Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder of the elderly, affecting the normal bone turnover with an increased bone resorption and subsequent higher risk of fragility fractures. Collagen type 1 is the most represented protein in bone matrix. A genetic variation (Sp1) in intron 1 of COL1A1 gene has been associated to modulation of expression of the alpha 1 chain of collagen type 1 and it is considered a candidate polymorphism for predisposition to osteoporosis status and fragility fractures. Association studies, in ethnically different populations, are needed to strongly confirm the role of this polymorphism in bone metabolism.
Materials and methods
We enrolled over 2,000 Italian individuals and studied their bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in relation to age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Moreover, we analyzed the distribution of Sp1 polymorphism in these individuals and associated it to normal bone status, osteopenic condition or osteoporosis diagnosis, BMD and the presence of low-trauma fractures.
The most rare ss genotype showed a trend for osteoporosis diagnosis with respect to both normal and osteopenic status. The same genotype resulted to be associated to lower values of BMD both at spine and femur sites. No association was found with fractures.
In conclusion the presence of the homozygote ss genotype seemed to predispose to osteoporosis diagnosis and to be more frequent in subjects with lower spine and femur BMD values.
osteoporosis; bone mineral density; fragility fracture risk; collagen type 1; Sp1 polymorphism; osteoporosis prevention
Osteoporosis and fracture risk are considered to be under genetic control. Extensive work is being performed to identify the exact genetic variants that determine this risk. Previous work has suggested that a G/T polymorphism affecting an Sp1 binding site in the
COLIA1 gene is a genetic marker for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fracture, but there have been no very-large-scale studies of
COLIA1 alleles in relation to these phenotypes.
Methods and Findings
Here we evaluated the role of
COLIA1 Sp1 alleles as a predictor of BMD and fracture in a multicenter study involving 20,786 individuals from several European countries. At the femoral neck, the average (95% confidence interval [CI]) BMD values were 25 mg/cm
2 (CI, 16 to 34 mg/cm
2) lower in TT homozygotes than the other genotype groups (
p < 0.001), and a similar difference was observed at the lumbar spine; 21 mg/cm
2 (CI, 1 to 42 mg/cm
p = 0.039). These associations were unaltered after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was no association with fracture overall (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01 [CI, 0.95 to 1.08]) in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses, but there was a non-significant trend for association with vertebral fracture and a nominally significant association with incident vertebral fractures in females (OR = 1.33 [CI, 1.00 to 1.77]) that was independent of BMD, and unaltered in adjusted analyses.
Allowing for the inevitable heterogeneity between participating teams, this study—which to our knowledge is the largest ever performed in the field of osteoporosis genetics for a single gene—demonstrates that the
COLIA1 Sp1 polymorphism is associated with reduced BMD and could predispose to incident vertebral fractures in women, independent of BMD. The associations we observed were modest however, demonstrating the importance of conducting studies that are adequately powered to detect and quantify the effects of common genetic variants on complex diseases.
A large collaborative European study finds only weak links between a much studied potential genetic risk factor and bone mineral density or fracture risk.
This study assessed whether relatives with low bone mineral density (BMD) could be identified in five large families using historical, biochemical, and genetic markers for osteoporosis. Fifty of 65 relatives had their bone density and bone turnover markers measured, together with an assessment of their risk factors for osteoporosis. Only 33% (5/15) of siblings, 50% (6/12) of children and 43% (10/23) of nephews and nieces had entirely normal BMD. There was no difference in life-style risk factors for osteoporosis, history of previous fractures or body mass index between normal subjects and those with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Osteopenic individuals had a significantly higher than normal osteocalcin value. Within families, there was no clear association between BMD and any of the genetic markers (vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, COL 1A1 and COL 1A2 polymorphisms of the collagen gene), either alone or in combination. The addition of genetic markers to the other risk factors for low BMD did not improve the prediction of BMD. In conclusion, we suggest that the presence of osteoporosis in a first degree relative should be one of the clinical indications for bone density measurement as the individuals at risk would not be picked up by other methods.
Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in ageing populations. Osteoporosis, defined as low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fractures, have significant genetic components that are largely unknown. Linkage analysis in a large number of extended osteoporosis families in Iceland, using a phenotype that combines osteoporotic fractures and BMD measurements, showed linkage to Chromosome 20p12.3 (multipoint allele-sharing LOD, 5.10; p value, 6.3 × 10−7), results that are statistically significant after adjusting for the number of phenotypes tested and the genome-wide search. A follow-up association analysis using closely spaced polymorphic markers was performed. Three variants in the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene, a missense polymorphism and two anonymous single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes, were determined to be associated with osteoporosis in the Icelandic patients. The association is seen with many definitions of an osteoporotic phenotype, including osteoporotic fractures as well as low BMD, both before and after menopause. A replication study with a Danish cohort of postmenopausal women was conducted to confirm the contribution of the three identified variants. In conclusion, we find that a region on the short arm of Chromosome 20 contains a gene or genes that appear to be a major risk factor for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, and our evidence supports the view that BMP2 is at least one of these genes.
Genetic analysis of Icelandic families and a replication study in a Danish population provide evidence that variation in the gene BMP2 might contribute to osteoporosis
Collagen type I is one of the key proteins involved in the maturation, development and mineralization of bone. Genetic polymorphisms of collagen type I alpha-1 chain (COL1A1) gene are associated with low bone mineral density and higher risk of fractures in adults and children. We hypothesize that the polymorphic alleles and genotypes of COL1A1 gene influence bone mineralization and metabolism in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
We recruited 196 children with JIA in our study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteocalcin, Ca, Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were utilized for the assessment of bone metabolism. Molecular testing: Sp1 (rs1800012) and -1997G/T (rs1107946) polymorphisms of COL1A1 gene were detected RFLP.
No differences in genotype, allele and haplotype distribution of COL1A1 were detected among children with normal and low BMD (LBMD; <−2 standard deviation). The presence of GG genotype of Sp1 increased the incidence of LBMD in Tanner II to III children (odds ratio (OR) = 9.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2; 81.7], p = 0.02) as well as GG genotype of -1997G/T increased the frequency of LBMD in Tanner IV to V children (OR = 4.5 [95% CI, 0.9; 22.0], p = 0.048). Tanner I children with -1997GG genotype had lower Ca2+ and osteocalcin and higher Pi compared with carriers of -1997Т allele. Tanner IV to V children with -1997GG genotype had lower BMD and BMD-Z score than carriers of -1997Т.
The evaluation of the biologic effects of the GG Sp1 and GG of -1997G/T polymorphism of COL1A1 has shown negative effect on BMD and mineral turnover related to pubertal stage.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); Bone mineral density (BMD); Bone densitometry; Collagen; Polymorphism
Osteoporotic fractures are a leading cause of disability and, indirectly, of death in the elderly population. Previous studies have shown that homocysteine level and the C677T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be involved in the development of osteoporosis and its related fracture in European populations. The aim of this study was to verify the association of this polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in our 1899 Chinese postmenopausal women. The C677T T-allele frequency in this population was 39.2%. The distribution of the MTHFR genotypes followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. BMD at total body, total hip or femoral neck did not significantly vary with MTHFR C677T genotype. The T-allele carrier tended to have higher risk of having osteoporosis or osteopenia, but the difference was statistically insignificant. However, Poisson regression analysis revealed that the T-allele carriers had an increased risk of fractures (RR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1–2.7, p=0.01) which occurred before or after menopause. As far as fracture incidence after menopause was concerned, the CT or TT genotype had more than twice the risk of the CC genotype (RR=2.5, 95%CI=1.2–4.9, P=0.009). This association was independent of age, physical activity, occupation, passive smoking, height, weight, years since menopause, and total hip BMD.
Our data show that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is an independent predictor of fracture risk, although it only had a weak effect on BMD. Further study on the mechanistic role that this polymorphism plays in the development of fractures may lead to better understanding of the etiology of osteoporotic fracture.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene; Fracture; Osteoporosis; Genetics; Postmenopausal Women
Background: Osteoporosis, mainly characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD), is a serious public health problem. The collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene is a prominent candidate gene for osteoporosis. Here, we examined whether genetic variants at the COL1A1 gene can influence BMD variation.
