To test the hypothesis that regional anesthesia (RA) employing a block room reduces anesthesia-controlled time for ambulatory upper extremity surgery compared with general anesthesia (GA).
Retrospective cohort study.
Outpatient surgery center of a university hospital.
229 adult patients who underwent ambulatory upper extremity surgery over one year.
Upper extremity surgery performed with three different anesthetic techniques: 1) GA, 2) nerve block (NB) performed preoperatively, or 3) local anesthetic (LA), either Bier block or local anesthetic, administered in the operating room (OR).
Demographic data, anesthesia-controlled time, and turnover time were recorded. Since the data were not normally distributed, differences in anesthesia-controlled time and turnover time were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc testing using one-way analysis of variance on the ranks of the observations, with Tukey-Kramer correction for multiple comparisons.
Anesthesia-controlled time for NB (median 28 min) was significantly shorter than for GA (median 32 min, P=0.0392). Anesthesia-controlled time for patients who received LA (median 25 min) was also significantly shorter than GA (P<0.0001). However, turnover time did not differ significantly among the three groups.
Peripheral nerve block performed preoperatively in an induction area or LA injected in the OR significantly reduces anesthesia-controlled time for ambulatory upper extremity surgery compared with GA. Turnover time is unaffected by anesthetic technique. These results may increase acceptance of RA in the ambulatory surgery setting.
Ambulatory surgery; orthopedic; anesthesia; regional; anesthesia-controlled time; operating room efficiency; turnover time
Ambulatory surgery, including short-stay surgery, has become a common choice in clinical practice. For the success of ambulatory surgery, perioperative care with safe and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, which can reduce the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), is essential. The effect of remifentanil on the occurrence and severity of PONV has not been thoroughly examined, particularly, in an ambulatory surgery setting. Here, we investigate whether remifentanil influences the occurrence and severity of PONV in a university hospital-based ambulatory unit.
We retrospectively analyzed a total of 1,765 cases of patients who had undergone general anesthesia at our ambulatory surgery unit. Parameters, such as occurrence and severity of nausea, vomiting or retching, use of antiemetic drugs, amount of postoperative analgesic and patient satisfaction, were extracted from the records and analyzed between the groups that received and not received remifentanil.
Within 565 patients of the RF group, 39 patients (6.6%) experienced nausea, 7 patients (1.2%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 10 patients (1.8%) were given antiemetic; in addition, the maximum VAS value for nausea was 12.1 mm. In 1,200 patients of the non RF group, 102 patients (8.5%) experienced nausea, 19 patients (1.6%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 34 patients (2.8%) were given antiemetic, and the maximum VAS value was 13.2 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups.
Our results indicate that remifentanil did not increase the occurrence of PONV in patients within the ambulatory surgery unit.
Ambulatory surgery; Postoperative nausea and vomiting; Remifentanil
Analyses of existing nationally representative information on how changes in ambulatory orthopedic surgery have affected anesthesia practice over time are rare. We sought to characterize temporal changes in factors surrounding ambulatory orthopedic surgery and anesthesia.
Data from the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery for the years of 1996 and 2006 were analyzed. Entries indicating the performance of knee ligamentoplasty, meniscectomy or shoulder arthroscopy were identified and included in the sample. Temporal changes in a number of variables associated with orthopedic ambulatory surgery were assessed, including: 1) the number of procedures being performed, 2) patient and health care system related demographics and 3) anesthesia related variables.
Nationwide, the total number of ligamentoplasties, meniscectomies and shoulder arthroscopies increased from 1996 to 2006 by 66% (N=258,932 to N=428,712), 51% (N=456,698 to N=690,164), and 349% (N=93,105 to N=418,188) respectively (P<0.0001). Between 1996 and 2006 the use of peripheral nerve blocks increased from 0.6% to 9.8% for meniscectomies (P<0.0001), from 1.5% to 13.7% for ligamentoplasties (P<0.0001), and from 11.5% to 23.9% for shoulder arthroscopies (P<0.0001), respectively. Neuraxial anesthesia utilization fell from 11.8% to 6.3% for meniscectomies (P<0.0001) and 13.6% to 7.3% for ligamentoplasties (P<0.0001) from 1996 to 2006, respectively.
