The current study aimed to observe the effects of sufentanil and remifentanil combined with propofol in target-controlled infusion (TCI) on perioperative stress reaction in elderly patients. A total of 80 elderly patients requiring general anesthesia were recruited. They were divided into four groups (each n=20) according to different target concentrations of remifentanil and sufentanil. These target concentrations were: 4 ng/ml remifentanil + 0.2 ng/ml sufentanil for group I; 3 ng/ml remifentanil + 0.3 ng/ml sufentanil for group II; 2 ng/ml remifentanil + 0.5 ng/ml sufentanil for anesthesia induction and post-intubation 3 ng/ml remifentanil + 0.2 ng/ml sufentanil for anesthesia maintenance for group III; and 5 ng/ml remifentanil for anesthesia induction and post-intubation 4 ng/ml remifentanil for anesthesia maintenance for group IV. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels in plasma were measured prior to the induction of anesthesia, as well as at several different time-points following surgery. The numbers of intraoperative severe hemodynamic fluctuation, postoperative eye-opening and extubation time, and post-extubation restlessness and pain scores were recorded. Group IV had a larger circulation fluctuation control number and higher levels of NE, E and Ang II at 3 h after surgery than any other group (P<0.01). Although group IV had shorter postoperative eye-opening and extubation times compared with the other groups (P<0.05), it also had higher restlessness and pain scores (P<0.01). The combined use of sufentanil and remifentanil stabilizes perioperative hemodynamics and reduces stress hormone levels.
the elderly; sufentanil; remifentanil; stress; analgesia
Previous lumbar spinal surgery (PLSS) is not currently considered as a contraindication for regional anesthesia. However, there are still problems that make spinal anesthesia more difficult with a possibility of worsening the patient's back pain. Spinal anesthesia using combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) in elderly patients with or without PLSS was investigated and the anesthetic characteristics, success rates, and possible complications were evaluated.
Materials and Methods
Fifty patients without PLSS (Control group) and 45 patients with PLSS (PLSS group) who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were studied prospectively. A CSEA was performed with patients in the left lateral position, and 10 mg of 0.5% isobaric tetracaine was injected through a 27 G spinal needle. An epidural catheter was then inserted for patient controlled analgesia. Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as adequate sensory block level more than T12. The number of skin punctures and the onset time were recorded, and maximal sensory block level (MSBL), time to 2-segment regression, success rate and complications were observed.
The success rate of CSEA in Control group and PLSS group was 98.0%, and 93.3%, respectively. The median MSBL in PLSS group was higher than Control group [T4 (T2-L1) vs. T6 (T3-T12)] (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the number of patients who required ephedrine for the treatment of hypotension in PLSS group (p = 0.028).
The success rate of CSEA in patients with PLSS was 93.3%, and patients experienced no significant neurological complications. The MSBL can be higher in PLSS group than Control group.
Anesthetics local, tetracaine; anesthetic techniques, subarachnoid; surgery, spinal
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, POCD, afflicts a large number of elderly surgical patients following surgery with general anesthesia. Mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, critical in learning and memory, that display protein expression changes with age are modulated by inhalation anesthetics. The aim of this study was to identify protein expression changes in NMDA receptor subunits and downstream signaling pathways in aged rats that demonstrated anesthesia-induced spatial learning impairments. Three-month-old and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to receive 1.8% isoflurane/70 % nitrous oxide (N2O) anesthesia for 4h or no anesthesia. Spatial learning was assessed at 2 weeks and 3 months post-anesthesia in Morris water maze. Hippocampal and cortical protein lysates of 18-month-old rats were immunoblotted for activated caspase 3, NMDA receptor subunits, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In a separate experiment, Ro 25-6981 (0.5mg/kg dose) was administered by I.P. injection before anesthesia to 18-month-old rats. Immunoblotting of NR2B was performed on hippocampal protein lysates. At 3 months post-anesthesia, rats treated with anesthesia at 18-months-old demonstrated spatial learning impairment corresponding to acute and long-term increases in NR2B protein expression and a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus and cortex. Ro 25-6981 pretreatment attenuated the increase in acute NR2B protein expression. Our findings suggest a role for disruption of NMDA receptor mediated signaling pathways in the hippocampus and cortex of rats treated with isoflurane/ N2O anesthesia at 18-months-old, leading to spatial learning deficits in these animals. A potential therapeutic intervention for anesthesia associated cognitive deficits is discussed.
aging; anesthesia; extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK); isoflurane; N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR2B; Ro 25-6981
Background and Objectives:
Neuraxial anesthesia in the elderly is associated with exaggerated responses to conventional doses of local anesthetics, thereby increasing the incidence of hemodynamic complications. A double-blind prospective study was carried out in our institute with an aim to compare the hemodynamic stability and quality of the conventional dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine (LA) with low dose of LA and sufentanil in elderly patients scheduled for lower limb surgery, randomized to receive combined spinal epidural anesthesia.
