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1.  Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing an Ambulatory Hand Surgery 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(3):273-278.
Patients undergoing ambulatory surgery under general anesthesia experience considerable levels of postoperative nausea and vomiting (N/V) after their discharge. However, those complications have not been thoroughly investigated in hand surgery patients yet. We investigated factors associated with postoperative N/V in patients undergoing an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia and determined whether patients' satisfaction with this setting is associated with postoperative N/V levels.
We prospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory hand surgeries under general anesthesia to assess their postoperative N/V visual analogue scale (VAS) levels during the first 24 hours after surgery and their satisfaction with an ambulatory surgery setting. Potential predictors of postoperative N/V were; age, sex, body mass index, smoking behavior, a history of postoperative N/V after previous anesthesia or motion sickness, preoperative anxiety level and the duration time of anesthesia. We conducted multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with postoperative N/V levels. We also conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the N/V levels are associated with the patients' satisfaction with this setting. Here, potential predictors for satisfaction were sex, age, postoperative pain and N/V.
Postoperative N/V were associated with a non-smoking history, a history of motion sickness and a high level of preoperative anxiety. Twenty-two patients (11%) were dissatisfied with the ambulatory setting and this dissatisfaction was independently associated with moderate (VAS 4-7) and high (VAS 8-10) levels of postoperative N/V and with a high level (VAS 8-10) of postoperative pain.
Although most of the patients were satisfied with the ambulatory surgery setting, moderate to high levels of N/V were associated with dissatisfaction of patients with this setting, suggesting a need for better identifying and managing those patients at risk. The information regarding risk factors for N/V could help in preoperative patient consultation regarding an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC4143513  PMID: 25177451
Ambulatory hand surgery; Nausea; Vomiting; Satisfaction
2.  Anesthesia-controlled time and turnover time for ambulatory upper extremity surgery performed with regional versus general anesthesia 
Journal of clinical anesthesia  2009;21(4):253-257.
Study Objective
To test the hypothesis that regional anesthesia (RA) employing a block room reduces anesthesia-controlled time for ambulatory upper extremity surgery compared with general anesthesia (GA).
Retrospective cohort study.
Outpatient surgery center of a university hospital.
229 adult patients who underwent ambulatory upper extremity surgery over one year.
Upper extremity surgery performed with three different anesthetic techniques: 1) GA, 2) nerve block (NB) performed preoperatively, or 3) local anesthetic (LA), either Bier block or local anesthetic, administered in the operating room (OR).
Demographic data, anesthesia-controlled time, and turnover time were recorded. Since the data were not normally distributed, differences in anesthesia-controlled time and turnover time were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc testing using one-way analysis of variance on the ranks of the observations, with Tukey-Kramer correction for multiple comparisons.
Anesthesia-controlled time for NB (median 28 min) was significantly shorter than for GA (median 32 min, P=0.0392). Anesthesia-controlled time for patients who received LA (median 25 min) was also significantly shorter than GA (P<0.0001). However, turnover time did not differ significantly among the three groups.
Peripheral nerve block performed preoperatively in an induction area or LA injected in the OR significantly reduces anesthesia-controlled time for ambulatory upper extremity surgery compared with GA. Turnover time is unaffected by anesthetic technique. These results may increase acceptance of RA in the ambulatory surgery setting.
PMCID: PMC2745934  PMID: 19502033
Ambulatory surgery; orthopedic; anesthesia; regional; anesthesia-controlled time; operating room efficiency; turnover time
3.  Factors influencing unexpected disposition after orthopedic ambulatory surgery 
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia  2012;24(2):89-95.
Study Objective
To analyze whether patient characteristics, ambulatory facility type, anesthesia provider and technique, procedure type, and temporal factors impact the outcome of unexpected disposition after ambulatory knee and shoulder surgery.
Retrospective analysis of a national database.
Freestanding and hospital-based ambulatory surgery facilities.
Ambulatory knee and shoulder surgery cases from 1996 and 2006 were identified through the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. The incidence of unexpected disposition status was determined and risk factors for such outcome were analyzed.
Main Results
Factors independently increasing the risk for unexpected disposition included procedures performed in hospital-based versus freestanding facilities [odds ratio (OR) 6.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34; 10.75)], shoulder versus knee procedures [OR 3.84 (CI 2.55; 5.77)], anesthesia provided by nonanesthesiology professionals and certified registered nurse-anesthetists versus anesthesiologists [OR 7.33 (CI 4.18; 12.84) and OR 1.80 (CI 1.09; 2.99), respectively]. Decreased risk for unexpected disposition were found for procedures performed in 2006 versus 1996 [OR 0.15 (CI 0.10; 0.24)] and the use of anesthesia other than regional and general [OR 0.34 (CI 0.18; 0.68)].