Methods: BMD was measured at nine skeletal sites in 313 Caucasian males and 308 Caucasian females. We screened four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the COL1A1 gene: PCOL2 (-1997 G/T) in the promoter, Sp1 (1546 G/T) in the intron 1, Gly19Cys (3911 G/A) in exon 8, and Ala897Thr (13 773 G/A) in exon 45. Univariate and multivariate association approaches were used in the analyses.
Results: In multivariate analyses, we found a strong association between the PCOL2 SNP and BMD (p = 0.007 to 0.024) and a suggestive association between the Sp1 SNP and BMD (p = 0.023 to 0.048) in elderly Caucasian females. Interestingly, the interaction of these two SNPs was highly significantly associated with BMD variation (p = 0.001 to 0.003). The haplotype GG at the two SNPs had, on average, 2.7% higher BMD than non-carriers (p = 0.006 to 0.026).
Conclusions: Our data suggested that the common genetic variants at the PCOL2 and Sp1 sites, and importantly, their interactive effects, may contribute to BMD variation in elderly Caucasian females. Further studies are necessary to delineate the mechanisms underlying the effects of these common variants on BMD variation and to test their clinical relevance for general populations. In addition, our study highlighted the importance of multivariate analyses when multiple correlated phenotypes are under study.
Background: The markers of bone remodelling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict the fracture risk in elderly persons, especially in women. The bone mineral density which reflects the bone mass and strength, also predicts osteoporotic related hip fractures. So, this work highlights the association between the bone turnover and the bone mass and strength.
Aim: To assess the association between the biochemical markers of bone remodeling and osteocalcin with the bone mineral density in non osteoporotic and osteoporotic women among post menopausal subjects.
Materials and Methods: Sixty postmenopausal women whose ages ranged from 55-65 years included in this study, were further divided into group 1 (thirty non osteoporotic subjects) and group 2 (thirty osteoporotic subjects). For all the subjects, serum osteocalcin was measured by ELISA. BMD was measured by the Dual Energy X- Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. The women with osteoporosis were diagnosed, based on the T- score of the bone mineral density, by the DXA scan. The Student’s “t” test was performed between the variables of both the groups and a correlation test was also performed between osteocalcin and BMD by using SPSS.
Results: A negative correlation was found between the osteocalcin level and the bone mineral density in post menopausal women. The mean values of both serum osteocalcin and BMD between the osteoporotic and the non osteoporotic subjects were statistically significant.
Conclusion: An increased bone turnover coincides with the trabecular deterioration in osteoporotic women of the post menopausal age group. A combination of biochemical markers and BMD may be a better predictor of the fracture risk than when it was assessed by either alone. The biochemical markers of the bone turnover cannot be a substitute for the serial BMD measurement, but they may be useful when they are considered in conjunction with the BMD measurement.
BMD; Osteocalcin; Osteoporosis
Candidate osteoporosis gene variants were examined for associations with fracture risk and bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 9704 white women were recruited at four U.S. clinical centers and enrolled into the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a longitudinal cohort study. Genotyping of 31 polymorphisms from 18 candidate osteoporosis genes was performed in 6752 women. Incident radiographic fractures were identified at the third and eighth examinations compared with the baseline examination. BMD was measured at the total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analyses were adjusted for age, clinic site, and self-reported ethnicity. During a mean follow-up of 14.5 years, a total of 849 hip, 658 vertebral, and 2496 nonhip/nonvertebral fractures occurred in 6752 women. Women carrying the ALOX15_G48924T T/T genotype had a higher rate of hip fracture (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33;95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.00–1.77) compared with the G/G genotype. Compared with those carrying the PRL_T228C T/T genotype, women with either the C/C (HR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67–0.95) or C/T (HR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.68–0.97) genotype had a lower rate of nonvertebral/nonhip fractures. Women carrying theBMP2_A125611G G/G genotype had a higher rate of vertebral fracture (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.03–2.23) compared with the A/A genotype. Women with the ESR1_C1335G G/G genotype had a higher rate of vertebral fracture (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.07–2.50) compared with the C/C genotype. Compared with those with the MMP2_C595T C/C genotype, women with the C/T (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.65–0.96) or T/T (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.27–0.72) genotype had a lower rate of vertebral fracture. In conclusion, polymorphisms in several candidate genes were associated with hip, vertebral, and nonhip/nonvertebral fractures but not with total hip BMD in this large population based cohort study.