A total of 50 elderly patients of ASA grade I and II, divided randomly into groups I and II, of either sex undergoing lower limb surgery under combined spinal epidural anesthesia at our institute attached to a Government Medical College were enrolled for study. Group I received 2.5 ml of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (LA), while group II received 1.5 ml of intrathecal LA+0.1 ml sufentanil (5 μg). Both initial and postoperative subarachnoid block characteristics, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, duration of analgesia, and side effects were observed and recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square and paired t test.
Demographic profile was comparable in both groups. Group I had a greater incidence of hypotension and, consequently, higher use of vasopressors (P<0.05). Onset of sensory analgesia, time to achieve peak sensory level, and recovery from motor blockade were significantly earlier in group II (P<0.05). Postoperative consumption of LA through epidural route was significantly higher in group I (P<0.05). The side effect profile was similar, except for a significantly higher incidence of shivering in group I (P<0.05).
The study established that the dose of a local anesthetic can be safely and significantly lowered by 40%, with addition of low-dose sufentanil, thereby avoiding the hemodynamic fluctuation and providing a stable perioperative and postoperative period in the geriatric population. In addition, duration of sensory analgesia is prolonged and postoperative requirement for the epidural top-up also decreases.
Geriatric; hyperbaric bupivacaine; lower limb surgery; spinal anesthesia; sufentanil
Background and Objective:
With consideration the daily increased development of outpatient surgeries and high rate of these surgeries in elderly patients, rapid and safe recovery of patients is necessary. In this clinical trial study, recovery time and nausea and vomiting after the use of two rapid-onset narcotics, Alfentanil and Remifentanil, in elderly patients were evaluated.
In this double-blind prospective clinical trial, 40 elderly patients (age above 65 years) candidate to cataract surgery with general anesthesia were studied. The patients were divided randomly into two groups and for first group, 10 μg/kg of Alfentanil was injected and for second group Remifentanil 0.5 μg/kg was injected intravenously during 30 seconds one minute before induction. Both two groups were under general anesthesia with same method and during the anesthesia, first group took infusion of Alfentanil 1 μg/kg/min and second group took Remifentanil 0.1 μg/kg/min. In the end of surgery, the time intervals between end of anesthesia drug administration and spontaneous respiration, eyes opening with stimulation, verbal response and discharge of recovery room, also the incidence of complications related to narcotic drugs, especially nausea and vomiting, was recorded. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive and analytical statistics such as T-test and chi square test.
The time of spontaneous respiration in Alfentanil group was 2 minutes and in Remifentanil group was 3.3 minutes, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.08). The time of eyes opening with stimulation, verbal response, and discharge of recovery room were not significantly different. During recovery, incidence of nausea and vomiting in Remifentanil group (30% of patients) was significantly more than Alfentanil group (5% of patients) (P=0.045).
Recovery time between Alfentanil and Remifentanil group was not significantly different, but incidence of nausea and vomiting in Remifentanil group was higher than Alfentanil group significantly. It seems that using Alfentanil in the anesthesia for surgical treatment of the elderly people can be preferred.
Alfentanil; elderly patient; general anesthesia; nausea and vomiting; recovery; Remifentanil
The inguinal hernia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly. Treatment of this type of pathology is exclusively surgical and relies almost always on the use of local anesthesia. While in the past hernia surgery was carried out mainly by general anesthesia, in recent years there has been growing emphasis on the role of local anesthesia.
The aim of our study was to compare intra-and postoperative analgesia obtained by the use of levobupivacaine compared with that of bupivacaine. Bupivacaine is one of the main local anesthetics used in the intervention of inguinal hernioplasty. Levobupivacaine is an enantiomer of racemic bupivacaine with less cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The study was conducted from April 2010 to May 2012. We collected data of forty male patients, aged between 73 and 85 years, who underwent inguinal hernioplasty with local anesthesia for the first time.