Substantial increases in the number of ambulatory knee and shoulder procedures occurred over time, relating to increased demand for anesthesia providers in this field. Trends towards increased use of peripheral nerve blocks may have to be considered by educators when preparing residents for practice.
To analyze whether patient characteristics, ambulatory facility type, anesthesia provider and technique, procedure type, and temporal factors impact the outcome of unexpected disposition after ambulatory knee and shoulder surgery.
Retrospective analysis of a national database.
Freestanding and hospital-based ambulatory surgery facilities.
Ambulatory knee and shoulder surgery cases from 1996 and 2006 were identified through the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. The incidence of unexpected disposition status was determined and risk factors for such outcome were analyzed.
Factors independently increasing the risk for unexpected disposition included procedures performed in hospital-based versus freestanding facilities [odds ratio (OR) 6.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34; 10.75)], shoulder versus knee procedures [OR 3.84 (CI 2.55; 5.77)], anesthesia provided by nonanesthesiology professionals and certified registered nurse-anesthetists versus anesthesiologists [OR 7.33 (CI 4.18; 12.84) and OR 1.80 (CI 1.09; 2.99), respectively]. Decreased risk for unexpected disposition were found for procedures performed in 2006 versus 1996 [OR 0.15 (CI 0.10; 0.24)] and the use of anesthesia other than regional and general [OR 0.34 (CI 0.18; 0.68)].
The decreased risk for unexpected disposition associated with more recent data and with freestanding versus hospital-based facilities may represent improvements in efficiency, while the decreased odds for such disposition status associated with the use of other than general and regional anesthesia may be related to a lower invasiveness of cases. We found an increased risk of adverse disposition in cases where the anesthesia provider was a nonanesthesiology professional. No difference in this outcome was noted when an anesthesia care team provided care.
Ambulatory surgery; orthopedic surgery: knee, shoulder; unexpected disposition
Our objective was to evaluate national trends in regional anesthetic techniques among children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures.
Purpose and Questions
We aimed to determine whether an increase in regional anesthetics was primarily driven by an increase in the number of peripheral nerve blocks performed rather than an increase in neuraxial techniques. We further aimed to determine whether the proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed in conjunction with general anesthesia has increased over time.
Patients and Methods
Our study sample included any pediatric patient (i.e., <18 years old) who underwent an orthopedic ambulatory procedure in 1996 and 2006. We obtained data on ambulatory surgical procedures by accessing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. Patient demographics (age, gender), procedure information, and anesthesia-related variables were analyzed for each year.
The proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed for ambulatory surgery more than doubled from 1996 (4.4 %) to 2006 (8.1 %). A significantly larger proportion of orthopedic procedures were being performed with a combination of peripheral nerve blocks and general anesthesia (1.2 % in 1996 and 43 % 2006). The use of neuraxial anesthesia for lower extremity surgeries decreased over the 10-year period (1.1 and 0.4 % in 1996 and 2006, respectively).
There was a significant increase in the use of peripheral nerve blocks for children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures in the USA, while neuraxial techniques became less common over the 10-year period. The peripheral nerve blocks were frequently performed in conjunction with general anesthesia.
regional anesthesia; pediatrics; ambulatory surgery
Many institutions have organized specialized groups of ambulatory surgery anesthesiologists with the aim of improving ambulatory surgery patient care and efficiency. We hypothesized that specialized ambulatory anesthesia teams produce better patient outcomes such as lower postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rates, lower postoperative pain scores, and shorter postanesthesia care unit (PACU) lengths of stay (LOS).
In this prospective observational study, we collected outcomes data on 1,299 patients including incidence of PONV, PACU LOS, maximum and average pain scores, amount of postoperative opioid use, and rescue antiemetic use.
Ambulatory anesthesiologists had statistically shorter phase 2 PACU LOS times (P < .05) and overall recovery times (P < .01). The PONV incidence odds ratio for ambulatory versus nonambulatory anesthesiologists was 1.31 (95% CI 1.01-1.72). We found no significant difference in the amount of postoperative opioid use, maximum postoperative pain scores, or PACU phase 1 LOS time.
