190 nM, respectively) and a partial antagonist of S1P2, and S1P5. Both enantiomers dose-dependently inhibited lysophospholipase D (recombinant autotaxin) with Ki values in the low micromolar range, although with different enzyme kinetic mechanisms. When injected into mice, both enantiomers caused transient peripheral lymphopenia. (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonates activated ERK1/2, AKT, and exerted an antiapoptotic effect in camptothecin-treated IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells, which primarily express S1P2 transcripts and traces of S1P5. (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate is the first pan-antagonist of S1P receptors and offers utility in probing S1P responses in vitro and in vivo. The biological effects of the (R)- and (S)-FTY720-vinylphosphonate analogues underscore the complexity of FTY720 cellular targets.
FTY720; sphingosine 1-phosphate; lysophosphatidic acid; autotaxin; lysophospholipase D; lymphocyte egress; EDG receptor; inhibitor
FTY720, an immunomodulator derived from a fungal metabolite which reduces circulating lymphocyte counts by increasing the homing of lymphocytes to the lymph nodes has recently gained interest in stroke research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of FTY720 in cerebral ischemia in two different application paradigms and to gather first data on the effect of FTY720 on the rate of spontaneous bacterial infections in experimental stroke.
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in C57BL/6 mice (strain J, groups of 10 animals) was performed with two different durations of ischemia (90 min and 3 h) and FTY720 was applied 2 h after vessel occlusion to study the impact of reperfusion on the protective potency of FTY720. Lesion size was determined by TTC staining. Mice treated with FTY720 or vehicle were sacrificed 48 h after 90 min MCAO to determine the bacterial burden in lung and blood.
FTY720 1 mg/kg significantly reduced ischemic lesion size when administered 2 h after the onset of MCAO for 3 h (45.4 ± 22.7 mm3 vs. 84.7 ± 23.6 mm3 in control mice, p = 0.001) and also when administered after reperfusion, 2 h after the onset of MCAO for 90 min (31.1 ± 28.49 mm3 vs. 69.6 ± 27.2 mm3 in control mice, p = 0.013). Bacterial burden of lung homogenates 48 h after stroke did not increase in the group treated with the immunomodulator FTY720 while there was no spontaneous bacteremia 48 h after MCAO in treated and untreated animals.
Our results corroborate the experimental evidence of the protective effect of FTY720 seen in different rodent stroke models. Interestingly, we found no increase in bacterial lung infections even though FTY720 strongly reduces the number of circulating leukocytes.
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Cell adhesion in the BBB is modulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a signaling protein, via S1P receptors (S1P1). Fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P) a functional S1P1 antagonist has been shown to improve the relapse rate in relapsing-remitting MS by preventing the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes. However, its role in modulating BBB permeability—in particular, on the tight junction proteins occludin, claudin 5 and ZO-1—has not been well elucidated to date. In the present study, FTY720-P did not change the transendothelial electrical resistance in a rat brain microvascular endothelial cell (RBMEC) culture exposed to inflammatory conditions and thus did not decrease endothelial barrier permeability. In contrast, occludin was reduced in RBMEC culture after adding FTY720-P. Additionally, FTY720-P did not alter the amount of endothelial matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 in RBMEC cultures. Taken together, our observations support the assumption that S1P1 plays a dual role in vascular permeability, depending on its ligand. Thus, S1P1 provides a mechanistic basis for FTY720-P-associated disruption of endothelial barriers—such as the blood-retinal barrier—which might result in macular edema.
FTY720-P; blood-brain barrier; rat brain microvascular endothelial cell culture; inflammation; tight junctions
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a well-established mouse model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes, which is characterized by an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we address the role of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) that form in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression.
We developed a model designed to “lock” lymphocytes in the pancreatic lymph node (PLN) and pancreas by the use of FTY720, which blocks the exit of lymphocytes from lymph nodes. A combination of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and analysis of clinical scores was used to study the effects of long-term FTY720 treatment on TLO development and development of diabetes.
Continuous treatment of NOD mice with FTY720 prevented diabetes development even at a time of significant insulitis. Treatment withdrawal led to accelerated disease independent of the PLN. Interestingly, naive T-cells trafficked to and proliferated in the TLOs. In addition, morphological changes were observed that occurred during the development of the disease. Remarkably, although the infiltrates are not organized into T/B-cell compartments in 8-week-old mice, by 20 weeks of age, and in age-matched mice undergoing FTY720 treatment, the infiltrates showed a high degree of organization. However, in naturally and FTY720-induced diabetic mice, T/B-cell compartmentalization was lost.