The decreased risk for unexpected disposition associated with more recent data and with freestanding versus hospital-based facilities may represent improvements in efficiency, while the decreased odds for such disposition status associated with the use of other than general and regional anesthesia may be related to a lower invasiveness of cases. We found an increased risk of adverse disposition in cases where the anesthesia provider was a nonanesthesiology professional. No difference in this outcome was noted when an anesthesia care team provided care.
PMCID: PMC3303976  PMID: 22305625
Ambulatory surgery; orthopedic surgery: knee, shoulder; unexpected disposition
4.  Regional Anesthesia for Children Undergoing Orthopedic Ambulatory Surgeries in the United States, 1996–2006 
HSS Journal  2012;8(2):133-136.
Our objective was to evaluate national trends in regional anesthetic techniques among children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures.
Purpose and Questions
We aimed to determine whether an increase in regional anesthetics was primarily driven by an increase in the number of peripheral nerve blocks performed rather than an increase in neuraxial techniques. We further aimed to determine whether the proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed in conjunction with general anesthesia has increased over time.
Patients and Methods
Our study sample included any pediatric patient (i.e., <18 years old) who underwent an orthopedic ambulatory procedure in 1996 and 2006. We obtained data on ambulatory surgical procedures by accessing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. Patient demographics (age, gender), procedure information, and anesthesia-related variables were analyzed for each year.
The proportion of peripheral nerve blocks performed for ambulatory surgery more than doubled from 1996 (4.4 %) to 2006 (8.1 %). A significantly larger proportion of orthopedic procedures were being performed with a combination of peripheral nerve blocks and general anesthesia (1.2 % in 1996 and 43 % 2006). The use of neuraxial anesthesia for lower extremity surgeries decreased over the 10-year period (1.1 and 0.4 % in 1996 and 2006, respectively).
There was a significant increase in the use of peripheral nerve blocks for children undergoing ambulatory orthopedic procedures in the USA, while neuraxial techniques became less common over the 10-year period. The peripheral nerve blocks were frequently performed in conjunction with general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC3715624  PMID: 23874253
regional anesthesia; pediatrics; ambulatory surgery
5.  Changes in anesthesia related factors in ambulatory knee and shoulder surgery: United States 1996–2006 
Analyses of existing nationally representative information on how changes in ambulatory orthopedic surgery have affected anesthesia practice over time are rare. We sought to characterize temporal changes in factors surrounding ambulatory orthopedic surgery and anesthesia.
Data from the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery for the years of 1996 and 2006 were analyzed. Entries indicating the performance of knee ligamentoplasty, meniscectomy or shoulder arthroscopy were identified and included in the sample. Temporal changes in a number of variables associated with orthopedic ambulatory surgery were assessed, including: 1) the number of procedures being performed, 2) patient and health care system related demographics and 3) anesthesia related variables.
Nationwide, the total number of ligamentoplasties, meniscectomies and shoulder arthroscopies increased from 1996 to 2006 by 66% (N=258,932 to N=428,712), 51% (N=456,698 to N=690,164), and 349% (N=93,105 to N=418,188) respectively (P<0.0001). Between 1996 and 2006 the use of peripheral nerve blocks increased from 0.6% to 9.8% for meniscectomies (P<0.0001), from 1.5% to 13.7% for ligamentoplasties (P<0.0001), and from 11.5% to 23.9% for shoulder arthroscopies (P<0.0001), respectively. Neuraxial anesthesia utilization fell from 11.8% to 6.3% for meniscectomies (P<0.0001) and 13.6% to 7.3% for ligamentoplasties (P<0.0001) from 1996 to 2006, respectively.
Substantial increases in the number of ambulatory knee and shoulder procedures occurred over time, relating to increased demand for anesthesia providers in this field. Trends towards increased use of peripheral nerve blocks may have to be considered by educators when preparing residents for practice.
PMCID: PMC3121915  PMID: 21490521
6.  The impact of remifentanil on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a university hospital-based ambulatory surgery center: a retrospective observation study 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(2):142-146.
Ambulatory surgery, including short-stay surgery, has become a common choice in clinical practice. For the success of ambulatory surgery, perioperative care with safe and effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, which can reduce the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), is essential. The effect of remifentanil on the occurrence and severity of PONV has not been thoroughly examined, particularly, in an ambulatory surgery setting. Here, we investigate whether remifentanil influences the occurrence and severity of PONV in a university hospital-based ambulatory unit.