The decreased PACU LOS for the study group's patients occurred despite the increased incidence of PONV. Ambulatory anesthesiologists contributed to decreased PACU LOS while practicing evidence-based anesthesia with regard to PONV and pain control. Ambulatory subspecialization may benefit institutions as a way to increase perioperative efficiency and improve surgeon and patient satisfaction.
Ambulatory anesthesia; ambulatory surgery; operating room efficiency
Auricular acupuncture is a promising method for postoperative pain relief. However, there is no evidence for its use after ambulatory surgery. Our aim was to test whether auricular acupuncture is better than invasive needle control for complementary analgesia after ambulatory knee surgery.
One hundred and twenty patients undergoing ambulatory arthroscopic knee surgery under standardized general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive auricular acupuncture or a control procedure. Fixed indwelling acupuncture needles were inserted before surgery and retained in situ until the following morning. Postoperative rescue analgesia was directed to achieve pain intensity less than 40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative requirement for ibuprofen between surgery and examination the following morning.
Intention-to-treat analysis showed that patients from the control group (n = 59) required more ibuprofen than patients from the auricular acupuncture group (n = 61): median (interquartile range) 600 (200–800) v. 200 (0–600) mg (p = 0.012). Pain intensity on a visual analogue scale was similar in both groups at all time points registered. The majority of patients in both groups believed that they had received true acupuncture and wanted to repeat it in future.
Auricular acupuncture reduced the requirement for ibuprofen after ambulatory knee surgery relative to an invasive needle control procedure.
The popularity of day case surgical procedures has increased immensely over the last few years. Though various techniques are available for carrying out day-case anesthesia, preference for a technique depends upon the type of procedure, patient profile, associated co-morbidities, available infrastructure and back-up facilities, monitoring devices and comfort of the attending anesthesiologist with the technique. Day-case spinal anesthesia for ambulatory surgery has gained a wider acceptance and numerous drugs are available for use in loco-regional anesthesia. Articaine is one such amide local anesthetic drug which is increasingly being used in day care surgeries. Properties of articaine such as faster onset, shorter elimination time and rapid recovery from sensory and motor blockade make it a very useful agent in local and regional anesthesia for day care surgical procedures. This article aims to review these properties of articaine so as to evaluate how useful articaine can be for ambulatory surgical procedures.
Articaine; Bupivacaine; Day-care surgery; Lignocaine; Neuraxial anesthesia; Prilocaine; Regional anesthesia
Auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treating various pain conditions, but there have been no analyses of AA for the treatment of pain after ambulatory knee surgery. We assessed the range of analgesic requirements under AA after ambulatory knee arthroscopy. Twenty patients randomly received a true AA procedure (Lung, Shenmen and Knee points) or sham procedure (three non-acupuncture points on the auricular helix) before ambulatory knee arthroscopy. Permanent press AA needles were retained in situ for one day after surgery. Post-operative pain was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ibuprofen, and weak oral opioid tramadol was used for rescue analgesic medication. The quantity of post-operative analgesics and pain intensity were used to assess the effect of AA. The incidence of analgesia-related side effects, time to discharge from the anesthesia recovery room, heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded. Ibuprofen consumption after surgery in the AA group was lower than in the control group: median 500 versus 800 mg, P = 0.043. Pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale for pain measurement and other parameters were similar in both groups. Thus AA might be useful in reducing the post-operative analgesic requirement after ambulatory knee arthroscopy.
ambulatory surgery; auricular acupuncture; post-operative pain
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, also referred to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning syndrome presents in perioperative period. We demonstrated a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy recognized after general anesthesia for bladder hydrodistension therapy as ambulatory surgery, which we surmise was due to inadequate blockage of surgical stress and sympathetic discharge against noxious stimulus during ambulatory anesthesia.
Ambulatory surgery; Apical ballooning syndrome; Hydrodistension of bladder; Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.
The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.
The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.
Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.
This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.