Genetics; Polymorphism; Osteoporosis; BMD; Fracture
OBJECTIVE: To review indications for assessing bone mineral density (BMD) and to review patient characteristics and diseases associated with osteoporosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This paper is based on data from longitudinal observational studies of how BMD and other risk factors affect development of fragility fractures and on several peer-reviewed publications describing pathophysiology of bone turnover and pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Indications for obtaining BMD and monitoring treatment are based on the recommendations of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada derived from the consensus opinion of a panel of experts in osteoporosis and based on their review of the primary literature. MAIN MESSAGE: Measurement of BMD provides the best single objective predictor of the relative risk of fracture at sites such as the vertebrae, hip, and wrist, predicting the likelihood of fracture with as much accuracy as measurement of elevated blood pressure predicts stroke. In addition to making the diagnosis of osteoporosis, BMD measurements are used to monitor progression of osteoporosis and effects of therapy. At this date, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is preferred for measuring BMD. The most likely causes of osteoporosis in any patient are age, hormone withdrawal (in both men and women), and drugs (particularly corticosteroids). Secondary causes, particularly hyperparathyroidism and multiple myeloma, should be excluded by performing appropriate laboratory tests. CONCLUSION: A BMD measurement should be obtained for patients at high risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures to guide initiation and monitor success of therapy.
Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD) than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean) and osteoporotic fracture.
Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women) with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.
The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (−42.5% at 3 months and −18.9% at 3 years), and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years), compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.
The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.
osteoporosis; fragility fracture; bone mineral density; bone turnover
Osteoporosis is a bone disorder that reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and
leads to bone fracture. In addition to different factors, gene polymorphisms have been
revealed to be associated with osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the association
between the BsmI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (rs1544410) and BMD
in a population of Iranian women.
Materials and Methods:
In this case control study, clinical risk factors for osteoporosis
were obtained from the participants through a questionnaire for a case-control study.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria were applied for the diagnosis of the
disease. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 146 pre- and or postmenopausal
Iranian women aged between 35 and 71 years (53.53 ± 9.8). The study population
was classified for BMD into normal and osteoporotic groups, who matched for age,
pregnancy status, menstrual condition, and body mass index (BMI). The BMD of the
lumbar spine (L1-4) and femoral neck was measured. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction
fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to detect and
analyze the genotype.
The frequencies of AA and GG were significantly different between the two
groups (p value<0.05), with the first genotype being higher in the patients and the second
being higher in the normal group. The GG genotype was significantly associated with
increased BMD in the lumbar spine (p value<0.05) but non-significant in the femoral neck
BsmI polymorphism of VDR gene has a significant association with BMD in
the lumbar spine and may have a minor effect on the proximal femur BMD in Iranian women.