Minimal pain is the same in both groups. Mild pain was more frequent in the group who used bupivacaine, moderate pain was slightly more frequent in the group who used levobupivacaine, and the same for intense pain. It is therefore evident how Bupivacaine is slightly less preferred after four and twenty four hours, while the two drugs seem to have the same effect at a distance of twelve and forty-eight hours. Bupivacaine shows a significantly higher number of complications, as already demonstrated by previous studies. The request for an analgesic was slightly higher in patients receiving levobupivacaine.
After considering all these elements, we can conclude that the clinical efficacy of levobupivacaine and racemic bupivacaine are essentially similar, when used under local intervention of inguinal hernioplasty.
Cognitive dysfunction in the elderly commonly observed following anesthesia has been attributed to age-related neuronal changes exacerbated by pharmacotoxic effects. However, the extent to which these changes may persist following recovery from surgery is still largely unknown. This study investigates the long-term effects of anesthesia on cognitive functioning after orthopedic surgery in 270 elderly patients over the age of 65 who completed a computerized cognitive battery before and 8 days, 4 and 13 months after surgery. Their performance was compared to that of 310 elderly controls who completed the same neuro-psychiatric evaluation at baseline and one-year interval. Multivariate analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, depressive symptomatology, vascular pathology as well as baseline cognitive performance. We found early and transient post-operative decline in reaction time and constructional praxis. With regard to long-term changes we observed improvement compared to controls in most verbal tasks (probably due to learning effects). On the other hand, a clear dissociation effect was observed for several areas of visuospatial functioning which persisted up to the 13-month follow-up. This specific pattern of visuospatial deficit was found to be independent of apolipoprotein E genotype and closely resembles what has recently been termed vascular mild cognitive impairment, in turn associated with subtle sub-cortical vascular changes. The observation of only minor differences between persons operated by general and regional anesthesia makes it difficult to attribute these changes directly to the anesthetic agents themselves, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be attributable at least in part to peri-operative conditions, notably stress and glucocorticoid exposure.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anesthesia; adverse effects; Anesthesia, Conduction; adverse effects; Anesthesia, General; adverse effects; Apolipoproteins E; genetics; Arthroplasty, Replacement; Attention; physiology; Choice Behavior; physiology; Cognition; physiology; Cognition Disorders; etiology; genetics; psychology; Female; Humans; Language; Male; Memory; physiology; Mental Processes; physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Postoperative Complications; genetics; psychology; Questionnaires; Socioeconomic Factors; Space Perception; physiology; Visual Perception; physiology; Anesthesia; Apolipoprotein E; Mild cognitive impairment; Post-operative cognitive decline
We have determined the infusion rates of rocuronium in the elderly and young adult patients during sevoflurane and nitrous oxide anesthesia. The correlation of some anthropometric predictors with infusion rate of rocuronium was also investigated for both elderly and young adult. Participating patients were assigned to one of two groups: 1) young adult patients aged 20 to 50 years (n = 30); 2) elderly patients aged over 65 years (n = 30). The anthropometric variables such as height, weight, ratio of weight to body surface area, subscapularis and suprailiac skin folds, body surface area, body mass index and % ideal body weight were evaluated as predictors for infusion rate. The infusion rate in elderly patients was significantly less compared with that in young adult patients (p < 0.05). In elderly patients, no anthropometric predictor was related to the infusion rate of rocuronium. This suggests that the infusion rate of rocuronium for an elderly patient needs to be individualized by monitoring neuromuscular transmission to avoid excessive dose.
Anthropometric variables; elderly patients; infusion rate; neuromuscular monitoring; rocuronium
Changes in the hormones responsible for volume homeostasis were observed before, during, and after minor dental surgery in 25 elderly hypertensive patients. These patients were divided into two groups. Group L patients were operated on using local anesthesia alone. Group LS patients were operated on using local anesthesia and intravenous sedation together. We found that plasma renin activity and aldosterone and vasopressin levels did not change intraoperatively in either group. We also found that intraoperative plasma human atrial natriuretic peptide (HANP) levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in group L and significantly decreased in group LS. Before local anesthesia was administered, HANP levels in both groups were already higher than the normal range in healthy adults. Therefore, these results suggest that increased HANP levels represent a compensatory response to offset further elevation of blood pressure. However, these increases did not seem to be sufficient to actually cause a decrease in blood pressure.