We retrospectively analyzed a total of 1,765 cases of patients who had undergone general anesthesia at our ambulatory surgery unit. Parameters, such as occurrence and severity of nausea, vomiting or retching, use of antiemetic drugs, amount of postoperative analgesic and patient satisfaction, were extracted from the records and analyzed between the groups that received and not received remifentanil.
Within 565 patients of the RF group, 39 patients (6.6%) experienced nausea, 7 patients (1.2%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 10 patients (1.8%) were given antiemetic; in addition, the maximum VAS value for nausea was 12.1 mm. In 1,200 patients of the non RF group, 102 patients (8.5%) experienced nausea, 19 patients (1.6%) experienced vomiting or retching, and 34 patients (2.8%) were given antiemetic, and the maximum VAS value was 13.2 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups.
Our results indicate that remifentanil did not increase the occurrence of PONV in patients within the ambulatory surgery unit.
PMCID: PMC3766780  PMID: 24023997
Ambulatory surgery; Postoperative nausea and vomiting; Remifentanil
7.  Specialized Ambulatory Anesthesia Teams Contribute to Decreased Ambulatory Surgery Recovery Room Length of Stay 
The Ochsner Journal  2012;12(2):94-100.
Many institutions have organized specialized groups of ambulatory surgery anesthesiologists with the aim of improving ambulatory surgery patient care and efficiency. We hypothesized that specialized ambulatory anesthesia teams produce better patient outcomes such as lower postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rates, lower postoperative pain scores, and shorter postanesthesia care unit (PACU) lengths of stay (LOS).
In this prospective observational study, we collected outcomes data on 1,299 patients including incidence of PONV, PACU LOS, maximum and average pain scores, amount of postoperative opioid use, and rescue antiemetic use.
Ambulatory anesthesiologists had statistically shorter phase 2 PACU LOS times (P < .05) and overall recovery times (P < .01). The PONV incidence odds ratio for ambulatory versus nonambulatory anesthesiologists was 1.31 (95% CI 1.01-1.72). We found no significant difference in the amount of postoperative opioid use, maximum postoperative pain scores, or PACU phase 1 LOS time.
The decreased PACU LOS for the study group's patients occurred despite the increased incidence of PONV. Ambulatory anesthesiologists contributed to decreased PACU LOS while practicing evidence-based anesthesia with regard to PONV and pain control. Ambulatory subspecialization may benefit institutions as a way to increase perioperative efficiency and improve surgeon and patient satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC3387853  PMID: 22778673
Ambulatory anesthesia; ambulatory surgery; operating room efficiency
8.  Leaving More Than Your Fingerprint on the Intravenous Line: A Prospective Study on Propofol Anesthesia and Implications of Stopcock Contamination 
Anesthesia and analgesia  2013;10.1213/ANE.0b013e318292ed45.
Acute care handling of IV stopcocks during anesthesia and surgery may result in contaminated IV tubing sets. In the context of widespread propofol use, a nutrient-rich hypnotic drug, we hypothesized that propofol anesthesia increases bacterial contamination of IV stopcocks and may compromise safety of IV tubing sets when continued to be used after propofol anesthesia.
We conducted an in vitro trial by collecting IV tubing sets at the time of patient discharge from same-day ambulatory procedures performed with and without propofol anesthesia. These extension sets were then held at room temperature for 6, 24, or 48 hours. We cultured 50 samples at each interval for both cohorts. Quantitative cultures were done by aspirating the IV stopcock dead space and plating the aspirate on blood agar for colony count and speciation.
Positive bacterial counts were recovered from 17.3% of propofol anesthesia stopcocks (26/150) and 18.6% of non-propofol stopcocks (28/150). At 6 hours, the average bacterial counts from stopcocks with visible residual propofol was 44 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, compared to 41 CFU/mL with no visible residual propofol and 37 CFU/mL in non-propofol anesthesia stopcocks. There was a 100-fold increase in bacterial number in contaminated stopcock dead spaces at 48 hours after propofol anesthesia. This difference remained significant when comparing positive counts from stopcocks with no visible residual propofol and non-propofol anesthesia (p-value=0.034).
There is a covert incidence and degree of IV stopcock bacterial contamination during anesthesia which is aggravated by propofol anesthetic. Propofol anesthesia may increase risk for postoperative infection because of bacterial growth in IV stopcock dead spaces.
PMCID: PMC3833883  PMID: 23749446
9.  Dynamics of Elective Case Cancellation for Inpatient and Outpatient in an Academic Center 
Unexpected surgical cancellation is common and can have significant adverse effects. Cancellation rates vary because of a lack of a standard definition, different patient populations and study methodology. We hypothesized that case cancellation has a different pattern in a dedicated ambulatory surgical center compared to a general operating room (OR) setting in a large academic center without an anesthesia preoperative evaluation center necessitating evaluation by the various surgeons.