Vitamin D Receptor; BsmI; Polymorphism; Bone Mineral Density; Osteoporosis
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a strong predictor of fracture, yet most fractures occur in women without osteoporosis by BMD criteria. To improve fracture-risk prediction, the World Health Organization recently developed a country-specific fracture risk index of clinical risk factors (FRAX®) that estimates 10-year probabilities of hip and major osteoporotic fracture. Within differing baseline BMD categories, we evaluated 6252 women age 65 and older in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures using FRAX 10-year probabilities of hip and major osteoporotic fracture (hip, clinical spine, wrist, humerus) compared to incidence of fractures over 10 years of follow-up. Overall ability of FRAX to predict fracture risk based on initial BMD T-score categories (normal, low bone mass, and osteoporosis) was evaluated with receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses using area-under-the-curve (AUC). Over 10 years of follow-up, 368 women incurred a hip fracture, and 1011 a major osteoporotic fracture. Women with low bone mass represented the majority (n=3791; 61%); they developed many hip (n=176; 48%) and major osteoporotic fractures (n=569; 56%). Among women with normal and low bone mass, FRAX (including BMD) was an overall better predictor of hip fracture risk (AUC = 0.78 and 0.70, respectively) than major osteoporotic fractures (AUC = 0.64 and 0.62). Simpler models (e.g., age+prior fracture) had similar AUCs to FRAX, including among women for whom primary prevention is sought (no prior fracture or osteoporosis by BMD). The FRAX, and simpler models, predict 10-year risk of incident hip and major osteoporotic fractures in older U.S. women with normal or low bone mass.
osteopenia; osteoporosis; fracture; risk; prediction
Estrogen activity plays a critical role in bone homeostasis. The serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) influence free estrogen levels and activity on target tissues. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of common polymorphisms of the SHBG gene on serum SHBG, bone mineral density (BMD), and osteoporotic fractures.
Four biallelic polymorphisms of the SHBG gene were studied by means of Taqman assays in 753 postmenopausal women. BMD was measured by DXA and serum SHBG was measured by ELISA.
Age, body weight, and two polymorphisms of the SHBG gene (rs6257 and rs1799941 [A/G]) were significantly associated with serum SHBG in unadjusted and age- and weight-adjusted models. Alleles at the rs1799941 locus showed the strongest association with serum SHBG (p = 0.0004). The difference in SHBG levels between women with AA and GG genotypes at the rs1799941 locus was 39%. There were no significant differences in BMD across SHBG genotypes. The genotypes showed similar frequency distributions in control women and women with vertebral or hip fractures.
Some common genetic variants of the SHBG gene, and particularly an A/G polymorphism situated in the 5' region, influence serum SHBG levels. However, a significant association with BMD or osteoporotic fractures has not been demonstrated.
Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fragility fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) is considered the best established risk factor for osteoporotic fractures.
Over the last years a large number of studies have pointed to the variability in many target genes and their relation with BMD and other determinants of fracture risk such as ultrasound bone properties, skeletal geometry and bone turnover markers. The importance of genetic factors in the bone quality is substantial, but no consensus exists yet on the genes that are involved.
Although osteoporosis is world healthy problem, there are many differences in human ethnics regarding both disease morbidity and drug treatment efficacy. Heterogeneity in drug response may reflect varying responsiveness to osteoporosis treatments due to allele variation in signaling pathway genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR) or estrogen receptor α (ERα). Polymorphisms of VDR and ERαloci appear genetic determinants of their corresponding hormonal treatment response such as vitamin D and estrogens. Because of their specific ethnic distribution, polymorphisms of VDR and ERαgenes may be involved in reported human differences of osteoporosis treatment responses.
Knowledge of the molecular and functional consequences of the gene polymorphisms is crucial to fully appreciate their significance and understand their potential clinical implications. Future studies and preventive strategies to management osteoporosis need to take in account these genetic factors.
genetics; estrogen receptor; osteoporosis; pharmacogenomics; polymorphism; vitamin D receptor
Eldecalcitol, a vitamin D3 analogue, significantly reduces the risk of new vertebral fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD) more than does alfacalcidol. To determine the effect of eldecalcitol on the incidence of all fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis, we conducted post hoc analyses of the phase III clinical trial to evaluate the incidence of the osteoporotic fractures defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Report, and, also, the incidence of the major osteoporotic fractures utilized in the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and compared those in the eldecalcitol group with those in the alfacalcidol group. We also analyzed the incidence of osteoporotic fractures stratified by prespecified risk factors for fractures. Eldecalcitol treatment reduced the incidence of osteoporotic fractures defined by the WHO more than alfacalcidol treatment (18.6 % vs. 25.2 %; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.54–0.93). Prevalent vertebral fractures, two or more prevalent vertebral fractures, and total hip BMD T score less than −2.5 were the risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures with significant differences between the two treatments. Eldecalcitol also decreased the incidence of major osteoporotic fractures in the FRAX more than alfacalcidol (11.1 % vs. 16.3 %; hazard ratio, 0.66; 95 % CI, 0.46–0.94). In conclusion, treatment with eldecalcitol reduced the risk of fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis compared with alfacalcidol administration, which may result from a potent effect of eldecalcitol on BMD, bone structure, and bone turnover.