Minor dental surgery; Hypertension; Elderly patient; Hormones; Volume homeostasis
Cognitive disorders such as postoperative cognitive dysfunction, confusion, and delirium, are common following anesthesia in the elderly, with symptoms persisting for months or years in some patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients appear to be particularly at risk of cognitive deterioration following anesthesia, and some studies suggest that exposure to anesthetics may increase the risk of AD. Here, we review the literature linking anesthesia to AD, with a focus on the biochemical consequences of anesthetic exposure on AD pathogenic pathways.
anesthesia; Alzheimer's disease; amyloid; tau phosphorylation; hypothermia
Several factors, such as compromised cardiopulmonary function, anticoagulative therapy, or anatomical deformity in the elderly, prevent general anesthesia and neuraxial blockade from being conducted for total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA). We investigated the efficacy of femoral/sciatic nerve block with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block (FSNB) as an alternative procedure in comparison with combined spinal epidural nerve block (CSE) in patients undergoing TKRA.
In this observational study, 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III patients scheduled for elective unilateral TKRA underwent CSE (n = 40) or FSNB (n = 40). Perioperative side effects, intraoperative medications, duration and remaining amount of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, rate of satisfaction with the surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, willingness to recommend the same surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia to others, and postoperative visual analog scale pain scores were assessed. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and repeated-measures analysis of variances.
There was significantly more use of antihypertensives, analgesics, and sedatives in the FSNB group. There were no significant differences of perioperative side effects, duration and remaining amount of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, rate of satisfaction with the surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia, willingness to recommend the same surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia to others, and postoperative visual analog scale scores between the two groups.
FSNB with a sophisticated use of antihypertensives, analgesics, and sedatives to supplement insufficient block offers a practical alternative to CSE for TKRAs.
Epidural anesthesia; Femoral nerve; Nerve block; Sciatic nerve; Spinal anesthesia; Total knee replacement
Aims: Prolonged tourniquet inflation produces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response. We investigated the effect of continuous remifentanil infusion on systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output changes during prolonged tourniquet use in elderly patients under sevoflurane/N2O general anesthesia.
Methods: Thirty female patients scheduled for knee replacement arthroplasty were infused with either remifentanil at a target organ concentration of 2.0 ng/mL (remifentanil group, n = 15) or saline (control group, n = 15) after induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and N2O. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), cardiac index (CI), total systemic vascular resistance index (TSVRI), BIS, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (EtSEVO), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO2) were measured during the study period.
Results: There were significant differences in mean HR, SAP, DAP, and EtSEVO over time between the groups (P = 0.047, P < 0.001, P = 0.017, and P < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant time trend effect (P < 0.001) in HR, SAP, DAP, and CI between the groups, with a statistically significant time-group interaction between the two groups (P = 0.02, 0.007, 0.001, 0.01, respectively).
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that infusion with remifentanil prevented an increase in hemodynamic pressure during tourniquet inflation in elderly patients under sevoflurane/N2O general anesthesia.
general anesthesia; knee replacement arthroplasty; remifentanil; tourniquet.
Age related limited physiological reserves and associated co-morbidities in elderly patients require careful titration of inhalational anesthetic agents to minimize their side effects. The use of Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may be helpful in this regard. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on Isoflurane consumption during maintenance and recovery profile at the end of anesthesia. This Quasi experimental study was conducted for a 1 year period at the main operating units of a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Total 60 patients of age 60 years and above were enrolled in either standard practice (SP) or (BIS) group. In the SP group, the anesthesia depth was maintained as a routine clinical practice, while in BIS group it was maintained by monitoring the BIS score between 45 and 55. Standard anesthesia care was provided to all of the patients. Data including demographics, isoflurane consumption, hemodynamic variables and recovery profiles were recorded in both groups.
The mean isoflurane consumption was lower (P = 0.001) in the BIS group. The time to eye opening, extubation and ready to shift was shorter (P = 0.0001) in BIS group. The patients in BIS group had higher Post anesthesia recovery score (P = 0.0001) than the SP group.
The use of BIS in an elderly Asian population resulted in 40% reduction of isoflurane usage. The patients having BIS monitoring awoke earlier and had better recovery profiles at the end of anesthesia.
