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1.  Transforming the present--discovering the future: the University of Pittsburgh's NLM grant on education and training of health sciences librarians. 
BACKGROUND: The University of Pittsburgh was awarded a grant by the National Library of Medicine to study the education and training needs of present and future medical librarians and health information specialists through a collaboration of the university's School of Information Sciences and Health Sciences Library System. Goals and objectives for the year-long project included (1) assessment of education and training needs of medical librarians, (2) development of a master of library science curriculum and an internship program that would prepare graduates to take leadership roles in medical librarianship or information management, (3) development of continuing education programs for medical librarians in different formats, and (4) development of targeted recruitment efforts to attract minority group members and individuals with undergraduate science majors. The importance of this project, present practice, and success factors for programs seeking excellence in the preparation of health sciences information professionals are reviewed. A needs assessment involving a national advisory panel and a follow-up study of individuals who have participated in previous specialized training programs in health sciences information, compared with a peer group of medical librarians who did not participate in such programs, is described. This paper presents the goals and objectives of the project, describes the methods used, and outlines a curriculum, continuing education initiatives, and recruitment activities.
PMCID: PMC226192  PMID: 8913555
2.  Developing and Implementing an Academy of Preceptors 
In response to national trends for preceptor development, the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy conceived, developed, and implemented the Academy of Preceptors to foster preceptor development. The Academy's goals are to recognize preceptor excellence, improve experiential course delivery, develop preceptors' educational skills, and facilitate networking among preceptors.
In 2004, the Academy's initial focus was development of live continuing education programs for preceptor development. A CD-ROM format also was developed for those who could not attend live sessions. Preceptors were asked to suggest additional topics of interest for future programs.
In this paper, we describe our progress toward the goals, the School's benefits from the Academy, and the implications for the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP).
Preceptors provide 30% of pharmacy curricula; thus, the need for their training and ongoing professional development has been increasingly emphasized within experiential education. Priorities are to train preceptors to become better educators and motivate these practitioners to improve pharmacy education by sharing their valuable expertise with students.
PMCID: PMC2690885  PMID: 19513172
preceptor development; experiential education; introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE); advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE)
3.  Developing a Practical and Sustainable Faculty Development Program With a Focus on Teaching Quality Improvement and Patient Safety: An Alliance for Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative III Project 
The Ochsner Journal  2012;12(4):338-343.
Background
Teaching the next generation of physicians requires more than traditional teaching models. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System places considerable emphasis on developing a learning environment that fosters resident education in quality improvement and patient safety. The goal of this project was to develop a comprehensive and sustainable faculty development program with a focus on teaching quality improvement and patient safety.
Methods
A multidisciplinary team representing all stakeholders in graduate medical education developed a validated survey to assess faculty and house officer baseline perceptions of their experience with faculty development opportunities, quality improvement tools and training, and resident participation in quality improvement and patient safety programs at our institution. We then developed a curriculum to address these 3 areas.
Results
Our pilot survey revealed a need for a comprehensive program to teach faculty and residents the art of teaching. Two other areas of need are (1) regular resident participation in quality improvement and patient safety efforts and (2) effective tools for developing skills and habits to analyze practices using quality improvement methods.
Resident and faculty pairs in 17 Ochsner training programs developed and began quality improvement projects while completing the first learning module. Resident and faculty teams also have been working on the patient safety modules and incorporating aspects of patient safety into their individual work environments.
Conclusion
Our team's goal is to develop a sustainable and manageable faculty development program that includes modules addressing quality improvement and patient safety in accordance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accreditation requirements.
PMCID: PMC3527861  PMID: 23267260
Faculty development; graduate medical education; performance improvement; quality improvement
4.  Where is Leadership Training Being Taught in U.S. Dental Schools 
Journal of dental education  2012;76(6):713-720.
Leadership is vital in all professions and organizations. Our purpose was to determine where in dental schools leadership is taught, and to what degree it is emphasized so that we could establish a base line from which to generate recommendations for best practices. Therefore we surveyed all US Deans of Academic Affairs in Dental Schools to determine where in the curriculum leadership is taught and emphasized. Our results showed that leadership training is delivered in many different parts of the curriculum, and at various levels. Generally, respondents indicated that leadership education is delivered either in the setting of practice management, community outreach or in public health settings. In some cases, specific training programs are dedicated specifically to leadership development. Thus several models for leadership development were identified showing design and flexibility to address regional and national needs. In the future it would be of value to assess the effectiveness of the different models and whether single or multiple pathways for leadership training are most beneficial.
PMCID: PMC3616398  PMID: 22659699
5.  The changing face of psychiatric training in the UK 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2010;52(1):60-65.