Elective cases in general OR and in the ambulatory surgical center were included in this study. Elective cases are defined as the non-emergent cases scheduled before 8:00 am on the day of surgery. A cancelled case was defined as a scheduled procedure which is not performed on the scheduled procedure day. Case cancellation was monitored in real time using an electronic patient flow system (Navicare). As soon as the case is cancelled, the reason for the cancellation was obtained from the surgeon, the anesthesiologist, the OR coordinated nurses and/or the floor nurse. In the day surgical center, the cancelled cases were followed to determine whether/when they were rescheduled.
4261 elective cases were included in this investigation, including 2751 cases in the general OR and 1510 cases in the ambulatory surgical center. A total of 283 cases (6.6%) were cancelled which include 206 cases from the general OR and 77 from the ambulatory surgical center. The cancellation rate in the general OR was 7.5%, among which inpatients have the highest cancellation rate of 18.1%, followed by outpatients at 4.6%, and same day admission at the lowest cancellation rate of 2.0%. The top 3 reasons for cancellation in general OR werein adequate preoperative preparation 29.4 ± 4.5%, medical condition change 28.5 ± 10.2%; and scheduling issue 20.2 ± 7.1%. Most (59.2 ± 8.9%) of the cancellations was considered preventable, 12.3 ± 5.9% was considered potentially preventable, and 28.5 ± 10.2% were not preventable (such as patient condition changes). The cancellation rate in the ambulatory surgical center was 5.1%. The major reason for cancellation was patient no show 75.8 ± 5.2 %, 61% of those no show patients were rescheduled and the mean delay in surgery was 18 days (range from 1 day to 84 days).
Case cancellation is not un-common in a large academic center without a preoperative evaluation clinic. The dynamics of case cancellation are different in an ambulatory surgical center as compared to the general OR. Inpatients have the highest cancellation rate associated with inadequate preoperative preparation and scheduling, this should be preventable via adopting proper systems of evaluation and preparation. Most of the case cancellations in the ambulatory surgical center are from patient no show, suggesting that administrative strategies to reduce this issue should be implemented. The patients admitted on the same day of surgery had the lowest cancellation rate requiring minimal intervention.
PMCID: PMC3839960  PMID: 24286019
10.  Primary Payer Status is Associated with the Use of Nerve Block Placement for Ambulatory Orthopedic Surgery 
Although more than 30 million patients in the United States undergo ambulatory surgery each year, it remains unclear what percentage of these patients receive a perioperative nerve block. We reviewed data from the 2006 National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, and clinical factors associated with the likelihood of nerve block placement for ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The primary outcome of interest was the association between primary method of payment and likelihood of nerve block placement. Additionally, we examined the association between type of surgical procedures, patient demographics, and hospital characteristics with the likelihood of receiving a nerve block.
This cross-sectional study reviewed 6,000 orthopedic anesthetics from the 2006 NSAS dataset, which accounted for over 3.9 million orthopedic anesthetics when weighted. The primary outcome of this study addressed the likelihood of receiving a nerve block for orthopedic ambulatory surgery according to the patient’s primary method of payment. Secondary endpoints included differences in demographics, surgical procedures, side effects, complications, recovery profile, anesthesia staffing model, and total perioperative charges in those with and without nerve block.
Overall, 14.9% of anesthetics in this sample involved a peripheral nerve block. Length of time in postoperative recovery, total perioperative time, and total charges were less for those receiving nerve blocks. Patients were more likely to receive a nerve block if their procedures were performed in metropolitan service areas (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.19-2.91, p=0.007) or freestanding surgical facilities (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.74-2.96, p<0.0001), and if payment for their surgery was supported by government programs (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.01-6.21, p=0.048) or private insurance (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.12-6.13, p=0.03) versus self-pay or charity care.
For patients receiving ambulatory orthopedic surgery in the United States, our results suggest that geographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with different likelihoods of perioperative peripheral nerve block placement.
PMCID: PMC3337363  PMID: 22430024
11.  A Detailed Cost and Efficiency Analysis of Performing Carpal Tunnel Surgery in the Main Operating Room versus the Ambulatory Setting in Canada 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2007;2(4):173-178.
Our goals were to analyze cost and efficiency of performing carpal tunnel release (CTR) in the main operating room (OR) versus the ambulatory setting, and to document the venue of carpal tunnel surgery practices by plastic surgeons in Canada.