Eldecalcitol; Fracture; FRAX; Osteoporosis; Vitamin D
Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low
bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is
known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects
on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in
the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMD to date. We report
here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age
(postmenopausal women, age 55–85 years), with either extreme high or low
hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0,
n = 1055, or −4.0 to −1.5,
n = 900), with replication in cohorts of women drawn from
the general population (n = 20,898). The study replicates
21 of 26 known BMD–associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive
association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes
CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and
SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel
mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also
reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in
BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD,
this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for
quantitative trait association studies.
Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of early mortality and morbidity in the
community. To identify genes associated with osteoporosis, we have performed a
genome-wide association study. In order to improve study power and to address
the demographic group of highest risk from osteoporotic fracture, we have used a
unique study design, studying 1,955 postmenopausal women with either extreme
high or low hip bone mineral density. We then confirmed our findings in 20,898
women from the general population. Our study replicated 21 of 26 known
osteoporosis genes, and it identified a further six novel loci (in or nearby
CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and
SOX4). For one of these loci, GALTN3, we
demonstrate in a mouse model that a loss-of-function genetic mutation in
GALNT3 causes high bone mass. These findings report novel
mechanisms by which osteoporosis can arise, and they significantly add to our
understanding of the aetiology of the disease.
Background: Lumbar disc disease (LDD), one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care, has been associated with sequence changes of the COL genes. COL1A1, however, has not been studied in young patients with LDD; COL1A1 polymorphisms have been associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in several populations and with LDD in older adults.
Objective: To study COL1A1 polymorphisms in young Greek army recruits with LDD.
Subjects: These young soldiers were diagnosed with early LDD at the time of their presentation to a military training site. All patients had radiological confirmation of their disease; a control group was also studied.
Methods: Sp1-binding site polymorphism of the COL1A1 gene was investigated by standard methods.
Results: There was an increased frequency of the "ss" genotype (33.3%) in LDD patients; none of the controls had this genotype. In addition, a significantly smaller number of controls was heterozygotes for this allele.
Conclusions: A previously studied sequence change of the regulatory region of the COL1A1 gene, the same as has previously been associated with low BMD in many populations and LDD in older adults, showed a strong association with LDD in young male soldiers who were recently diagnosed with this disease.
Recent studies have suggested that the Arg allele of β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene is associated with body mass index (BMI), which is an important predictor of bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. However, whether the ADRB3 gene polymorphism is associated with fracture risk has not been investigated. The aim of study was to examine the inter-relationships between ADRB3 gene polymorphisms, BMI, BMD and fracture risk in elderly Caucasians.
Genotypes of the ADRB3 gene were determined in 265 men and 446 women aged 60+ in 1989 at entry into the study, whose BMD were measured by DXA (GE Lunar, WI USA) at baseline. During the follow-up period (between 1989 and 2004), fractures were ascertained by reviewing radiography reports and personal interviews.
The allelic frequencies of the Trp and the Arg alleles were 0.925 and 0.075 respectively, and the relative frequencies of genotypes Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg and Arg/Arg 0.857, 0.138 and 0.006 respectively. There was no significant association between BMI and ADRB3 genotypes (p = 0.10 in women and p = 0.68 in men). There was also no significant association between ADRB3 genotypes and lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD in either men and women. Furthermore, there were no significant association between ADRB3 genotypes and fracture risk in both women and men, either before or after adjusting for and, BMD and BMI.
The present data suggested that in Caucasian population the contribution of ADRB3 genotypes to the prediction of BMI, BMD and fracture risk is limited.