With the introduction of many reforms and changes in medical training in the UK, postgraduate training has undergone significant transformation. The establishment of Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB), Modernizing Medical Careers (MMC), new recruitment processes and changes in the curriculum and examination structure are all having a major impact on the future training and teaching programs in psychiatry in the UK. Entry into psychiatry is becoming increasingly competitive and progression in career is now competency based in addition to the examination requirements subject to an annual review and regular appraisal. A structured portfolio is also vital in order to present evidence of competencies and ensure smooth progression through the training grades. This paper gives a general outline of these changes and describes the new training and examination requirements of the new system in place in the Psychiatric training in United Kingdom.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.58897
PMCID: PMC2824984  PMID: 20174520
Psychiatry; medical education; post-graduate training
6.  Quality and Safety Training in Primary Care: Making an Impact 
Purpose
Preparing residents for future practice, knowledge, and skills in quality improvement and safety (QI/S) is a requisite element of graduate medical education. Despite many challenges, residency programs must consider new curricular innovations to meet the requirements. We report the effectiveness of a primary care QI/S curriculum and the role of the chief resident in quality and patient safety in facilitating it.
Method
Through the Veterans Administration Graduate Medical Education Enhancement Program, we added a position for a chief resident in quality and patient safety, and 4 full-time equivalent internal medicine residents, to develop the Primary Care Interprofessional Patient-Centered Quality Care Training Curriculum. The curriculum includes a first-or second-year, 1-month block rotation that serves as a foundational experience in QI/S and interprofessional care. The responsibilities of the chief resident in quality and patient safety included organizing and teaching the QI/S curriculum and mentoring resident projects. Evaluation included prerotation and postrotation surveys of self-assessed QI/S knowledge, abilities, skills, beliefs, and commitment (KASBC); an end-of-the-year KASBC; prerotation and postrotation knowledge test; and postrotation and faculty surveys.
Results
Comparisons of prerotation and postrotation KASBC indicated significant self-assessed improvements in 4 of 5 KASBC domains: knowledge (P < .001), ability (P < .001), skills (P < .001), and belief (P < .03), which were sustained on the end-of-the-year survey. The knowledge test demonstrated increased QI/S knowledge (P  =  .002). Results of the postrotation survey indicate strong satisfaction with the curriculum, with 76% (25 of 33) and 70% (23 of 33) of the residents rating the quality and safety curricula as always or usually educational. Most faculty members acknowledged that the chief resident in quality and patient safety enhanced both faculty and resident QI/S interest and participation in projects.
Conclusions
Our primary care QI/S curriculum was associated with improved and persistent resident self-perceived knowledge, abilities, and skills and increased knowledge-based scores of QI/S. The chief resident in quality and patient safety played an important role in overseeing the curriculum, teaching, and providing leadership.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-11-00322.1
PMCID: PMC3546584  PMID: 24294431
7.  Portfolios: An Alternative Method of Student and Program Assessment 
Journal of Athletic Training  1995;30(4):338-341.
The use of performance-based evaluation and alternative assessment techniques has become essential for curriculum programs seeking Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accreditation. In athletic training education, few assessment models exist to assess student performance over the entire course of their educational program. This article describes a model of assessment-a student athletic training portfolio of “best works.” The portfolio can serve as a method to assess student development and to assess program effectiveness. The goals of the program include purposes specific to the five NATA performance domains. In addition, four types of portfolio evidence are described: artifacts, attestations, productions, and reproductions. Quality assignments and projects completed by students as they progress through a six-semester program are identified relative to the type of evidence and the domain(s) they represent. The portfolio assists with student development, provides feedback for curriculum planning, allows for student/faculty collaboration and “coaching” of the student, and assists with job searching. This information will serve as a useful model for those athletic training programs looking for an alternative method of assessing student and program outcomes.
PMCID: PMC1318005  PMID: 16558359
8.  Survival of Black Colleges from a Dental Perspective 
If we are to achieve health for all in the US by the year 2000, as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), we must consider dental health needs as a component of total health. The failure to address dental health needs has reached a crisis level, particularly in the black and underserved communities throughout the nation.
The dental delivery system in the US requires a continuous upgrading of the quality of education received by the students who will be the deliverers of dental services, the dental educators, and the researchers of the future. In order to accomplish this, we must utilize fully the present academic system to assure access, quality, and availability of dental health care for all Americans now and in the future.