Our data show that TLOs are established during diabetes development and suggest that islet destruction is due to a loss of TLO integrity, which may be prevented by FTY720 treatment.
In vivo phosphorylation of sphingosine analogs with their ensuing binding and activation of their cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors is regarded as the main immunomodulatory mechanism of this new class of drugs. Prophylactic treatment with sphingosine analogs interferes with experimental asthma by impeding the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. However, whether these drugs can also alleviate allergic airway inflammation after its onset remains to be determined. Herein, we investigated to which extent and by which mechanisms the sphingosine analog AAL-R interferes with key features of asthma in a murine model during ongoing allergic inflammation induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.
BALB/c mice were exposed to either D. pteronyssinus or saline, intranasally, once-daily for 10 consecutive days. Mice were treated intratracheally with either AAL-R, its pre-phosphorylated form AFD-R, or the vehicle before every allergen challenge over the last four days, i.e. after the onset of allergic airway inflammation. On day 11, airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured; inflammatory cells and cytokines were quantified in the airways; and the numbers and/or viability of T cells, B cells and dendritic cells were assessed in the lungs and draining lymph nodes.
AAL-R decreased airway hyperresponsiveness induced by D. pteronyssinus by nearly 70%. This was associated with a strong reduction of IL-5 and IL-13 levels in the airways and with a decreased eosinophilic response. Notably, the lung CD4+ T cells were almost entirely eliminated by AAL-R, which concurred with enhanced apoptosis/necrosis in that cell population. This inhibition occurred in the absence of dendritic cell number modulation in draining lymph nodes. On the other hand, the pre-phosphorylated form AFD-R, which preferentially acts on cell-surface sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, was relatively impotent at enhancing cell death, which led to a less efficient control of T cell and eosinophil responses in the lungs.
Airway delivery of the non-phosphorylated sphingosine analog, but not its pre-phosphorylated counterpart, is highly efficient at controlling the local T cell response after the onset of allergic airway inflammation. The mechanism appears to involve local induction of lymphocyte apoptosis/necrosis, while mildly affecting dendritic cell and T cell accumulation in draining lymph nodes.
FTY720; Fingolimod; Gilenya; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Apoptosis; Dendritic cells; CD4+ T cells; Asthma; S1P; AAL-R; AAL-S; Sphingosine
FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist that redirects lymphocytes from the circulation to lymph nodes without impairing lymphocyte function. It is being developed as an immunomodulator for the prevention of acute rejection after organ transplantation. This study was performed to provide guidance on administration with respect to meals and to measure pharmacologic responses in healthy subjects.
In this randomized, two-period, crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received placebo on day −1 of each period with baseline circadian measurements of lymphocyte count and heart rate. Subjects subsequently received a single 1 mg oral dose of FTY720 on day 1 under fasting conditions and after a high fat meal. Blood FTY720 concentrations, lymphocyte count, and supine heart rate were assessed over an 8 day period after each FTY720 dose. The effect of food on FTY720 pharmacokinetics was assessed by standard bioequivalence testing.
Both the peak concentration (0.65 ± 0.17 vs 0.64 ± 0.18 ng ml−1) and total exposure (AUC 149 ± 65 vs 139 ± 43 ng ml−1 h) did not differ significantly between fasting and fed states, respectively. The corresponding fed/fasting ratios and 90% confidence intervals were 1.00 (0.86, 1.17) for Cmax and 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) for AUC. Under both treatment conditions peripheral blood lymphocyte count decreased from baseline by 38 ± 9% over the first 2 days postdose and then increased towards predose values over the subsequent week. Whereas a circadian rhythm in supine heart rate was preserved in the presence of FTY720, the heart rate vs time curve was shifted downwards by 10% over the first day postdose and then recovered to prestudy values by days 3–5 postdose. These changes were asymptomatic.
Single 1 mg doses of FTY720 were well tolerated in healthy subjects and elicited a moderate decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count and a transient decrease in heart rate consistent with its pharmacological mode of action. FTY720 may be administered without regard to the timing of meals or their fat content.
food; FTY720; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
Background and Purpose
The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific.
Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered.
The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes.