We studied 211 unselected, healthy, adult patients scheduled to undergo elective ambulatory surgery to determine whether the volume or pH of gastric fluid at induction of anesthesia is correlated with the duration of the preoperative fluid fast. Patients were instructed that they must not eat any solid food after midnight but that they were permitted to drink 150 ml of tea, coffee, apple juice or water until 3 hours before their scheduled time of surgery. Patients with gastric disorders and those taking medications that affect gastric motility or secretion were excluded. No premedicant drugs were given. Following induction of general anesthesia the gastric fluid was aspirated through an orogastric tube, its volume recorded and its pH measured with a calibrated pH meter. The patients were retrospectively assigned to one of four groups according to the interval from last fluid ingestion until induction of anesthesia (less than 3 hours, 3 to 4.9 hours, 5 to 8 hours and nothing after midnight). The mean values and extremes for gastric fluid volume and pH were similar in the four groups. We conclude that healthy patients should be allowed to ingest fluid until 3 hours before elective ambulatory surgery.
When patients are asked what they find most anxiety provoking about having surgery, the top concerns almost always include postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Only until recently have there been any published recommendations, mostly derived from expert opinion, as to which regimens to use once a patient develops PONV. The goal of this study was to assess the responses to a written survey to address the following questions: 1) If no prophylaxis is administered to an ambulatory patient, what agent do anesthesiologists use for treatment of PONV in the ambulatory Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)?; 2) Do anesthesiologists use non-pharmacologic interventions for PONV treatment?; and 3) If a PONV prophylaxis agent is administered during the anesthetic, do anesthesiologists choose an antiemetic in a different class for treatment?
A questionnaire with five short hypothetical clinical vignettes was mailed to 300 randomly selected USA anesthesiologists. The types of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for PONV treatment were analyzed.
The questionnaire was completed by 106 anesthesiologists (38% response rate), who reported that on average 52% of their practice was ambulatory. If a patient develops PONV and received no prophylaxis, 67% (95% CI, 62% – 79%) of anesthesiologists reported they would administer a 5-HT3-antagonist as first choice for treatment, with metoclopramide and dexamethasone being the next two most common choices. 65% (95% CI, 55% – 74%) of anesthesiologists reported they would also use non-pharmacologic interventions to treat PONV in the PACU, with an IV fluid bolus or nasal cannula oxygen being the most common. When PONV prophylaxis was given during the anesthetic, the preferred PONV treatment choice changed. Whereas 3%–7% of anesthesiologists would repeat dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone, or droperidol, 26% (95% confidence intervals, 18% – 36%) of practitioners would re-dose the 5-HT3-antagonist for PONV treatment.
5-HT3-antagonists are the most common choice for treatment of established PONV for outpatients when no prophylaxis is used, and also following prophylactic regimens that include a 5HT3 antagonist, regardless of the number of prophylactic antiemetics given. Whereas 3% – 7% of anesthesiologists would repeat dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone, or droperidol, 26% of practitioners would re-dose the 5-HT3-antagonist for PONV treatment.
Recent investigations of local anesthetic distribution in the lower extremity have revealed that completely surrounding the sciatic nerve with local anesthetic provides the advantage of more rapid and complete anesthesia in the territory served by the nerve. We hypothesized that a pattern of distribution which entirely envelops the targeted nerve roots during interscalene block would provide similar benefits of more rapid anesthesia onset.
During interscalene block guided by ultrasound with nerve-stimulator confirmation, the pattern of local anesthetic distribution was recorded and later classified as complete or incomplete envelopment of the visible nerve elements in 50 patients undergoing ambulatory shoulder arthroscopic surgery. The pattern was then compared to the extent of block set-up at predetermined intervals, as well as to postoperative pain levels and block duration.
22 patients (44%) had complete envelopment of the nerves in the plane of injection during ultrasound imaging of the interscalene block. There was no difference in the fraction of blocks that were fully set-up at 10 minutes with regards to complete or incomplete envelopment of the nerves by local anesthetic. All of the patients had complete set-up of the block by 20 minutes. In addition, the postoperative pain levels and duration of block did not vary among the two groups with complete versus incomplete local anesthetic distribution around the nerves.
The presence or absence of complete envelopment of the nerve elements in the interscalene groove by local anesthetic did not determine the likelihood of complete block effect at predetermined time intervals after the procedure.