Osteoporosis most commonly affects postmenopausal women, placing them at a significant risk of fractures. In particular, hip fractures are an important cause of mortality and morbidity among postmenopausal women. Anti-resorptive therapies that produce greater decreases in bone turnover markers together with greater increases in bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with greater reductions in fracture risk, especially at sites primarily composed of cortical bone such as the hip. Thus, treatment with potent anti-resorptive drugs like alendronate is a strategy for preventing hip fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the efficacy of alendronate against hip fractures and the mechanism for this anti-fracture efficacy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has shown that alendronate reduces the risk of hip fractures by 55% in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. According to the analyses of the Fracture Intervention Trial, each 1 standard deviation reduction in a 1-year change in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) is associated with 39% fewer hip fractures in alendronate-treated postmenopausal women, and those with at least 30% reduction in BSAP have a 74% lower risk of hip fractures relative to those with less than 30%. Alendronate is effective in reducing the risk of hip fractures across a spectrum of ages. The mechanism for this anti-fracture efficacy has been clarified; alendronate strongly suppresses bone turnover and subsequently increases hip BMD, decreases cortical porosity, improves parameters of hip structure geometry (cortical thickness, cross-sectional area, section modulus, and buckling ratio), and produces more uniform mineralization (increases the mean degree of mineralization of bone) in cortical bone. A once-weekly regimen of alendronate administration provides better patient compliance and persistence with the treatment than the once-daily dosing regimen, leading to greater efficacy against hip fractures. Thus, the efficacy of alendronate against hip fractures has been confirmed in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, especially with a once-weekly dosing regimen.
hip fracture; bone turnover; bone mineral density; cortical porosity; cortical thickness
We aimed to discuss the risk assessments for both patients with hip fractures due to fall-related, low energy traumas and non-fractured control patients by examining bone mineral density and genetic data, two features associated with femoral strength and hip fracture risk.
Twenty-one osteoporotic patients with proximal femur fractures and non-fractured, osteoporotic, age- and gender-matched controls were included in the study. Bone mineral density measurements were performed with a Lunar DXA. The COL1A1, ESR, VDR, IL-6, and OPG genes were amplified, and labeling of specific gene sequences was performed in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using the osteo/check PCR kit from the whole blood of all subjects.
The bone mineral density (trochanteric and total bone mineral density values) of the fracture group was significantly decreased relative to the control group. We were not able to conduct statistical tests for the polymorphisms of the COL1A1, ESR, and VDR genes because our results were expressed in terms of frequency. Although they were not significant, we did examine differences in the IL-6 and OPG genes polymorphisms between the two groups. We concluded that increasing the number of cases will allow us to evaluate racial differences in femoral hip fracture risk by genotypes.
Hip fractures risk; Osteoporosis; Gene polymorphism
Osteoporosis and related fractures are a significant concern for the global community. As the population continues to age, morbidity and mortality from fractures due to low bone mineral density (BMD) will likely continue to increase. Efforts should be made to screen those at risk for osteoporosis, identify and address various risk factors for falls and associated fractures, ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and institute pharmacological therapy to increase BMD when indicated. Agents which increase BMD and have been shown to decrease fractures, particularly at the hip, should be considered preferentially over those for which only BMD data are available. Drugs which have been shown to decrease the risk of age-related osteoporotic fractures include oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, ibandronate, and risedronate), intranasal calcitonin, estrogen receptor stimulators (eg, estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators [raloxifene]), parathyroid hormone (teriparatide), sodium fluoride, and strontium ranelate. Data are beginning to emerge supporting various combination therapies (eg, bisphosphonate plus an estrogen receptor stimulator), though more data are needed to identify combinations which are most effective and confer added fracture protection. In addition, further research is needed to identify ideal regimens in special populations such as nursing home patients and men.