PMCID: PMC2552723  PMID: 7241609
9.  Dental Education: Trends and Assumptions for the 21st Century 
Dental educational institutions, as components of university systems, must develop strategic plans for program development, resource allocation, evaluation, and continued financial support. This dynamic process will be accomplished in a competitive academic arena where program excellence and program relevance are key issues in the game of survival. This article focuses on issues and trends that form the basis for planning assumptions and initiatives into the next decade and into the 21st century. This is our challenge, this is our mission if we are to be catalysts for change in the future.
PMCID: PMC2571446  PMID: 3560255
10.  Structuring Training Goals for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 
A multiaxial model that structures educational goals for psychodynamic psychotherapy has been developed. It specifies core aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clusters them in categories that further define and link related areas, and presents a sequence that enables educators and students to focus on training goals in a consistent progression. This model has been used by the Director of Education as a basis for developing the curriculum, by students as a way of focusing learning and giving perspective to current work, and by supervisors to link individual teaching to the goals of the training program. This method has enhanced consistency, clarity, and efficiency in the psychotherapy program.
PMCID: PMC3330482  PMID: 9407472
11.  Editorial: The necessity of adult learning methods in programs of intensive study 
This article presents the educational methodologies that prove effective in adult educational programmes of intensive study. The many facets of a quality educational programme are discussed and I will focus on four topics that any adult educational programme must have: an adult learner, an instructor of adults, a curriculum, and a response to outside forces.
These topics become increasingly critical when one examines the components of technical education and, especially, an intensive training programme in laboratory automation systems. The adult will be discussed as a learner and the associated myths and principles. Next, I will focus on the instructor and his/her necessary personal and professional qualities, including essential skills and psychological elements required. Aspects of curriculum will then be studied. The conventional and the innovative approaches to curriculum design, development, and delivery differ markedly. Development and delivery are so closely linked to the curriculum that both will be discussed under the one title of ‘curriculum’. The final discussion will focus on the outside forces that directly and indirectly affect adult education; since these are many, they are limited to a few salient ones.
doi:10.1155/S146392469100024X
PMCID: PMC2547922  PMID: 18924896
12.  Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource 
Background
Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness.
Aims
We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented.
Methods
The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development.
Results
The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training.
Conclusions
The curriculum offers medical disaster education in a reasonable time frame, interdisciplinary format, and multi-experiential course. It can serve as a template for basic medical student disaster education. Because of its comprehensive but flexible structure, it should also be helpful for other health-care professional student disaster education programs.
doi:10.1007/s12245-009-0140-9
PMCID: PMC2850977  PMID: 20414376
Disasters; Medical education; Curriculum; Medical students
13.  Authentic teaching and learning through synthetic biology 
Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline that, if successful, will allow well-characterized biological components to be predictably and reliably built into robust organisms that achieve specific functions. Fledgling efforts to design and implement a synthetic biology curriculum for undergraduate students have shown that the co-development of this emerging discipline and its future practitioners does not undermine learning. Rather it can serve as the lynchpin of a synthetic biology curriculum. Here I describe educational goals uniquely served by synthetic biology teaching, detail ongoing curricula development efforts at MIT, and specify particular aspects of the emerging field that must develop rapidly in order to best train the next generation of synthetic biologists.
doi:10.1186/1754-1611-1-8
PMCID: PMC2265294  PMID: 18271945
14.  Demand in Pediatric Dentistry for Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentist Anesthesiologists: A Survey of Directors of Dentist Anesthesiologist and Pediatric Dentistry Residencies 
Anesthesia Progress  2012;59(1):3-11.
This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services, while 36% anticipate no change. Dental anesthesiology directors compared to 2, 5, and 10 years ago have seen an increase in the requests for dentist anesthesiologist services by pediatric dentists reported by 56% of respondents (past 2 years), 63% of respondents (past 5 years), and 88% of respondents (past 10 years), respectively. Predicting the future need of dentist anesthesiologists is an uncertain task, but these results show pediatric dentistry directors and dental anesthesiology directors are considering the need, and they recognize a trend of increased need for dentist anesthesiologist services over the past decade.
doi:10.2344/11-17.1
PMCID: PMC3309300  PMID: 22428968
Demand for services; Dental anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
15.  Where Next for Canadian Family Medicine? 
Canadian Family Physician  1977;23:116-117.
In 1966, two formal training programs in family medicine were launched in Canada, with a total of three residents. Now there are 16 programs with almost 700 residents. There are three current educational trends in family medicine: increased flexibility of the curriculum; increased emphasis on self-directed learning, and increased amounts of office and community based training.
The issues to be faced are:
1. the necessity of assisting each undergraduate to make an appropriate career choice;
2. the improvement of working relationships with other clinical departments;
3. the need for improved methods of educating the educators;
4. the development of research and scholarship within academic departments;
5. the need for agreement on a core curriculum;
6. the need to find a solution to questions surrounding licensure.