A detailed analysis of the salaries of nonphysician personnel and materials involved in CTR performed in these settings was tabulated. Hospital statistical records were used to calculate our efficiency analysis. A survey of practicing plastic surgeons in Canada documented the venue of CTR performed by most.
In a 3-h surgical block, we are able to perform nine CTRs in the ambulatory setting versus four in the main OR. The cost of CTR in the ambulatory setting is $36/case and $137/case in the main OR in the same hospital. Only 18% of Canadian respondents use the main OR exclusively for CTR, whereas 63% use it for some of their cases. The ambulatory setting is used exclusively by 37%, whereas 69% use it for greater than 95% of their cases. The majority of CTR cases (>95%) are done without an anesthesia provider by 73% of surgeons. Forty-three percent use epinephrine routinely with local anesthesia and 43% avoid the use of a tourniquet for at least some cases by using epinephrine for hemostasis.
The use of the main OR for CTR is almost four times as expensive, and less than half as efficient as in an ambulatory setting. In spite of this, many surgeons in Canada continue to use the more expensive, less efficient venue of the main OR for CTR.
PMCID: PMC2527229  PMID: 18780048
Carpal tunnel surgery; Epinephrine; Cost; Efficiency; Main operating room; Ambulatory
12.  Trends in Death Associated with Pediatric Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia 
Paediatric anaesthesia  2013;23(8):741-746.
Inadequate access to oral health care places children at risk for caries. Disease severity and inability to cooperate often result in treatment with general anesthesia (GA). Sedation is increasingly popular and viewed as lower risk than GA in community settings. Currently, few data are available to quantify pediatric morbidity and mortality related to dental anesthesia.
Summarize dental anesthesia-related pediatric deaths described in media reports.
Review of media reports in the Lexis-Nexis Academic database and a private foundation website.
Dental offices, ambulatory surgery centers, and hospitals.
U.S.-based children (≤ 21 y.o.) who died subsequent to receiving anesthesia for a dental procedure between 1980–2011.
Most deaths occurred among 2 –5 year-olds (n=21/44); in an office setting (n=21/44), and with a general/pediatric dentist (n=25/44) as the anesthesia provider. In this latter group, 17/25 deaths were linked with a sedation anesthetic.
This series of media reports likely represent only a fraction of the overall morbidity and mortality related to dental anesthesia. These data may indicate an association between mortality and pediatric dental procedures under sedation, particularly in office settings. However, these relationships are difficult to test in the absence of a database that could provide an estimate of incidence and prevalence of morbidity and mortality. With growing numbers of children receiving anesthesia for dental procedures from providers with variable training, it is imperative to be able to track anesthesia-related adverse outcomes. Creating a national database of adverse outcomes will enable future research to advance patient safety and quality.
PMCID: PMC3712625  PMID: 23763673
Anesthesia; Patient safety; Child; Conscious Sedation/adverse effects; Dental Anxiety/drug therapy; Treatment Outcome
13.  Use of Articaine in loco-regional anesthesia for day care surgical procedures 
The popularity of day case surgical procedures has increased immensely over the last few years. Though various techniques are available for carrying out day-case anesthesia, preference for a technique depends upon the type of procedure, patient profile, associated co-morbidities, available infrastructure and back-up facilities, monitoring devices and comfort of the attending anesthesiologist with the technique. Day-case spinal anesthesia for ambulatory surgery has gained a wider acceptance and numerous drugs are available for use in loco-regional anesthesia. Articaine is one such amide local anesthetic drug which is increasingly being used in day care surgeries. Properties of articaine such as faster onset, shorter elimination time and rapid recovery from sensory and motor blockade make it a very useful agent in local and regional anesthesia for day care surgical procedures. This article aims to review these properties of articaine so as to evaluate how useful articaine can be for ambulatory surgical procedures.
PMCID: PMC3511938  PMID: 23225921
Articaine; Bupivacaine; Day-care surgery; Lignocaine; Neuraxial anesthesia; Prilocaine; Regional anesthesia
14.  Auricular acupuncture for pain relief after ambulatory knee surgery: a randomized trial 
Auricular acupuncture is a promising method for postoperative pain relief. However, there is no evidence for its use after ambulatory surgery. Our aim was to test whether auricular acupuncture is better than invasive needle control for complementary analgesia after ambulatory knee surgery.
One hundred and twenty patients undergoing ambulatory arthroscopic knee surgery under standardized general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive auricular acupuncture or a control procedure. Fixed indwelling acupuncture needles were inserted before surgery and retained in situ until the following morning. Postoperative rescue analgesia was directed to achieve pain intensity less than 40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative requirement for ibuprofen between surgery and examination the following morning.