The wide-awake approach to hand surgery entails the use of local infiltration anesthesia using lidocaine with epinephrine and no tourniquet. The technique provides practitioners with an option to perform advanced hand surgical care in an ambulatory setting, without the need for general or regional anesthetics. We present our results using wide-awake approach in wrist surgery, both open and arthroscopic. Between June and August 2011, the wide-awake approach was used in nine elective wrist surgery cases; three arthroscopic procedures, four open triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) repairs, and two combined arthroscopy/open surgery (eight men/one woman). The arthroscopic patients were anesthetized using dorsal infiltration of lidocaine with epinephrine (20 mL) with an additional intra-articular 5 mL injection 30 minutes before surgery. The open surgery patients received 40 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine around the ulnar aspect of the forearm, from 8-cm proximal to 3-cm distal to the distal radioulnar joint. Standard diagnostic radio- and midcarpal arthroscopies were performed, where one patient had a loose body removed and two patients underwent TFCC debridements due to central TFCC tears. The six open cases were all due to TFCC foveal disruptions, which were reinserted using osteosutures in the distal ulna. Following placement of the ligament sutures, a preliminary knot allowed active and passive motion testing of pronosupination, to determine the adequate amount of tension in the ligaments. The wide-awake approach to wrist surgery is a plausible and reliable technique that eliminates the need for general anesthesia, removes the need of a tourniquet, and provides a cost-efficient and safe approach to wrist surgery. The ability to control ligament reconstructions using active motion may additionally enhance the rehabilitation of these patients, both through early proprioceptive awareness and adequate tensioning of soft tissues.
arthroscopy; local anesthesia; proprioception; TFCC; wide-awake surgery; wrist
Outpatient ophthalmic surgery has arrived, and ambulatory surgical centers are cropping up all across the country. Government and third-party payers have produced significant financial incentives for performing outpatient surgery, but there are, perhaps, more compelling reasons for allowing this option for patients. Advantages accrue to both the patient and the ophthalmic surgeon. Disadvantages can be minimized and the prospects for success can be maximized through proper preoperative workup, anesthesia management, and postoperative follow-up.
In the experience of one of the authors with outpatient cataract and intraocular lens surgery, 66.7 percent of outpatients achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better and 33.3 percent of inpatients achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. All patients had significant improvement in vision, and failure to achieve a 20/40 level of vision was caused by preoperative pathology. Because of these considerations, the authors believe that it is not only reasonable but prudent to direct the development of skills and techniques toward even safer and more efficient outpatient ophthalmic surgery.
This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of tramadol HCL 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg combination tablet with tramadol HCL 50 mg capsule in the treatment of postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery with iv regional anesthesia. Patients received trial medication at admission, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours after discharge until midnight of the first postoperative day. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patients (n = 128 in each group, full analysis set) and recorded in a diary on the evening of surgery day and of the first postoperative day. They also documented the occurrence of adverse events. By the end of the first postoperative day, the proportion of treatment responders based on treatment satisfaction (primary efficacy variable) was comparable between the groups (78.1% combination, 71.9% tramadol; P = 0.24) and mean pain intensity (rated on a numerical scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain) had been reduced to 1.7 ± 2.0 for both groups. Under both treatments, twice as many patients experienced no pain (score = 0) on the first postoperative day compared to the day of surgery (35.9% vs 16.4% for tramadol/paracetamol and 36.7% vs 18% for tramadol treatment). Rescue medication leading to withdrawal (diclofenac 50 mg) was required by 17.2% patients with tramadol/paracetamol and 13.3% with tramadol. Adverse events (mainly nausea, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, and increased sweating) occurred less frequently in patients under combination treatment (P = 0.004). Tramadol/paracetamol combination tablets provided comparable analgesic efficacy with a better safety profile to tramadol capsules in patients experiencing postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery.
ambulatory hand surgery; analgesia; combination therapy; paracetamol; postoperative pain; tramadol
Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably, but it may be combined with other inhalation and/or intravenous agents in deep sedative/general anesthestic techniques. However, as a single agent, it has impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive dental patients. To gain a full appreciation of the pharmacology, physiologic influences, and proper use of nitrous oxide, one must compare it with other inhalation anesthetics. The purpose of this CE article is to provide an overview of inhalation anesthetics in general and to address nitrous oxide more specifically in comparison.