osteoporosis; fracture; prevention; treatment
Positive association between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis is important because it concerns two major public health problems. Men and women with cardiovascular diseases (including severe abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and peripheral arterial disease) tend to have lower areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as well as faster bone loss, although findings vary according to skeletal site. On one hand, severe forms of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension, severe AAC) are associated with higher risk of osteoporotic fracture, especially hip fracture. This link was found in the studies based on healthcare databases and the cohort studies. On the other hand, low BMD, history of fragility fracture, vitamin D deficit and increased bone resorption are associated with higher risk of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infraction, stroke, cardiovascular mortality). Moreover, osteocalcin secreted by osteoblasts may be involved in the regulation of energetic and cardiovascular metabolism. The association between both pathologies depends partially on the shared risk factors, and also on the mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of bone and cardiovascular metabolism. Interpretation of the data should take into account methodological limitations: representativeness of the cohorts, quality of the registers and the information obtained from questionnaires, severity of diseases, number of events (statistical power) and their temporal closeness, availability of the information on potential confounders. It seems that patients with severe form of osteoporosis would benefit from assessment of the cardiovascular status and vice versa. However, official guidelines for the clinical practice are still lacking.
Fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in aging populations. Bone mineral density (BMD) is a useful surrogate marker for risk of fracture and is a highly heritable trait. The genetic variants underlying this genetic contribution are largely unknown.
We performed a large-scale association study investigating more than 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 16,000 genes. Allele frequencies were estimated in contrasting DNA pools from white females selected for low (<0.87 g/cm2, n = 319) and high (> 1.11 g/cm2, n = 321) BMD at the lumbar spine. Significant findings were verified in two additional sample collections.
Based on allele frequency differences between DNA pools and subsequent individual genotyping, one of the candidate loci indicated was the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene region on chromosome 5q12. We subsequently tested the marker SNP, rs1498608, in a second sample of 138 white females with low (<0.91 g/cm2) and 138 females with high (>1.04 g/cm2) lumbar spine BMD. Odds ratios were 1.5 (P = 0.035) in the original sample and 2.1 (P = 0.018) in the replication sample. Association fine mapping with 80 SNPs located within 50 kilobases of the marker SNP identified a 20 kilobase region of association containing exon 6 of PDE4D. In a second, family-based replication sample with a preponderance of females with low BMD, rs1498608 showed an opposite relationship with BMD at different sites (p = 0.00044-0.09). We also replicated the previously reported association of the Ser37Ala polymorphism in BMP2, known to interact biologically with PDE4D, with BMD.
This study indicates that variants in the gene encoding PDE4D account for some of the genetic contribution to bone mineral density variation in humans. The contrasting results from different samples indicate that the effect may be context-dependent. PDE4 inhibitors have been shown to increase bone mass in normal and osteopenic mice, but up until now there have been no reports implicating any member of the PDE4 gene family in human osteoporosis.
Wrist fracture is not only one of the most common osteoporotic fractures but also a predictor of future fractures at other sites. Wrist bone mineral density (BMD) is an important determinant of wrist fracture risk, with high heritability. Specific genes underlying wrist BMD variation are largely unknown. Most published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused only on a few top-ranking single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/genes and considered each of the identified SNPs/genes independently. To identify biologic pathways important to wrist BMD variation, we used a novel pathway-based analysis approach in our GWAS of wrist ultradistal radius (UD) BMD, examining approximately 500,000 SNPs genome-wide from 984 unrelated whites. A total of 963 biologic pathways/gene sets were analyzed. We identified the regulation-of-autophagy (ROA) pathway that achieved the most significant result (p = .005, qfdr = 0.043, pfwer = 0.016) for association with UD BMD. The ROA pathway also showed significant association with arm BMD in the Framingham Heart Study sample containing 2187 subjects, which further confirmed our findings in the discovery cohort. Earlier studies indicated that during endochondral ossification, autophagy occurs prior to apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and it also has been shown that some genes in the ROA pathway (e.g., INFG) may play important roles in osteoblastogenesis or osteoclastogenesis. Our study supports the potential role of the ROA pathway in human wrist BMD variation and osteoporosis. Further functional evaluation of this pathway to determine the mechanism by which it regulates wrist BMD should be pursued to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of wrist osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
osteoporosis; bone mineral density; genome-wide association; regulation of autophagy; whites