Conclusions and Implications
These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface.
sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R); pFTY720; astrocytes; receptor signalling; Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Trauma/hemorrhagic shock is one of the major consequences of battlefield injury as well as civilian trauma. FTY720 (sphingosine-1 phosphate agonist) has the capability to decrease the activity of the innate and adaptive immune systems and, at the same time, maintain endothelial cell barrier function and vascular homeostasis during stress. For this reason, we hypothesize that FTY720, as part of resuscitation therapy, would limit T/HS induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in a rodent trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) model.
Rats subjected to trauma/sham-shock (T/SS) or T/HS (30 mm Hg × 90 min), were administered FTY720 (1 mg/kg) post-T/HS during volume resuscitation. Lung injury (permeability to Evans Blue dye), PMN priming (respiratory burst activity), and RBC rigidity were measured. In addition, lymph duct cannulated rats were used to quantify the effect of FTY720 on gut injury (permeability and morphology) and the biologic activity of T/HS vs. T/SS lymph on PMN-RB and RBC deformability.
T/HS-induced increased lung permeability, PMN priming and RBC rigidity were all abrogated by FTY720. The systemic protective effect of FTY720 was only partially at the gut level, since FTY720 did not prevent T/HS-induced gut injury (morphology or permeability,) however, it did abrogate T/HS lymph-induced increased respiratory burst and RBC rigidity.
FTY720 limited T/HS-induced MODS (lung injury, red cell injury, and neutrophil priming) as well as T/HS lymph bioactivity, although it did not limit gut injury.
acute lung injury; neutrophil activation; red blood cell rigidity; lymph
FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is a daily oral therapy for multiple sclerosis that readily accesses the central nervous system (CNS). FTY720 is a structural analog to the sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and is a cognate ligand for the S1P G-protein coupled receptors (S1PR). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using mice with conditionally deleted S1P1R from astrocytes indicate that one beneficial effect of FTY720 in this model is via downregulating external receptors, which inhibits responses induced by the natural ligand. Another proposed effect of FTY720 on neuroinflammation is its ability to maintain persistent signaling in cells via internalized S1P1R resulting in functional responses that include suppressing intracellular calcium release. We used human fetal astrocytes to investigate potential dual inhibitory- and function-inducing effects of daily FTY720 on responses relevant to neuroinflammation. For the inhibitory effects, we used signaling and proliferation induced by the natural ligand S1P. For the function-inducing responses, we measured inhibition of intracellular calcium release stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β.
Astrocytes derived from human fetal CNS specimens and maintained in dissociated cultures were exposed to 100 nM of the biologically active form of FTY720 over a dosing regimen that ranged from a single exposure (with or without washout after 1 h) to daily exposures up to 5 days. Responses measured include: phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (pERK1/2) by Western blotting, Ki-67 immunolabeling for cell proliferation, IL-1β-induced calcium release by ratiometric fluorescence, and cytokine/chemokine (IL-6, CXCL10) secretions by ELISA.
We observed that a single addition of FTY720 inhibited subsequent S1PR ligand-induced pERK1/2 signaling for >24 h. Daily FTY720 treatments (3-5 days) maintained this effect together with a loss of proliferative responses to the natural ligand S1P. Repeated FTY720 dosing concurrently maintained a functional cell response as measured by the inhibition of intracellular calcium release when stimulated by the cytokine IL-1β. Recurrent FTY720 treatments did not inhibit serum- or IL-1β-induced pERK1/2. The secretions of IL-6 and CXCL10 in response to IL-1β were unaffected by FTY720 treatment(s).
Our results indicate that daily FTY720 exposures may regulate specific neuroinflammatory responses by desensitizing astrocytes to external S1PR stimuli while sustaining cellular influences that are independent of new surface S1PR activation.
Astrocytes; FTY720; Neuroinflammation; Sphingosine-1-phosphate
Cognate interaction of chemokine receptor CCR7 on lymphocytes with its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs) is essential for effective migration of T and B cells across HEVs into secondary lymphoid organs. Plt mice, which lack expression of CCL19 and CCL21-ser, both ligands for CCR7 on HEVs, as well as CCR7-deficient mice, have a defective cell migration and reduced homing of lymphocytes. FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, causes a reduction of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and tissues and their sequestration into lymphoid tissues. In this study we demonstrate that FTY720 rescues the homing defect in both CCR7−/− mice and plt mice. After FTY720 treatment, the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as B cells in peripheral blood is reduced while pertussis toxin–sensitive homing into peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, and Peyer's patches is increased. Immunohistology demonstrates that FTY720 enables these cells to enter lymphoid tissue through HEVs. Thus, our data suggest an alternative G-αi-dependent, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21-independent mechanism for lymphocyte homing through HEVs which is strongly augmented in the presence of FTY720.
lymphocyte migration; chemokine receptor; T cell; B cell; lymphoid organs
Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 µg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm3, respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls.