PMCID: PMC2378998  PMID: 21304792
16.  A new curriculum for fitness education. 
Public Health Reports  1983;98(5):507-516.
Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children.
PMCID: PMC1424481  PMID: 6414039
17.  Preparing faculty to teach in a problem-based learning curriculum: the Sherbrooke experience. 
Over the last 6 years Sherbrooke Medical School has undertaken a major reform of its undergraduate curriculum. A new student-centred, community-oriented curriculum was implemented in September 1987. Problem-based learning (PBL) is now the main educational method. To adequately prepare teachers for the curriculum a series of faculty development programs in pedagogy were offered: first, a 2-day introductory workshop to initiate teachers into educational principles and their application in the new program; second, a 1-year basic training program in medical pedagogy; third, a 1-day workshop on PBL; and fourth, a comprehensive 3-day training program in PBL tutoring. Over 60% of all full-time teachers attended the introductory program and 80% the tutor training program. The 1-year basic training program was completed by 33% of the faculty members. The implementation of these programs, coupled with a high participation rate, resulted in a more student-centred educational philosophy and a greater interest in medical education. This had a significant impact when the new curriculum was instituted. Lessons learned from the experience are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1452841  PMID: 1998902
18.  Design and implementation of a proficiency-based, structured endoscopy course for medical students applying for a surgical specialty 
Background
Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. Despite the important work done on simulators, simulator model development, and simulator assessment methodologies, there is a need for development of integrated simulators in the curriculum. In this paper, we describe the design of our evidence-based preclinical training program for medical students applying for a surgical career at the Centre for Surgical Technologies.
Methods
Twenty-two students participated in this training program. During their final months as medical students, they received structured, proficiency-based endoscopy training. The total amount of mentored training was 18 hours and the training was organized into three training blocks. The first block focused on psychomotor training, the second block focused on laparoscopic stitching and suturing, and the third block on laparoscopic dissection techniques and hemostasis. Deliberate practice was allowed and students had to show proficiency before proceeding to the next training block. Students’ psychomotor abilities were tested before the course and after each training block. At the beginning of their careers as surgical registrars, their performance on a laparoscopic suturing task was compared with that of registrars from the previous year who did not have this training course. Student opinions about this course were evaluated using a visual analog scale.
Results
All students rated the training course as useful and their psychomotor abilities improved markedly. All students performed deliberate practice, and those who participated in this course scored significantly (P < 0.0001) better on the laparoscopic suturing task than first year registrars who did not participate in this course.
Conclusion
Organization of a structured preclinical training program in laparoscopy for final year medical students is feasible, attractive, and successful.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S41681
PMCID: PMC3726649  PMID: 23901308
laparoscopy training; proficiency based; surgical skill evaluation; curriculum development
19.  Drugs Used for Parenteral Sedation in Dental Practice 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):199-205.
The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate.
PMCID: PMC2167868  PMID: 3250279
20.  Development of an Orthopaedic Surgical Skills Curriculum for Post-Graduate Year one Resident Learners – The University of Iowa Experience 
The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal  2013;33:178-184.
Orthopaedic surgery requires a high degree of technical skill. Current orthopaedic surgical education is based largely on an apprenticeship model. In addition to mounting evidence of the value of simulation, recent mandated requirements will undoubtedly lead to increased emphasis on surgical skills and simulation training. The University of Iowa’s Department of Orthopaedic Surgery has created and implemented a month long surgical skills training program for PGY-1 residents. The goal of the program was to improve the basic surgical skills of six PGY-1 orthopaedic surgery residents and prepare them for future operative experiences. A modular curriculum was created by members of the orthopaedic faculty which encompassed basic skills felt to be important to the general orthopaedic surgeon. For each module multiple assessment techniques were utilized to provide constructive critique, identify errors and enhance the performance intensity of trainees. Based on feedback and debriefing surveys, the resident trainees were unanimously satisfied with the content of the surgical skills month, and felt it should remain a permanent part of our educational program. This manuscript will describe the development of the curriculum, the execution of the actual skills sessions and analysis of feedback from the residents and share valuable lessons learned and insights for future skills programs.
PMCID: PMC3748876  PMID: 24027480
21.  An evaluation of the integration of non-traditional learning tools into a community based breast and cervical cancer education program: The witness project of Buffalo 
BMC Cancer  2003;3:18.