Intention-to-treat analysis showed that patients from the control group (n = 59) required more ibuprofen than patients from the auricular acupuncture group (n = 61): median (interquartile range) 600 (200–800) v. 200 (0–600) mg (p = 0.012). Pain intensity on a visual analogue scale was similar in both groups at all time points registered. The majority of patients in both groups believed that they had received true acupuncture and wanted to repeat it in future.
Auricular acupuncture reduced the requirement for ibuprofen after ambulatory knee surgery relative to an invasive needle control procedure.
PMCID: PMC1764794  PMID: 17224599
15.  Ambulatory sentinel lymph node biopsy preceding neoadjuvant therapy in patients with operable breast cancer: a preliminary study 
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB)-oriented stepwise treatment under local anesthesia has been performed in the outpatient-ambulatory setting in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). We retrospectively reviewed our preliminary experience of ambulatory SNB in breast cancer patients scheduled to undergo NAT to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of this method as a minimally invasive, stepwise treatment protocol.
We retrospectively identified 56 patients with breast cancer without obvious nodal involvement who were scheduled to receive NAT before breast surgery. SNB was performed under local anesthesia in an ambulatory outpatient setting before the initiation of NAT.
The average number of removed sentinel lymph nodes was 1.9. Identification of the sentinel node was possible in all cases, and macrometastasis was observed in six cases (10.7%). Micrometastasis was observed in five cases, while isolated tumor cells were noted in six cases. There were no delays in the initiation of NAT as a result of complications of SNB.
This pilot study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of ambulatory SNB prior to NAT. Further studies are warranted to assess the strict indications, patient satisfaction, and medical economics of this procedure.
PMCID: PMC4336761
Breast cancer; Operation; Ambulatory surgical procedure; Sentinel lymph node biopsy; False negative
16.  New Utility for an Old Tool 
The primary aim of this study was to design prediction models based on a functional marker (preoperative gait-speed) to predict readiness for home discharge time of ≤ 90 minutes, and to identify those at risk for unplanned admissions, after elective ambulatory surgery.
This prospective observational cohort study evaluated all patients scheduled for elective ambulatory surgery. Home discharge readiness and unplanned admissions were the primary outcomes. Independent variables included preoperative gait speed, heart rate, and total anesthesia time. The relationship between all predictors and each primary outcome was determined in separate multivariable logistic regression models.
After adjustment for covariates, gait speed with adjusted odds ratio = 3.71 (95% CI: 1.21-11.26), p=0.02; was independently associated with early home discharge readiness ≤90 minutes. Importantly, gait speed dichotomized as greater or less than 1 m/s predicted unplanned admissions with odds ratio = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.76, p=0.008) for those with speeds ≥ 1 m/s in comparison to those with speed < 1 m/s. In a separate model, prior history of cardiac surgery with adjusted odds ratio =7.5 (95% CI: 2.34-24.41)(p=0.001) was independently associated with unplanned admissions after elective ambulatory surgery, when other covariates were held constant.
This study demonstrates use of novel prediction models based on gait speed testing to predict early home discharge and to identify those patients at risk for unplanned admissions, after elective ambulatory surgery.
PMCID: PMC3850792  PMID: 24051992
Gait Speed; Ambulatory Surgery; Discharge Planning; Quality Outcomes
17.  Volume and acidity of residual gastric fluid after oral fluid ingestion before elective ambulatory surgery. 
We studied 211 unselected, healthy, adult patients scheduled to undergo elective ambulatory surgery to determine whether the volume or pH of gastric fluid at induction of anesthesia is correlated with the duration of the preoperative fluid fast. Patients were instructed that they must not eat any solid food after midnight but that they were permitted to drink 150 ml of tea, coffee, apple juice or water until 3 hours before their scheduled time of surgery. Patients with gastric disorders and those taking medications that affect gastric motility or secretion were excluded. No premedicant drugs were given. Following induction of general anesthesia the gastric fluid was aspirated through an orogastric tube, its volume recorded and its pH measured with a calibrated pH meter. The patients were retrospectively assigned to one of four groups according to the interval from last fluid ingestion until induction of anesthesia (less than 3 hours, 3 to 4.9 hours, 5 to 8 hours and nothing after midnight). The mean values and extremes for gastric fluid volume and pH were similar in the four groups. We conclude that healthy patients should be allowed to ingest fluid until 3 hours before elective ambulatory surgery.