Bispectral index monitoring; elderly population; isoflurane; recovery
Epistaxis is the commonest emergency in otorhinolaryngology. Over the last decade endoscopic sphenopalatine artery (SPA) ligation has become a popular treatment option for posterior epistaxis and has been shown to be the most effective and cost-efficient definitive treatment for posterior epistaxis. SPA ligation is usually performed under general anesthesia. The majority of epistaxis patients are elderly, frail and have multiple medical conditions. These patients are therefore not always amenable to general anesthesia. In this article we describe two cases where posterior epistaxis was successfully treated with sphenopalatine artery ligation under local anesthesia and should be considered suitable for patients with severe posterior epistaxis who are not fit for a general anesthetic.
epistaxis; sphenopalatine artery ligation; local anesthesia
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether limiting intraoperative sedation depth during spinal anesthesia for hip fracture repair in elderly patients can decrease the prevalence of postoperative delirium.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized controlled trial at an academic medical center of elderly patients (≥65 years) without preoperative delirium or severe dementia who underwent hip fracture repair under spinal anesthesia with propofol sedation. Sedation depth was titrated using processed electroencephalography with the bispectral index (BIS), and patients were randomized to receive either deep (BIS, approximately 50) or light (BIS, ≥80) sedation. Postoperative delirium was assessed as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) criteria using the Confusion Assessment Method beginning at any time from the second day after surgery.
RESULTS: From April 2, 2005, through October 30, 2008, a total of 114 patients were randomized. The prevalence of postoperative delirium was significantly lower in the light sedation group (11/57 [19%] vs 23/57 [40%] in the deep sedation group; P=.02), indicating that 1 incident of delirium will be prevented for every 4.7 patients treated with light sedation. The mean ± SD number of days of delirium during hospitalization was lower in the light sedation group than in the deep sedation group (0.5±1.5 days vs 1.4±4.0 days; P=.01).
CONCLUSION: The use of light propofol sedation decreased the prevalence of postoperative delirium by 50% compared with deep sedation. Limiting depth of sedation during spinal anesthesia is a simple, safe, and cost-effective intervention for preventing postoperative delirium in elderly patients that could be widely and readily adopted.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590707
Use of light propofol sedation decreased the prevalence of postoperative delirium by 50% compared with deep sedation. Limiting depth of sedation during spinal anesthesia is a simple, safe, and cost-effective intervention for preventing postoperative delirium in elderly patients that could be widely and readily adopted.
Conservative treatment was recommended as the treatment of choice in perforated acute peptic ulcer. Here, we adjunct percutaneous peritoneal drainage with nonoperative conservative treatment in high risk elderly patients with perforated duodenal ulcer.
The work was to study the efficacy of percutaneous peritoneal drainage under local anesthesia supported by conservative measures in high risk elderly patients, according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists grading, with perforated duodenal ulcer.
Patients and Methods:
Twenty four high risk patients with age >65 years having associated medical illness with evidence of perforated duodenal ulcer.
The overall morbidity and mortality were comparable with those treated by conservative measures alone.
In high risk patients with perforated peptic ulcer and established peritonitis, percutaneous peritoneal drainage under local anesthesia seems to be effective with least operative trauma and mortality rate.
Duodenal ulcer; High risk; Percutaneous drainage; Perforation
Postoperative complications are directly related to poor surgical outcomes in the elderly. This review outlines evidence based quality initiatives focused on decreasing neurologic, cardiac, and pulmonary complications in the elderly surgical patient. Delirium is the most common neurologic complication in the elderly. Important anesthesia quality initiatives for prevention of delirium in elderly surgical patients include use of structured clinical protocols focused on delirium risk factor modification, avoiding meperidine when managing postoperative pain, and careful selection and titration of drugs when sedation is required. There are few age-specific quality measures aimed at prevention of cardiac and pulmonary complications. However, some recommendations for adults such as avoidance of long acting muscle relaxants and perioperative use of statins and beta blockers in high risk patients can be applied to the geriatric surgical population. In the future, process measures may provide a more global assessment of quality in the elderly surgical population.
geriatric; surgery; delirium; surgical procedures/adverse effects; postoperative complications; quality assurance; aged
Preoxygenation with tidal volume breathing for 3 min is commonly used technique. An end tidal expiratory oxygen concentration greater than 90% is considerd to be adequate for preoxygenation. The aim of this study was to check the effects of preoxygenation on elderly patients through the comparison with young patients during the 3 min tidal volume breathing technique.