Background
Breast and cervical cancer continue to represent major health challenges for African American women. among Caucasian women. The underlying reasons for this disparity are multifactorial and include lack of education and awareness of screening and early detection. Traditional educational methods have enjoyed varied success in the African American community and spawned development of novel educational approaches. Community based education programs employing a variety of educational models have been introduced. Successful programs must train and provide lay community members with the tools necessary to deliver strong educational programs.
Methods
The Witness Project is a theory-based, breast and cervical cancer educational program, delivered by African American women, that stresses the importance of early detection and screening to improve survival and teaches women how to perform breast self examination. Implementing this program in the Buffalo Witness Project of Buffalo required several modifications in the curriculum, integration of non-traditional learning tools and focused training in clinical study participation. The educational approaches utilized included repetition, modeling, building comprehension, reinforcement, hands on learning, a social story on breast health for African American women, and role play conversations about breast and cervical health and support.
Results
Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into the Witness Project training resulted in a 79% improvement in the number of women who mastered the didactic information. A seventy-two percent study participation rate was achieved by educating the community organizations that hosted Witness Project programs about the informed consent process and study participation.
Conclusion
Incorporating non-traditional educational approaches into community outreach programs increases training success as well as community participation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-3-18
PMCID: PMC165423  PMID: 12775219
22.  Core Program Education: Tracking the Progression Toward Excellence in an Anesthesiology Residency Program Over 60 Years 
The Ochsner Journal  2011;11(1):43-51.
The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program is the oldest continuously accredited anesthesiology residency program in the state of Louisiana. As the American College of Graduate Medical Education has developed residency training requirements, so has the Ochsner training program evolved from a structure- and process-based program to an outcomes-based program. The author, associated with the program since 1983, reviewed Program Information Forms from 1971 to the present to track the evolution of the anesthesiology residency training program. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education demanded allocation of resources to residency training and mandated the demonstration of outcomes of training. The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program has kept pace with these demands. The trend for graduate performance on written examinations has been upward. Fifty years ago, graduates practiced locally, but graduates now practice throughout the United States. Many completed fellowship training at increasingly higher profile institutions.
PMCID: PMC3096168  PMID: 21603335
Anesthesiology; medical education; residency education
23.  SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM 
Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of available resources. The postgraduate medical training programs, particularly the university-based, need re-evaluation, and definition of their future role in graduate medical education. Medical educators must make sure that research in medical education should not only survive but also thrive. In this article, some suggestions for Saudi medical education in n the new millennium are put forth.
PMCID: PMC3444961  PMID: 23008608
Medical Education; Curriculum; Saudi Arabia
24.  Progress Toward Improving the Quality of Cardiac Arrest Medical Team Responses at an Academic Teaching Hospital 
Background
Internal medicine (IM) residents who undergo simulation-based advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training are significantly more likely to manage actual events according to American Heart Association (AHA) standards than nontrained residents. How long ACLS skills are retained is unknown.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective case-control study of ACLS responses from January to June 2008 and reviewed medical records to assess adherence to AHA standards. Cases and controls are team responses to ACLS events divided into those directed by postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) IM resident leaders versus those managed by PGY-3 IM resident leaders. Residents in 2008 completed an educational program featuring deliberate practice in ACLS using a human patient simulator during their second year. Medical records of ACLS events were reviewed to assess adherence to AHA guidelines. We evaluated the effects of simulation training on quality of ACLS care during the 2008 period and in comparison with historical 2004 data.
Results
In 2008, 1 year after simulation training, PGY-3 residents showed the same adherence to AHA standards (88% [SD, 17%]) as that of PGY-2 residents who were newly simulator trained (86% [SD, 18%]) (P  =  .77). Previously, in 2004, PGY-2 simulator-trained residents showed significantly higher adherence to AHA standards (68% [SD, 20%]) than nonsimulator-trained PGY-3 residents (44% [SD, 20%]) (P < .001). All resident groups in 2008 outperformed their 2004 peers.
Conclusions
Improved quality of ACLS care was maintained by 2008 PGY-3 simulator-trained residents 1 year after training, likely due to skill retention rather than increased clinical experience, as a prior cohort of PGY-3 residents did not perform as well as PGY-2 residents in actual ACLS care. Our results confirm prior work regarding the impact of simulation-based education to improve the quality of actual patient care.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00144.1
PMCID: PMC3184920  PMID: 22655144
25.  Providing Undergraduate Science Partners for Elementary Teachers: Benefits and Challenges 
CBE Life Sciences Education  2009;8(3):239-251.
Undergraduate college “science partners” provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K–5 teachers in a university–school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed “participatory reform”; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views.
doi:10.1187/cbe.08-07-0041
PMCID: PMC2736027  PMID: 19723818

Results 1-25 (535031)