General anesthesia; Inhalation anesthetics; Nitrous oxide; Conscious sedation; Moderate sedation
Nasal intubation is an advantageous approach for dental procedures performed in the hospital, ambulatory surgery center, or dental office, when possible. Although many who provide anesthesia services are familiar and comfortable with nasal intubation techniques, some are reluctant and uncomfortable because of lack of experience or fear of nasopharyngeal bleeding and trauma. It has been observed from experiences in various settings that many approaches may be adapted to the technique of achieving nasal intubation. The technique that is described in this paper suggests a minimally invasive approach that introduces the nasoendotracheal tube through the nasopharyngeal pathway to the oropharynx in an expedient manner while preserving the nasopharyngeal structures, thus lessening nasal bleeding and trauma to soft tissues. The technique uses a common urethral catheter and can be incorporated along with current intubation armamentaria. As with all techniques, some limitations to the approach have been identified and are described in this paper. Cases with limited mouth opening, neck injury, and difficult airways may necessitate alternative methods. However, the short learning curve along with the many benefits of this technique offers the anesthesia professional additional options for excellent patient care.
Nasotracheal tube; Nasopharyngeal; Intubation; Special needs; Urethral catheter; Epistaxis
Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks facilitate ambulatory anesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Unilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common complication after interscalene brachial plexus block, rather than the supraclavicular block. We report a case of severe respiratory distress and bilateral bronchospasm following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patient did not have clinical features of pneumothorax or drug allergy and was managed with oxygen therapy and salbutamol nebulization. Chest X-ray revealed elevated right hemidiaphragm confirming unilateral phrenic nerve paresis.
Bronchospasm; phrenic nerve blockade; supraclavicular block; ultrasound guided
Minimally invasive therapy aims to minimize the trauma of any interventional process but still achieve a satisfactory therapeutic result. The development of "critical pathways," rapid mobilization and early feeding have contributed towards the goal of shorter hospital stay. This concept has been extended to include laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernia repair. Reports have been published confirming the safety of same day discharge for the majority of patients. However, we would caution against overenthusiastic ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the rational but unproven assumption that early discharge will lead to occasional delays in diagnosis and management of postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications of laparoscopic surgery are mostly due to traumatic injuries sustained during blind trocar insertion and physiologic changes associated with patient positioning and pneumoperitoneum creation. General anesthesia and controlled ventilation comprise the accepted anesthetic technique to reduce the increase in PaCO2. Investigators have recently documented the cardiorespiratory compromise associated with upper abdominal laparoscopic surgery, and particular emphasis is placed on careful perioperative monitoring of ASA III-IV patients during insufflation. Setting limits on the inflationary pressure is advised in these patients. Anesthesiologists must maintain a high index of suspicion for complications such as gas embolism, extraperitoneal insufflation and surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Postoperative nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing symptoms after laparoscopic surgery. A highly potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, has proven to be an effective oral and IV prophylaxis against postoperative emesis in preliminary studies. Opioids remain an important component of the anesthesia technique, although the introduction of newer potent NSAIDs may diminish their use. A preoperative multimodal analgesic regimen involving skin infiltration with local anesthesia. NSAIDs to attenuate peripheral pain and opioids for central pain may reduce postoperative discomfort and expedite patient recovery/discharge. There is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate clinically significant effects of nitrous oxide on surgical conditions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy or on the incidence of postoperative emesis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has proven to be a major advance in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease.
Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is conventionally done under general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is usually preferred in patients where general anesthesia is contraindicated. We present our experience using spinal anesthesia as the first choice for laparoscopic surgery for over 11 years with the contention that it is a good alterative to anesthesia.
Spinal anesthesia was used in 4645 patients over the last 11 years. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 2992, and the remaining patients underwent other laparoscopic surgeries. There was no modification in the technique, and the intraabdominal pressure was kept at 8mm Hg to 10mm Hg. Sedation was given if required, and conversion to general anesthesia was done in patients not responding to sedation or with failure of spinal anesthesia. Results were compared with those of 421 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery while under general anesthesia.