Sixty patients from ASA class I or II who were scheduled for elective orthopedic general surgery were divided into an elderly (>65 yr) group and a control (25-65 yr) group. Patients were instructed in the technique of preoxygenation. Preoxygenation was accomplished with an appropriately sized face mask connected to an anesthesia machine with 100% oxygen during 3 min with patients in both groups. Expired O2, CO2 concentration and oxygen saturation were recorded simultaneously for 3 min.
The elderly group showed significantly lower end tidal oxygen concentration than the control group from 50 sec to the end of study (180 sec) with the 3 min tidal volume breathing technique (P < 0.05). In 180 sec, the control group had over 90% (91.5%) end tidal oxygen concentration, but in the elderly group end tidal oxygen concentration could not reach 90% (86.2%). In oxygen saturation, the elderly group showed a significantly lower level until 40 sec from the start of study, and then two groups showed a similar levels of oxygen saturation until the end of study.
End tidal oxygen concentration did not reach 90% in 180 sec in the elderly group during preoxygenation with the 3 min tidal volume breathing technique.
Elderly; Mask; Oxygen concentration; Preoxygenation; 3 min tidal volume breathing
Anesthesia has developed to the point where long term outcomes are important endpoints. Elderly patients are becoming an increasingly large part of most surgical practices, consistent with demographic shifts. Long term outcomes are particularly important for this group. In this review, we discuss functional outcomes in the elderly. We describe the areas of cognitive change and frailty, both of which are specific to the elderly. We also discuss prevention of surgical infections and emerging evidence around hemodynamic alterations in the operating room and their impact on long term outcomes.
Geriatrics; Long term outcomes; Delirium; Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction; Surgical Site Infection
The mean life expectancy of the population of the United States is projected to increase from 78.3 years at present to over 81 years in 2025, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of the population over the age of 75 years. Elderly patients are more likely to present with valvular and coronary artery disease than younger patients, and as better perioperative management contributes to improving post-operative outcomes and lower referral thresholds, very elderly patients form an increasingly large proportion of the cardiac surgical population. This article summarizes the impact of age-related pathophysiologic changes on patients’ response to cardiac surgery and anesthesia, outlines useful perioperative strategies in this age group, and reviews the literature on outcomes after valvular and coronary in elderly patients.
surgery; elderly; anesthesia; cardiac anesthesia; octogenarians
The timely diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology continues to be an elusive problem. Delays in diagnosis and therapeutic decision making are continuing dilemmas in patients who are females of childbearing age, elderly, obese or immunosuppressed. Minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia potentially can provide an accurate, cost-effective method to assist in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain.
Laparoscopy without general anesthesia is not a new technique, but with the combination of two emerging factors— 1) the introduction of new technology with the development of improved, smaller laparoscopes and instruments, and 2) the shifting of emphasis on healthcare to a more cost-effective managed care environment--its value and widespread utilization is being reconsidered.
We report the case of a 22 year old female with an acute onset of increasing abdominal and pelvic pain. Despite evaluation by general surgery, gynecology, emergency room staff, as well as, non-invasive testing, a clear diagnosis could not be made. In view of this, minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia was performed and revealed an acute, retrocecal appendicitis. The diagnosis was made with the assistance from the conscious patient. The utilization of this technique greatly expedited the treatment of this patient. Full-sized laparoscopic equipment was then used to minimally invasively remove the diseased appendix under general anesthesia. Both procedures were well tolerated by the patient.
Minilaparoscopy; Local anesthesia; Diagnosis; Appendicitis
Endotracheal intubation usually causes transient hypertension and tachycardia. The cardiovascular and arousal responses to endotracheal and endobronchial intubation were determined during rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia in normotensive and hypertensive elderly patients.
Patients requiring endotracheal intubation with (HT, n = 30) or without hypertension (NT, n = 30) and those requiring endobronchial intubation with (HB, n = 30) or without hypertension (NB, n = 30) were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous thiopental 5 mg/kg followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. After intubation, all subjects received 2% sevoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma catecholamine concentration, and Bispectral Index (BIS) values, were measured before and after intubation.
The intubation significantly increased MAP, HR, BIS values and plasma catecholamine concentrations in all groups, the peak value of increases was comparable between endotracheal and endobronchial intubation. However, pressor response persisted longer in the HB group than in the HT group (5.1 ± 1.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.9 min, P < 0.05). The magnitude of increases in MAP and norepinephrine from pre-intubation values was greater in the hypertensive than in the normotensive group (P < 0.05), while there were no differences in those of HR and BIS between the hypertensive and normotensive groups.