Bone tissue engineering; Drug delivery; Angiogenesis; Osseointegration; Massive Allograft
FTY720 (Fingolimod) is a novel immunosuppressive drug investigated in clinical trials for organ transplantation and multiple sclerosis. It acts as a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor antagonist, thereby inhibiting the egress of lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid organs. As S1P is able to prevent IL-1beta induced cartilage degradation, we examined the direct impact of FTY720 on cytokine induced cartilage destruction.
Bovine chondrocytes were treated with the bioactive phosphorylated form of FTY720 (FTY720-P) in combination with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Expression of MMP-1,-3.-13, iNOS and ADAMTS-4,-5 and COX-2 was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Glycosaminoglycan depletion from cartilage explants was determined using a 1,9-dimethylene blue assay and safranin O staining.
FTY720-P significantly reduced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induced expression of iNOS. In contrast FTY720-P increased MMP-3 and ADAMTS-5 mRNA expression. Furthermore depletion of glycosaminoglycan from cartilage explants by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was significantly enhanced by FTY720-P in an MMP-3 dependent manner.
Our results suggest that FTY720 may enhance cartilage degradation in pro-inflammatory environment.
chondrocyte; fingolimod; FTY720; interleukin-1β; tumor necrosis factor-α; inducible nitric oxide synthase; glycosaminoglycan
The family of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) is G-protein-coupled, comprised of subtypes S1PR1-S1PR5 and activated by the endogenous ligand S1P. The phosphorylated version of Fingolimod (pFTY720), an oral therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), induces S1PR1 internalisation in T cells, subsequent insensitivity to S1P gradients and sequestering of these cells within lymphoid organs, thus limiting immune response. S1PRs are also expressed in neuronal and glial cells where pFTY720 is suggested to directly protect against lysolecithin-induced deficits in myelination state in organotypic cerebellar slices. Of note, the effect of pFTY720 on immune cells already migrated into the CNS, prior to treatment, has not been well established. We have previously found that organotypic slice cultures do contain immune cells, which, in principle, could also be regulated by pFTY720 to maintain levels of myelin. Here, a mouse organotypic cerebellar slice and splenocyte co-culture model was thus used to investigate the effects of pFTY720 on splenocyte-induced demyelination. Spleen cells isolated from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunised mice (MOG-splenocytes) or from 2D2 transgenic mice (2D2-splenocytes) both induced demyelination when co-cultured with mouse organotypic cerebellar slices, to a similar extent as lysolecithin. As expected, in vivo treatment of MOG-immunised mice with FTY720 inhibited demyelination induced by MOG-splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro treatment of MOG- and 2D2-splenocytes with pFTY720 also attenuated demyelination caused by these cells. In addition, while in vitro treatment of 2D2-splenocytes with pFTY720 did not alter cell phenotype, pFTY720 inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 6 (IL6) from these cells. This work suggests that treatment of splenocytes by pFTY720 attenuates demyelination and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine release, which likely contributes to enhanced myelination state induced by pFTY720 in organotypic cerebellar slices.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Modulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor is an approved treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis because of its anti-inflammatory effect of retaining lymphocytes within the lymph nodes. Here, we evaluated the potential of an agonist at this receptor, FTY720 (fingolimod), to activate the promyelinating pathways within the brain to encourage remyelination and neuroprotection.
In this study, we used the cuprizone model in male C57BL/6 mice and tested the promyelinating and neuroprotective effects of FTY720 after acute and chronic toxin-induced experimental demyelination. We used histological, immunohistochemical and gene expression methods.
The midline of the corpus callosum was severely demyelinated after acute and chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination. Robust endogenous remyelination was evident after acute, but impaired after chronic, demyelination. FTY720 treatment modestly accelerated myelin recovery after acute but not chronic cuprizone exposure. Markers of gliosis (astrocyte and microglia activation) were not affected by FTY720 treatment. Remarkably, the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein-positive spheroids in axons was less distinct in FTY720-treated animals, indicating that this compound alleviated ongoing axonal damage.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
We show that even during endogenous remyelination, axonal degeneration continued at a low level, accumulating over time. This continuous neurodegenerative process was ameliorated by FTY720 treatment. FTY720 preserved CNS integrity by direct interaction with brain resident cells, the actions of which are still to be defined.