Twenty-four (0.01%) patients required conversion to general anesthesia. Hypotension requiring support was recorded in 846 (18.21%) patients, and 571(12.29%) experienced neck or shoulder pain, or both. Postoperatively, 2.09% (97) of patients had vomiting compared to 29.22% (123 patients) of patients who were administered general anesthesia. Injectable diclofenac was required in 35.59% (1672) for abdominal pain within 2 hours postoperatively, and oral analgesic was required in 2936 (63.21%) patients within the first 24 hours. However, 90.02% of patients operated on while under general anesthesia required injectable analgesics in the immediate postoperative period. Postural headache persisting for an average of 2.6 days was seen in 255 (5.4%) patients postoperatively. Average time to discharge was 2.3 days. Karnofsky Performance Status Scale showed a 98.6% satisfaction level in patients.
Laparoscopic surgery done with the patient under spinal anesthesia has several advantages over laparoscopic surgery done with the patient under general anesthesia.
Laparoscopic surgery; Spinal anesthesia
Background: Regional anesthesia is known to prevent or attenuate the surgical stress response; thus, inhibiting surgical stress by paravertebral anesthesia might attenuate perioperative factors that enhance tumor growth and spread. We hypothesized that breast cancer patients undergoing surgery with paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia combined with general anesthesia have a lower incidence of cancer recurrence or metastases than patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia and patient-controlled morphine analgesia.
Methods: In this retrospective study, we examined the medical records of 129 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer between September 2001 and December 2002.
Results: 50 patients had surgery with paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia combined with general anesthesia and 79 patients had general anesthesia combined with postoperative morphine analgesia. The follow-up time was 32±5 months (mean±SD). There were no significant differences in patients or surgical details, tumor presentation, or prognostic factors. Recurrence and metastasis-free survival was 94% (95% CI 87,100) and 82% (74, 91) at 24 months and 94 (87, 100) and 77 (68, 87) at 36 months in the paravertebral and general anesthesia patients, respectively, P=0.012.
Conclusions: This retrospective analysis suggests that paravertebral anesthesia and analgesia for breast cancer surgery reduces the risk of recurrence or metastasis during the initial years of follow-up. Prospective trials evaluating the effects of regional analgesia and morphine sparing on cancer recurrence seem warranted.
Induction of anesthesia is the most crucial period of general anesthesia. Inhalational induction is the most commonly used technique in pediatric anesthesia. Tracheal intubation can be done after reaching the deep levels of anesthesia. The depth of anesthesia is often difficult to be judged. Bispectral index is a measure of the effects of anesthesia on brain. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of bispectral index (BIS) in clarifying suitable depth of anesthesia for tracheal intubation during inhalational induction of anesthesia.
In a clinical trial, ninety patients, ASA I & II, 1 to 6 years old, scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled into the study. After starting BIS monitoring, patients randomly were divided into three groups. Then, anesthesia was induced by gradual increase of halothane in 50% mixture of oxygen (O2) and N2O and continued until target BIS (60 ± 2, 50 ± 2 and 40 ± 2) achieved. After tracheal intubation, the duration of laryngoscopy and the presence of laryngospasm, bronchospasm, laryngoscopy failure, the movement of extremities and the changes in SpO2 and BIS were recorded. The data were analyzed by chi-square and ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance.
BIS could not determine the appropriate level of anesthesia for tracheal intubation in this setting. There were no differences in laryngoscopy duration and the occurrence of laryngospasm, bronchospasm, laryngoscopy failure, extremity movement and awakening time among three groups.
These results confirmed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of complications related to intubation at different BIS values (from 60 to 40) during inhalation induction, and probably to achieve an adequate or more reliable depth of anesthesia, the lower values of BIS is required.
Inhalation induction; BIS; Pediatric; Anesthesia
Local anesthesia with prilocaine has become a routine part of ambulatory circumcision procedures. Methemoglobinemia is a rare but potentially lethal complication of local anesthetics.
We report the case of a 40-day-old Turkish boy who presented with cyanosis after receiving local anesthesia with prilocaine. His methemoglobin level revealed severe methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin = 44%). His cyanosis resolved after intravenous administration of methylene blue.
Although the association between prilocaine use and methemoglobinemia has generally restricted the use of prilocaine in babies, it is still widely used in ambulatory procedures, especially during circumcision in the neonatal period. Prilocaine should not be used in babies who are less than 3 months old because of the risk of methemoglobinemia; other local anesthetics may be used for this age group. Furthermore, general anesthesia by mask ventilation may be favored for babies less than 3 months of age instead of local anesthetics.