Cardiovascular response and arousal response, as measured by BIS, were similar in endobronchial and endotracheal intubation groups regardless of the presence or absence of hypertension except for prolonged pressor response in the HB group. However, the hypertensive patients showed enhanced cardiovascular responses than the normotensive patients.
Bispectral index; Cardiovascular effects; Catecholamine; Endobronchial intubation; Endotracheal intubation; Hypertension
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is the subtle cerebral complication temporally seen following surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of either general anesthesia (GA) or epidural anesthesia (EA) on the early post-operative neurocognitive outcome in elderly (>59 years) subjects undergoing hip and knee surgery.
A total of 60 patients were recruited in a prospective, randomized, parallel-group study, comparable by age and sex. They were enrolled and randomized to receive either EA (n = 30) or GA (n = 30). All of them were screened using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), with components of the Kolkata Cognitive Screening Battery. The operated patients were re-evaluated 1 week after surgery using the same scale. The data collected were analyzed to assess statistical significance.
We observed no statistical difference in cognitive behavior in either group pre-operatively, which were comparable with respect to age, sex and type of surgery. Grossly, a significant difference was seen between the two groups with respect to the perioperative changes in verbal fluency for categories and MMSE scores. However, these differences were not significant after the application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple analyses, except the significant differences observed only in the MMSE scores.
We observed a difference in cognitive outcome with GA compared with EA. Certain aspects of the cognition were affected to a greater extent in this group of patients undergoing hip and knee surgery.
Anesthesia; cognitive dysfunction; epidural; general
Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) improves analgesia and outcomes after a cardiac surgery. As aging is a risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications, TEA is of particular importance in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).
Fifty patients aged 65–75 years; ASA II and III scheduled for elective CABG were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either general anesthesia (GA) group alone or GA combined with TEA group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and central venous pressure were recorded. Total dose of fentanyl μg/kg, aortic cross clamping, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, time to first awaking and extubation, arterial blood gases, visual analog scale (VAS) score in intensive care unit were reported. Postoperative pulmonary function tests were done.
TEA showed a significant HR and lower MAP compared with the GA group. The total dose of intraoperative fentanyl and nitroglycerine were significantly lower in the TEA. Patients in TEA group have statistically significantly higher PaO2, lower PaCO2, increase in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1)
TEA reduced severity of postoperative pulmonary function and restoration was faster in TEA group in elderly patients undergoing CABG. Also, it resulted in earlier extubation and awakening, better analgesia, lower VAS.
Coronary artery bypass graft; elderly; thoracic epidural anesthesia
Problems with learning and memory are common after surgery in the elderly, and are associated with high morbidity. Heat Shock Protein 72 (Hsp72) confers neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that over expression of Hsp72 would prevent the development of postoperative memory loss.
C57BL/6 wild type and Hsp72 over-expressing transgenic mice were randomly allocated to: control, isoflurane anesthesia alone, or tibial fracture under isoflurane anesthesia. Animals were trained 24 h prior to surgery using a fear conditioning protocol and assessed in their training environment and in a novel context on post-treatment days 1, 3, and 7. Microglial activation was assessed by immunostaining.
Adult male C57BL/6 wild type mice exhibited reduced memory evidenced by decreased percentfreezing time on days 1 and 3 after anesthesia alone (58.8 +/− 5, 46.5 +/− 5 mean+/−SEM) and following surgery 53.4+/−6, 44.1+/−7 compared to controls 78.8+/−5, 63.4+/−6; P< 0.05 and P< 0.001 respectively). Hsp72 mice showed no difference by treatment on any day. Similarly, non-hippocampal dependent memory was significantly impaired on days 1 and 3 after surgery and day 3 after anesthesia. The genotype effect was significant on day 1 and 7. CD68 immunopositive activated microglia in the hippocampus varied modestly with subregion and time, on day 7 there was a significant treatment effect with no genotype effect with more activated microglia after surgery in all regions.
Hsp72 overexpression is associated with prevention of postoperative hippocampal-dependent and -independent memory deficit induced by anesthesia and/or surgery. Memory deficit is not correlated with numbers of activated hippocampal microglia.