PMCID: PMC1451262  PMID: 2819633
18.  Auricular Acupuncture for Pain Relief after Ambulatory Knee Arthroscopy—A Pilot Study 
Auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treating various pain conditions, but there have been no analyses of AA for the treatment of pain after ambulatory knee surgery. We assessed the range of analgesic requirements under AA after ambulatory knee arthroscopy. Twenty patients randomly received a true AA procedure (Lung, Shenmen and Knee points) or sham procedure (three non-acupuncture points on the auricular helix) before ambulatory knee arthroscopy. Permanent press AA needles were retained in situ for one day after surgery. Post-operative pain was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ibuprofen, and weak oral opioid tramadol was used for rescue analgesic medication. The quantity of post-operative analgesics and pain intensity were used to assess the effect of AA. The incidence of analgesia-related side effects, time to discharge from the anesthesia recovery room, heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded. Ibuprofen consumption after surgery in the AA group was lower than in the control group: median 500 versus 800 mg, P = 0.043. Pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale for pain measurement and other parameters were similar in both groups. Thus AA might be useful in reducing the post-operative analgesic requirement after ambulatory knee arthroscopy.
PMCID: PMC1142209  PMID: 15937559
ambulatory surgery; auricular acupuncture; post-operative pain
19.  External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures 
Orthopedic Reviews  2009;1(2):e18.
In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.
The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.
The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.
Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.
This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.
PMCID: PMC3143994  PMID: 21808680
20.  A Triple-Masked, Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Ultrasound-Guided Brachial Plexus and Distal Peripheral Nerve Block Anesthesia for Outpatient Hand Surgery 
Background. For hand surgery, brachial plexus blocks provide effective anesthesia but produce undesirable numbness. We hypothesized that distal peripheral nerve blocks will better preserve motor function while providing effective anesthesia. Methods. Adult subjects who were scheduled for elective ambulatory hand surgery under regional anesthesia and sedation were recruited and randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block or distal block of the ulnar and median nerves. Each subject received 15 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine at the assigned location with 15 mL of normal saline injected in the alternate block location. The primary outcome (change in baseline grip strength measured by a hydraulic dynamometer) was tested before the block and prior to discharge. Subject satisfaction data were collected the day after surgery. Results. Fourteen subjects were enrolled. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) strength loss in the distal group was 21.4% (14.3, 47.8%), while all subjects in the supraclavicular group lost 100% of their preoperative strength, P = 0.001. Subjects in the distal group reported greater satisfaction with their block procedures on the day after surgery, P = 0.012. Conclusion. Distal nerve blocks better preserve motor function without negatively affecting quality of anesthesia, leading to increased patient satisfaction, when compared to brachial plexus block.
PMCID: PMC4009248  PMID: 24839439
21.  Risk of postoperative hypoxemia in ambulatory orthopedic surgery patients with diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea: a retrospective observational study 
It is unclear when it is safe to discharge patients with a diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) after ambulatory surgical procedures due to concern for postoperative respiratory compromise and hypoxemia. Our OSA patients undergoing ambulatory-type orthopedic procedures are monitored overnight in the PACU, thus we reviewed patient records to determine incidence of complications.
Two hundred and six charts of patients with preoperative diagnosis of OSA based on ICD-9 codes were reviewed for outcomes including episodes of hypoxemia. Univariate analysis followed by logistic regression and propensity analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for hypoxemia and association with adverse outcomes.
The majority of patients had regional anesthesia (95%). Thirty four percent of patients had hypoxemia in the PACU. Initial risk factors for hypoxemia identified by univariate analysis were BMI ≥ 35, increased age, history of COPD, upper extremity procedure, and use of peripheral nerve block. Independent risk factors identified by logistic regression were history of COPD (OR 3.64 with 95% CI 1.03-12.88) and upper extremity procedure (2.53, 1.36-4.68). After adjustment with propensity scores, adverse events were rare, and unplanned hospital admission after PACU stay was not increased with hypoxemia (11% vs 16%)
Episodes of postoperative hypoxemia in OSA patients undergoing ambulatory surgery with regional anesthesia are not associated with increased adverse outcomes or unplanned hospital admission.
PMCID: PMC2901308  PMID: 20565968
22.  Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Sevoflurane Requirements and Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):209-215.
Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery.
Materials and Methods
Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg, followed by 0.1 µg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period.
ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery.
Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension.
PMCID: PMC3874907  PMID: 24339309
Agitation; ambulatory surgery; dexmedetomidine; emergence; sevoflurane
23.  PONV in Ambulatory surgery: A comparison between Ramosetron and Ondansetron: a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled study 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2014;8(1):25-29.
postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens.
the study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery.
Setting and Design:
it was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study.
124 adult patients of either sex, aged 25-55, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A [(n=62) receiving (IV) Ondansetron (4 mg)] and Group B [(n=62) receiving IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg)] prior to the induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind manner. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h, 6, 12, and 18 h postoperatively.
Statistical Analysis and Results:
statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P <0.05) was found showing that Ramosetron was superior to Ondansetron as antiemetic both regarding frequency and severity.
it was evident that preoperative prophylactic administration of single dose IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg) has better efficacy than single dose IV Ondansetron (4 mg) in reducing the episodes of PONV over 18 h postoperatively in patients undergoing day-care surgery under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC3950448  PMID: 24665236
Ambulatory (day care) surgery; American Society of Anaesthesiologists; Ondansetron; postoperative nausea and vomiting; Ramosetron; visual analogue score
24.  Local anesthesia for treatment of hernia in elder patients: Levobupicavaine or Bupivacaine? 
BMC Surgery  2013;13(Suppl 2):S30.
Inguinal hernia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly. Treatment of this pathology is exclusively surgical and relies almost always on the use of local anesthesia. While in the past hernia surgery was carried out mainly by general anesthesia, in recent years there has been growing emphasis on the role of local anesthesia.
The aim of our study was to compare intra-and postoperative analgesia obtained by the use of levobupivacaine to the same obtained by bupivacaine. Bupivacaine is one of the main local anesthetics used in the intervention of inguinal hernioplasty. Levobupivacaine is an enantiomer of racemic bupivacaine with less cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The study was conducted from March 2011 to March 2013. We collected data of eighty patients, male and female, aged between 65 and 86 years, who underwent inguinal hernioplasty with local anesthesia.
Evaluation of intra-operatively pain shows that minimal pain is the same in both groups. Mild pain was more frequent in the group who used levobupivacaine. Moderate pain was slightly more frequent in the group who used bupivacaine. Only one reported intense pain. Two drugs seem to have the same effect at a distance of six, twelve, eighteen and twentyfour hours. Bupivacaine shows a significantly higher number of complications, as already demonstrated by previous studies. Degree of satisfaction expressed by patients has been the same in the two groups. Levobupivacaine group has shown a greater request for paracetamol while patients who experienced bupivacaine have showed a higher request of other analgesics.
Clinical efficacy of levobupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine are actually similar, when used under local intervention of inguinal hernioplasty. In the field of ambulatorial surgery our working group prefers levobupivacaine for its fewer side effects and for its easy handling.
PMCID: PMC3851157  PMID: 24267484
25.  Current Practice of Ophthalmic Anesthesia in Nigeria 
To assess the current techniques of ophthalmic anesthesia in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
A cross sectional survey among Nigerian ophthalmology delegates attending the 36th Annual Scientific Congress of the Ophthalmology Society of Nigeria. Self administered and anonymous questionnaires were used and data were collected to include details of the institution, preferred local anesthesia techniques, the grade of doctor who administers the local anesthesia, complications, preferred facial block techniques (if given separately), and type of premedication (if used).
Out of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 81 forms were completed (response rate 67.5%). Out of the 74 who indicated their grade, 49 (66.2%) were consultants, 22 (29.7%) were trainees, and 3 (7.1%) were ophthalmic medical officers. For cataract surgery, peribulbar anesthesia was performed by 49.1% of the respondents, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia (39.7%). Others techniques used were topical anesthesia (5.2%), subtenon anesthesia (4.3%), subconjunctival anesthesia (2.6%), and intracameral anesthesia (0.9%). For glaucoma surgery, 47.2% of the respondents use peribulbar anesthesia, 32.1% use retrobulbar anesthesia, 9.4% used general anesthesia, and 6.6% used subconjunctival anesthesia. Among the trainees, 57.8% routinely perform retrobulbar anesthesia while 55.6% routinely perform peribulbar anesthesia. At least one complication from retrobulbar anesthesia within 12 months prior to the audit was reported by 25.9% of the respondents. Similarly, 16.1% of the respondents had experienced complications from peribulbar anesthesia within the same time period. Retrobulbar hemorrhage is the most common complication experienced with both peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia.
Presently, the most common technique of local anesthesia for an ophthalmic procedure in Nigeria is peribulbar anesthesia, followed by retrobulbar anesthesia. Twelve months prior to the study, 25.9% of the respondents had experienced at least one complication from retrobulbar anesthesia and 16.1% from peribulbar anesthesia. Retrobulbar hemorrhage was the most common complication reported.
PMCID: PMC3841954  PMID: 24339686
Anesthesia; Ophthalmic; Peribulbar; Retrobulbar; Subtenon

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